This data is presented below in Graph1. While Samarqand was active as a mint during much of the late ninth and tenth centuries, there are some notable peaks and falls in its output. Overall, From , there was another major drop in production which, in relative terms to the output prior to then, can be considered near catastrophic. This decline continued into the s the exceptions were the years and which will be discussed below and by the s the mint experienced another drop which signified the total collapse in the production of dirhams in Samarqand.
In the s, few, if any, dirhams were struck at the mint and after no Samarqand dirhams struck by the Samanids are recorded in our database. Graph 1. Let us now look closer at the mint production by the reigns of Samanid amirs [see Graph2]. Samanid dirhams were first struck by Ismail ibn Ahmad I The earliest issues from Samarqand by this amir come from From this year until the end of his rule in , Samarqand produced ever-increasing quantities of dirhams, reaching a zenith in output by The mint showed a slight increase in activity in and rebounded in to pre levels He was the second-most prolific amir in striking dirhams in Samarqand [Graph2].
Graph 2. Mint output continued to escalate during the seven-year reign of Ahmad ibn Ismail II On the whole, This amir was the third-most prolific Samanid ruler in striking dirhams at this mint [Graph2]. In or the year after Nakr II took power, Samarqand saw a new height in mint output which was never surpassed by him or any later amirs.
Thereafter, the mint declined in productivity until the end of NakrIIs reign.
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In just the first decade of his rule, The remaining half of the dirhams minted under NakrII were issued during the course of the next twenty years of his office, many of which came from several peaks in output, such as the ones that occurred in , , and In all cases, these pinnacles in production were followed by sudden drops as if the previous years production satisfied the immediate needs of the monetary market of Samarqand.
Taken all together, NakrII minted NakrII was the most prolific amir in striking dirhams in Samarqand [Graph2]. With the abdication of NakrII in in favor of his son NuhI , Samarqand witnessed its last intensive mint production period for the century. Overall, the production of dirhams at the mint continued without interruption for the duration of Nakr IIs rule and issued This Samanid ruler was the fourth-most prolific amir in minting dirhams in Samarqand [Graph2]. In , or two years after Nuh I died and Abd al-Malik I assumed power, Samarqands mint output plummeted to levels not seen since the early years of the Samanids.
This fall in production continued for the remaining years of his reign. During his rule, only 2. The mint output under the next amir Mansur I saw new lows such that had not been witnessed since the first year of Samanid mint output in Under MansurI, Samarqand produced only 3. Mint output under the next amir NuhII fell again with the exception of the years and when there seems to have been a sudden and temporary outbursts of production not seen since the early s.
However, the apparent rise in dirham production in and is deceiving since most of the surviving specimens for these two years come from a single and somewhat unusual hoard in its composition and late date of deposit tpq Discovered in Tatarskii Tolkish, Russia former territories of Volga Bulgharia , it contained two Indian coins dated to and exceptionally rare finds for northern Europe26 and thirty-three dirhams minted in Samarqand in and seventynine in If one were to exclude this unusual hoard and its dirhams, which abnormally inflate our sample, the mint output of Samarqand for the reign of Nuh II shows no unusual changes in the pattern of production one to twenty three dirhams maximum come from each year from the mids to Overall, during the reign of Nuh II, only 1.
Finally, for the reigns of the. Table 3. To better understand the intensity of Samarqands mint production under Samanid rulers, it is important to put the chronology of output in perspective of each individual armirs length of office. Mint output of Samarqand per year on average for each Samanid amir. On examining Table3 and Graph3, it becomes evident that while NakrII issued almost half of all dirhams struck in Samarqand by the Samanids, during his long rule of 29 years, the intensity of his mint production ranks only second per year on average following that of Ahmad ibn IsmailII.
Clearly, under the Samanids, the mint was most active from to However, it did continue to strike dirhams with relative intensity from to By the time Nakr II left office in , Samarqand had been issued. His son, NuhI, ranks third in his mint production intensity by the end of his eleven-year reign in , another Finally, ranking fourth, during his fifteen-year rule from to , Ismail ibn AhmadI minted Thus, by , Under the remaining three amirs who ruled from to , the mint not only declined in output volume only 7.
