You work with words - or you want to work with words - so you are looking for as much advice as possible about handling words, making them say what you want them to say, presenting them well and getting people to read the articles in which they appear. Dip into these pieces to find out how to do these things and hopefully you'll be entertained, too. Humphrey Evans has collected these pieces together mainly from contributions he provided for the Chief Sub column in The Journalist, the magazine of the UK National Union of Journalists.
They draw on his experiences working as a freelance subeditor, moving from office to office to help bring out newspapers, magazines and websites. He has also taught subediting skills to people wanting to improve their word handling, their headline writing and their proofreading. Read more Read less.
Workshop: Getting Started as a Freelance Journalist
Find your next great read with Kindle Unlimited. Browse this month's selection. Product description Product Description You work with words - or you want to work with words - so you are looking for as much advice as possible about handling words, making them say what you want them to say, presenting them well and getting people to read the articles in which they appear.
However, the copyeditor will often point out any difficult passages for the author to resolve on his or her own time. Although copyeditors are not responsible for factual correctness of the document, they can provide comments for the author on any information they know to be incorrect,  : 9 such as year discrepancies or misleading ideas; this type of fact checking is acceptable for copyeditors that know the document's subject matter. The copyeditor must also point out any biased language without infringing on the author's meaning; this includes material "that might form the basis for a lawsuit alleging libel, invasion of privacy, or obscenity".
Some see censoring biased language as political correctness , so it is important the copyeditor distinguishes between the two.
Most manuscripts will require the copyeditor to correlate the parts within it. Copyeditors must carry out the following tasks in this process:  : 7. Some manuscripts may require special cross-checking. For example, in a how-to text, a copyeditor might need to verify that the list of equipment or parts matches the instructions given within the text.
Typecoding is the process of identifying which sections of the manuscript are not regular running text; these portions of text, known as elements, include the following:  : It is the copyeditor's job to typecode or make note of all manuscript elements for the publication designer. On-screen copyeditors may be asked to insert typecodes at the beginning and end of each element.
Finally, if the manuscript contains long quotations from a published work that is still under copyright , the copyeditor should remind the author to acquire permission to reprint said quotations; the same goes for the reprinting of tables, charts, graphs, and illustrations that have appeared in print. Rules vary for the reproduction of unpublished materials letters, diaries, etc.
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There are several basic procedures that every copyeditor must follow: copyeditors need a system for marking changes to the author's text marking , a process for querying the author and the editorial coordinator querying , a method for keeping track of editorial decisions recordkeeping , and procedures for incorporating the author's review of the copyediting into a final manuscript or electronic files cleanup ; these systems were originally developed in an era before that of the computer, but over time these procedures were adapted to exist in a digital on-screen space.
Each medium in print and on screen has its own affordances, and although a copyeditor may prefer one editing process over the other, copyeditors are practically required to use both techniques. Traditional markup copy editing, or hard-copy editing, is still important because screening tests for employment may be administered in hard copy. Also, the author whose text the copy editor is editing may prefer hard-copy markup, and copy editors need to know traditional markup in case documents and materials cannot be exchanged electronically; when editing in hard-copy, all participating parties the editor, author, typesetter, and proofreader must understand the marks the copy editor makes, and therefore a universal marking system that signifies these changes exists.
This is also why the copy editor should write legibly and neatly. Copy editors working hard-copy write their corrections in the text directly, leaving the margins for querying. Usually the copy editor is asked to write in a bright color, so the author and other parties can easily recognize the editor's changes. Every year, more editing projects are being done on computer and fewer in print. Also, if there is a digital version of a text the copyeditor is editing, they can more easily search words, run spellcheckers, and generate clean copies of messy pages; the first thing copyeditors must do when editing on-screen is to copy the author's files, as the original document must be preserved.
On-screen editing mainly differs from hard-copy editing in the fact that the copyeditor should edit more cleanly on-screen, refraining from saving parts of words, and be careful in maintaining proper line spacing. Copyeditors often need to query their authors in order to address questions, comments, or explanations: most of these can be done in the margins of the text, or the comment section when on-screen;  : 7—10 the copyeditor must consider when to query and the length and tone of their queries, as querying too frequently or infrequently, cryptically, or sarcastically can result in a negative relationship between the copyeditor and the author.
Depending on which publication a copyeditor is employed with, his or her goals may change, however there are a few constituencies that must always be served — the author the person who wrote or compiled the manuscript , the publisher the person or company that is paying to produce the material , and the readers the audience for whom the material is being produced ; these parties in conjunction with the copyeditor work to achieve the same goal, which is to produce an error free publication.
The copyeditor strives to improve clarity, coherency, consistency, and correctness — otherwise known as the "4 C's"; each of these components serve the copyeditor's "Cardinal C", which is communication. The advent of the printing press in the middle of the 15th century opened the doors to the first printing houses in Europe. Even after the invention of the printing press and on to today, the editor's job is to correct perceived mistakes. Within these printing houses, there were a variety of employees, one being correctors, or as it is referred to today, editors.
