Ion-Radical Organic Chemistry: Principles and Applications, Second Edition


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An important method of studying radicals is electron-spin resonance ESR spectroscopy. The principles of this form of spectroscopy are much the same as of NMR spectroscopy, but the language used by the practitioners of these two forms of magnetic resonance spectroscopy is different. First, let us discuss the similarities. The important point is that an unpaired electron, like a proton, has a spin and a magnetic moment such that it has two possible orientations in a magnetic field. See Section A for a discussion of the analogous situation for protons.

The basic apparatus for ESR spectroscopy is similar to that shown in Figure for NMR spectroscopy, except that the sample is irradiated with a microwave generator.

Ion-Radical Organic Chemistry: Principles and Applications, Second Edition - CRC Press Book

The spectra produced by ESR absorptions of unpaired electrons are similar to those shown in Figure , except that ESR spectrometers normally are so arranged as to yield a plot of the first derivative of the curve of absorption against magnetic field rather than the absorption curve itself, as shown in Figure This arrangement is used because it gives a better signal-to-noise ratio than a simple plot of absorption against magnetic field.

Figure Plots of a absorption and b derivative ESR curves. The sensitivity of ESR spectroscopy for detection of radicals is very high. Identification of simple hydrocarbon radicals often is possible by analysis of the fine structure in their spectra, which arises from spin-spin splittings involving those protons that are reasonably close to the centers over which the unpaired electron is distributed.


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Spin-spin splittings arising from proton-electron interactions are very large in ESR spectra and usually are reported in gauss, under the heading hyperfine interactions. The large splittings and broad lines typical of ESR make it possible to run ESR spectra on solids or highly viscous materials, for which the fine structure typical of high-resolution NMR spectra would be wholly washed out Section A specific example is provided by electron exchange between sodium naphthalenide and naphthalene.

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In a solvent such as 1,2-dimethoxyethane, which solvates small metal ions well, naphthalene accepts an electron from a sodium atom and forms sodium naphthalenide, a radical anion :. The additional electron goes into the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the napthalene, which means the electron circulates over all of the carbons.

Free Radical Substitution Reactions, Initiation Propagation Termination, NBS, Allylic Halogenation,

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New York : Marcel Dekker, c Includes bibliographical references and index.

Hydroxyl radical-induced formation of highly oxidized organic compounds

ISBN alk. Radicals Chemistry 2. Organic compounds.


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Todres, Zory V. T58 DedicationTo my wife Irina: the cloudless beauty of her heart, profundity of her mind, and depth of her feelings in all times have always provided reliable support to me. For my children, Vladimir and Ellen, their mother represents a superior, stimulating example. Formation of Organic Ion-Radicals Published on Apr View Download

Ion-Radical Organic Chemistry: Principles and Applications, Second Edition Ion-Radical Organic Chemistry: Principles and Applications, Second Edition
Ion-Radical Organic Chemistry: Principles and Applications, Second Edition Ion-Radical Organic Chemistry: Principles and Applications, Second Edition
Ion-Radical Organic Chemistry: Principles and Applications, Second Edition Ion-Radical Organic Chemistry: Principles and Applications, Second Edition
Ion-Radical Organic Chemistry: Principles and Applications, Second Edition Ion-Radical Organic Chemistry: Principles and Applications, Second Edition
Ion-Radical Organic Chemistry: Principles and Applications, Second Edition Ion-Radical Organic Chemistry: Principles and Applications, Second Edition
Ion-Radical Organic Chemistry: Principles and Applications, Second Edition Ion-Radical Organic Chemistry: Principles and Applications, Second Edition
Ion-Radical Organic Chemistry: Principles and Applications, Second Edition Ion-Radical Organic Chemistry: Principles and Applications, Second Edition

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