The decline in the volume and intensity in mint output was progressive during the second half of the tenth century. The continuous production of dirhams in Samarqand during most of the tenth century stands in stark contrast to the mints of Balkh and Bukhara which struck dirhams very erratically during the same period. Very few, if any, dirhams were minted between these peaks at the two mints. In this way, chronologically, dirham productions at Balkh and Bukhara were diametrically opposed to each other.
Graph 4. In retrospect, when compared to Samarqand, Balkhs mint production seems to follow a somewhat similar pattern: both mints were particularly active during the first half of the tenth century. When compared to Samarqand, Bukharas dirham output stands in nearly the same converse order as Balkhs. When Samarqand was experiencing its heyday as a mint in the first half of the tenth century, Bukhara produced hardly any coins.
It was only in the mids when Bukhara became an active mint and continued to issue dirhams in relatively large volumes until the late s. As noted above, Balkhs mint production plummeted by and by the mids Samarqands mint output had dramatically declined. In light of these falls in production at the two mints, it can be tentatively suggested that the dramatic upsurge and continued albeit diminishing mint output in Bukhara beginning with the mid through the late s was an attempt by the Samanid amirs to supplement the declining production of dirhams in Balkh and Samarqand.
After the examination of dirham output of al-Shash and the twenty or so secondary Samanid mints, this suggestion can be better tested for accuracy. Our database also shows that the volumes of dirham production in Balkh and Bukhara also greatly differ from that of Samarqand. In fact, the available data permits us to compare the relative quantity of Samarqands mint output with these two contemporary mints.
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Thus, the surviving dirhams found in hoards from the mint of Balkh number 1, from hoards , from Bukhara 1, from hoards , and from Samarqand 14, from hoards. Clearly, Samarqand was by far the more prolific mint of the three and would rank as a primary Samanid mint while the other two as secondary. Samarqands high levels of dirham production, particularly during the first half of the tenth century, explains how cities like Bukhara could afford to mint very few, if any, dirhams until Samarqand ceased to issue these coins in large quantities from the mids.
Samarqand dirhams, like those of al-Shash, no doubt, were brought to the capital as taxes and tribute and served as the base of Bukharas commercial currency which could be used for trade with northern Europe Graph 5. Although the three mints continued to issue dirhams after the mids, none of them ever came close to striking these coins at the same high rates witnessed in the late ninth-first half of the tenth century. As was suggested in the study dedicated to the mint output of Bukhara, the general decline in the production of dirhams by Samanid mints after the ss can be associated with the overall economic and political decay of the Samanid realm beginning.
The diminishing Samanid revenues due to the loss of their provinces particularly in the south , agricultural collapse, and endemic rebellions caused a decline in the supply of silver for the striking of dirhams Perhaps more importantly, the overwhelming majority of dirhams struck by the Samanids were systematically exported to northern Europe during the first half of the tenth century.
By the sixth decade, the Samanids had simply drained their silver resources and came to face a silver crisis. This suggestion is supported by what is known about the silver contents of the later Samanid dirhams. In addition to producing fewer and fewer dirhams during the second half of the tenth century, from ca.
To explain this debasement, it has been suggested that the Samanids had difficulties in supplying the necessary silver for international trade, thereby adding base metals to the coins Indeed, it has recently been determined that a major, progressive decline in Samanid trade with northern Europe began with the s and lasted for the remainder of the century. Just during the decade of the s, trade fell by Overall, it appears that the collapse in dirham production witnessed in the second half of the tenth century in Samarqand and other Samanid mints, as well as the notable decline in Samanid commerce using dirhams during the same period, can be attributed to the general economic decline and the diminishing supply of silver available in the Samanid lands.