The biggest difference between monastic copyists and copyeditors is that copyeditors leave editions as suggestions that the original author can choose to reject; these printing houses established procedures for editing, preparing the text, and proofreading. Specialist correctors made sure texts were in accordance with the standards of the time. Before the printing press, monastic copyists altered words or phrases they thought were odd, under the assumption that the copyist before them had made a mistake; this is what led to so much variety in standard texts like the Bible.
After the globalization of the book from to , the rise of American authors and editors came to fruition. One editor in particular, Maxwell Perkins, was sought out by writers such as Fitzgerald, Hemingway, and Wolfe because he greatly improved the work on these prominent authors with his editorial eye. Perkins was known for editing, guiding, and befriending his writers — but the times were changing. In the late 19th century, the role of an editor was to decide if a manuscript was good enough to be published; as time passed, the role of an editor and publisher became more distant.
Although there was a newfound relationship between editors and authors, thoughtful editing did not end. Copyeditors were employed at various publishing houses, magazines, journals, and by private authors seeking revisions on their work; some copyeditors were even employed by public relations and advertising firms who valued strong editing practices in their business. The symbols used by copyeditors today are based on those that have been used by proofreaders since the beginnings of publishing, though they have undergone some changes over time.
However, the exact beginnings of the copyediting language used today are unclear. Despite its long history, copyediting as a practice has not experienced any extreme upheaval other than the desktop publishing revolution of the s; this phenomenon began as the result of a series of inventions that were released during the middle of this decade, and refers to the growth of technology usage in the field of copyediting.
There were a few events that led to changes within copyediting as a career. One of these, the successful strike of the editorial department of the Newark Ledger from November 17, to March 28, , was "the first major action of its kind by any local guild At the conclusion of the second Macaulay strike,which occurred three months after the first, the nationwide drive towards unionization had entered the publishing industry and was "sweeping through all the major publishing houses".
Owing to the rise of the Digital Age , the roles and responsibilities of a copyeditor have changed. For instance, beginning in , copyeditors learned pagination electronically. Modern copyeditors are often required to edit for digital as well as print versions of text. Editors of the website BuzzFeed commented that sometimes they "simply can't get every post before it's published".
Look for pleasure in editing - SfEP blog
Traditionally, the copy editor would read a printed or written manuscript, manually marking it with editor's "correction marks". Chief copy editors are still sometimes called "the slot",  but nowadays, the manuscript is more often read on a computer display and text corrections are entered directly.
The nearly universal adoption of computerized systems for editing and layout in newspapers and magazines has also led copy editors to become more involved in design and the technicalities of production. Technical knowledge is therefore sometimes considered as important as writing ability, though this is truer in journalism than it is in book publishing.
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Hank Glamann, co-founder of the American Copy Editors Society , made the following observation about ads for copy editor positions at American newspapers:. We want them to be skilled grammarians and wordsmiths and write bright and engaging headlines and must know Quark. But, often, when push comes to shove, we will let every single one of those requirements slide except the last one, because you have to know that in order to push the button at the appointed time.
Besides an excellent command of language, copy-editors need broad general knowledge for spotting factual errors; good critical thinking skills in order to recognize inconsistencies or vagueness; interpersonal skills for dealing with writers, other editors and designers; attention to detail; and a sense of style.
Also, they must establish priorities and balance a desire for perfection with the necessity to follow deadlines. Many copy editors have a college degree, often in journalism, the language the text is written in, or communications. In the United States, copy editing is often taught as a college journalism course, though its name varies; the courses often include news design and pagination. Most US newspapers and publishers give copy-editing job candidates an editing test or a tryout; these vary widely and can include general items such as acronyms, current events, math, punctuation, and skills such as the use of Associated Press style , headline writing, info graphics editing, and journalism ethics.
In both the US and the UK, there are no official bodies offering a single recognized qualification. In the UK, several companies provide a range of courses unofficially recognized within the industry. Training may be on the job or through publishing courses, privately run seminars, or correspondence courses of the Society for Editors  and Proofreaders; the National Council for the Training of Journalists also has a qualification for subeditors.
Before the digital era, copy-editors used to take a red pen to a piece of paper to point out errors and inconsistencies using a markup language made up of symbols universally known by copy-editors; the traditional copy editor was once defined as editing for grammar, spelling, punctuation and other mechanics of style. Copy editing symbols can no longer be used when editing digitally because they are not supported on digital platforms such as track changes.
With more posting online and less printing on paper, this means current publishing processes are faster. Hard copy is no longer able to keep up with digital publishing. Professionals feared that the introduction of digital editing software would put an end to copyediting careers.
Copy editors are still employed and needed for heavy editing, such as fact-checking and content organization, which software is not yet able to do. With grammar software and journalists that can edit, copy editors are seen as a luxury in publishing;  the potential for a company to use editing software may also require the copy editor to only perform heavy editing and querying. Though the steps for copyediting are the same, the execution is what has been changed due to the introduction of digital environments.
The technological development of cloud storage allows contemporary copy editors and writers to upload and share files across multiple devices. In Microsoft Word users can choose whether to show or hide changes by clicking track changes under the Review ribbon;  those editing documents can leave comments by clicking wherever the user desires to leave a comment and clicking New Comment under the review ribbon or by highlighting text and clicking New Comment.
The field of copy-editing is not obsolete. Teresa Schmedding, president of the American Copy Editors Society ACES and a deputy managing editor at the Daily Herald in Chicago, thinks that copyeditors are "a natural fit" for digital journalism and social media because though publishing has been made available to almost anyone, quality and credibility is brought to content only by copy editors.
When editing a piece, copy editors now have to consider multimedia aspects of the story; the inclusion of video, images, search engine optimization, and audio are just some of the components that are now created and included to digital publications by copy editors. One of the problems with copy-editing is that it may slow the publication of text. With the digital publishing era came an increased demand for a fast turnover of information.
Additional details such as color printing, page size, and layout are determined by the allotted budget. In response to such high demands for fast-produced content, some online publications have started publishing articles first and then editing later, a process known as back-editing. Editors prioritize stories to edit based on traffic and whether the content was originally reported for needing edits. Reading material has become increasingly accessible to users with a wide range of disabilities. Carolyn Rude exemplifies such cases in alternatively replacing illustrations with text and audio translations for the visually impaired.
As online resources rise in popularity, copy editors endeavor to meet the increase of digital consumerism to the best of their abilities, and such high competition has resulted in a gradually "declining of quality in editing", such as proofreading grammatical errors or fact checking. One of the most important advancements of the digital age is the advent of pagination, which gives copy editors more control over the construction and revisions of their content. Pagination is a convenient feature in programs such as "Pagemaker, the Quark Xpress, and AdobeIndesign".
Other copy editors think the Internet has simplified the process of fact checking and online programs such as Facebook or Twitter have also expedited the process of information-gathering. Other digital skills, such as image selection and search-engine optimization, increase the visibility of search results, especially when searching for keywords in headlines. In all likelihood, the Internet will continue to evolve, but this shouldn't hamper the overall importance of copy editing.
Although it may be tempting to neglect proper revisions in favor of convenience, the credibility and quality of an editor's work should still be maintained, as there will always be updates in software and technology;  as formats evolve, so too will the opportunities for journalists and other writers. Cloud storage Cloud storage is a model of computer data storage in which the digital data is stored in logical pools. The physical storage spans multiple servers, the physical environment is owned and managed by a hosting company; these cloud storage providers are responsible for keeping the data available and accessible, the physical environment protected and running.
People and organizations buy or lease storage capacity from the providers to store user, organization, or application data. Cloud storage services may be accessed through a colocated cloud computing service, a web service application programming interface or by applications that utilize the API, such as cloud desktop storage, a cloud storage gateway or Web-based content management systems.
In , CompuServe offered its consumer users a small amount of disk space that could be used to store any files they chose to upload. The storage was one of the first to be all web-based, referenced in their commercials as, "you can think of our electronic meeting place as the cloud. In , Box announced an online file sharing and personal cloud content management service for businesses.
Cloud storage is based on virtualized infrastructure and is like broader cloud computing in terms of accessible interfaces, near-instant elasticity and scalability , multi-tenancy , metered resources. Cloud storage services can be deployed on-premises. Cloud storage refers to a hosted object storage service, but the term has broadened to include other types of data storage that are now available as a service, like block storage.
Cloud storage is: Made up of many distributed resources, but still acts as one, either in a federated or a cooperative storage cloud architecture Highly fault tolerant through redundancy and distribution of data Highly durable through the creation of versioned copies Typically consistent with regard to data replicas Companies need only pay for the storage they use an average of consumption during a month; this does not mean that cloud storage is less expensive, only that it incurs operating expenses rather than capital expenses.
At the vendor level they are dealing with higher levels of energy so they will be more equipped with managing it in order to keep their own costs down as well. Organizations can choose between off-premises and on-premises cloud storage options, or a mixture of the two options, depending on relevant decision criteria, complementary to initial direct cost savings potential.
Storage availability and data protection is intrinsic to object storage architecture, so depending on the application, the additional technology and cost to add availability and protection can be eliminated.