In conclusion, this study examined 14, 13, of which were datable Samanid dirhams struck in Samarqand from hoards found throughout western Eurasia dating from the tenth to the eleventh centuries. Thus, it is clear that dirhams struck in Samarqand were destined for trade with this region and that the Samanid dirham was primarily an export coin. The above data was analyzed using the hoard-count approach to determine the relative dirham output of Samarqand under the Samanids. An analysis of this data had shown that Samarqand was a primary Samanid mint that issued dirhams during most of late ninth and tenth centuries.
Albeit, there were some notable peaks and falls in production levels that occurred during this period. In view of the above, an overall pattern of mint production for the late ninth and first half of the tenth century becomes quite clear. During this period, the first amir initiated a steady and increasing volume of dirham production which was not only matched by the subsequent amir but also escalated in volume and production intensity during his reign.
Under the third amir, Samarqand continued to issue dirhams in great numbers, but beginning with the rate of issue per year declined and continued to fall for the remaining years of his rule. Further decline took place under the fourth amir. Despite the decreasing mint output of Samarqand after the second quarter of the tenth century, the mint produced dirhams regularly and in relatively large numbers until the mids.
The real collapse of Samarqand as a mint occurred in the second half of the tenth century, particularly in its last two decades when dirham output declined precipitously in volume output and production intensity. The three amirs who ruled from to minted only 7. The beginnings of dirham output in Samarqand in the early s and the sharp increase in production intensity in the following two decades closely corresponds with the rise of commerce between northern Europe and Central Asia.
As noted above, the earliest mention of trade between these two regions comes from the last decade of the ninth century and the export of Samanid dirhams to northern Europe began in ca. Since Rus merchants only accepted silver coins in exchange for their goods, the Samanids had to produce dirhams in large enough quantities to make commerce attractive to the northern merchants. By ca. As exchange continued to develop and intensify in the next decade, the mint issued dirhams at ever increasing quantities which peaked by the mids.
At the same time, what is clear is that the catastrophic drop in mint output that occurred in the second half of the tenth century can be attributed to the general decline in the Samanid economy that began with the fifth decade of the same century. Overall, the degree to which Samanid mints attempted to accommodate enough dirhams for the amirates commerce with northern Europe during the tenth century is a topic that can be fully addressed only when the mint output of al-Shash the other primary Samanid mint has been studied.
Such an inquiry will be carried out in the near future. Paltsevo Tverskoi gub, Kladyasostav, khronologiia, interpretatsiia, , Saint-Petersburg, in press. I, Roman K. Minorsky, Cambridge, W. Numismatiska Meddelanden, 37, , pp. Nova series 6], Stockholm, Vitterhetsakademien, , p. Lethielleux, , pp. Dirham Hoards from Medieval Western Eurasia, c. Nova series 13] Stockholm, Vitterhetsakademien, in press. Notes 1See, Th. Concerning the estimates of the volume of dirhams involved in this trade, see Th. For the purposes of this study, the Samanid era will thus refer to the period from to Jahiz d.
Furs, as is well known, were all northern imports, usually brought from Volga Bulgharia. Jahizs mention of the availability of furs in Khwarazm suggests that some sort of trade between the north and this part of Central Asia was already functioning by ca. See R. Also see the account of al-Muqaddasi al-Maqdisi in W. For Jurjaniyah and its markets, see G.
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For the northern part of this route, see R. Also see W. It contained one dirham minted in Samarqand in Based on this coin the most recent one , the hoard is dated to Sometimes, all that is reported is that some dirhams struck at such-and-such mint in such-and-such hoard were found. In such cases, I have taken the minimal number of one dirham from the mint and included it into the total.
While such a conservative estimate may underestimate the total quantities of dirhams discovered, in view of the lack of precise data, little else can be done. The only other dirham hoards found in northern Europe which contained medieval Indian coins come from Germany 1 coin Spalapati Deva of Ohrid Niedelandin hoard: Kreis Uckermark, Brandenburg, tpq ca. Obrzycko hoard Szamotuly powiat, Poznan wojewdztwo, Wielkopolska region, tpq and 1coin Shahis? Can you contact return on this site as I reach the eumenorrheic one?
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