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Storage maintenance tasks, such as purchasing additional storage capacity, are offloaded to the responsibility of a service provider. Cloud storage provides users with immediate access to a broad range of resources and applications hosted in the infrastructure of another organization via a web service interface. Cloud storage can be used for copying virtual machine images from the cloud to on-premises locations or to import a virtual machine image from an on-premises location to the cloud image library.
In addition, cloud storage can be used to move virtual machine images between user accounts or between data centers. Cloud storage can be used as natural disaster proof backup, as there are 2 or 3 different backup servers located in different places around the globe. Cloud storage can be mapped as a local drive with the WebDAV protocol, it can function as a central file server for organizations with multiple office locations.
Outsourcing data storage increases the attack surface area; when data has been distributed it is stored at more locations increasing the risk of unauthorized physical access to the data.
For example, in cloud based architecture, data is replicated and moved so the risk of unauthorized data recovery increases dramatically; such as in the case of disposal of old equipment, reuse of drives, reallocation of storage space. The manner that data is replicated depends on the service level a customer chooses and on the service provided; when encryption is in place it can ensure confidentiality. Crypto-shredding can be used. The number of people with access to the data who could be compromised increases dramatically. A single company might have a small team of administrators, network engineers, technicians, but a cloud storage company will have many customers and thousands of servers, the.
Pagination Pagination known as paging , is the process of dividing a document into discrete pages, either electronic pages or printed pages. In reference to books produced without a computer, pagination can mean the consecutive page numbering to indicate the proper order of the pages, found in documents pre-dating , only became common practice c.
Word processing, desktop publishing, digital typesetting are technologies built on the idea of print as the intended final output medium, although nowadays it is understood that plenty of the content produced through these pathways will be viewed onscreen as electronic pages by most users rather than being printed on paper. All of these software tools are capable of flowing the content through algorithms to decide the pagination. For example, they all include automated word wrapping, machine-readable paragraphing, automated pagination. All of those automated capabilities can be manually overridden by the human user, via soft hyphens , manual line breaks, hard returns, manual page breaks.
Today printed pages are produced by outputting an electronic file to a printing device, such as a desktop printer or a modern printing press. These electronic files may for example be Microsoft PDF or QXD files, they will already incorporate the instructions for pagination, among other formatting instructions.
Pagination encompasses rules and algorithms for deciding where page breaks will fall, which depend on cultural considerations about which content belongs on the same page: for example one may try to avoid widows and orphans; some systems are more sophisticated than others in this respect. Before the rise of information technology, pagination was a manual process: all pagination was decided by a human. Today, most pagination is performed by machines, although humans override particular decisions. This is a software file and recording format term in contrast to electronic paper, a hardware display technology.
Electronic pages may be a standard sized based on the document settings of a word processor file, desktop publishing application file, or presentation software file. Electronic pages may be dynamic in size or content such as in the case of HTML pages; when end-user interactivity is part of the user experience design of an electronic page, it is better known as a graphical user interface. The number and size of electronic pages in a document are limited by the amount of computer data storage, not by the display devices or amount of paper. Most electronic pages are for either display on a computer monitor or handheld device, or output to a printing device.
PDF and some e-book file format pages are designed to do both. Most applications will print electronic pages without the need for a screen capture. Pages for screen output are more known as screens, interfaces, scenes, or cards. In the case of presentation software, electronic pages are known as slides. Electronic pages displayed on a web browser are called web pages, regardless of whether they are accessed online via a web server on the World Wide Web , or stored locally offline.
More such documents are named by the markup language that makes them displayable via a web browser, e. With dynamic web pages, pagination is used for such things as displaying a limited number of results on search engine results pages, or showing a limited number of posts when viewing a forum thread.
So on the client side, we have two common ways of pagination. Let's imagine; this news feed has a lot of articles. Editing Editing is the process of selecting and preparing written, visual and film media used to convey information. The editing process can involve correction, condensation and many other modifications performed with an intention of producing a correct, consistent and complete work; the editing process begins with the author's idea for the work itself, continuing as a collaboration between the author and the editor as the work is created.
Editing can involve human relations and a precise set of methods. There are various editorial positions in publishing. One finds editorial assistants reporting to the senior-level editorial staff and directors who report to senior executive editors. Senior executive editors are responsible for developing a product for its final release; the smaller the publication, the more these roles overlap.
The top editor at many publications may be known as the chief editor, executive editor, or the editor. A frequent and regarded contributor to a magazine may acquire the title of editor-at-large or contributing editor. Mid-level newspaper editors manage or help to manage sections, such as business and features.
In the book publishing industry, editors may organize anthologies and other compilations, produce definitive editions of a classic author's works, organize and manage contributions to a multi-author book. Obtaining manuscripts or recruiting authors is the role of an acquisitions editor or a commissioning editor in a publishing house. Finding marketable ideas and presenting them to appropriate authors are the responsibilities of a sponsoring editor.
Copy editors correct spelling and align writings to house style. Changes to the publishing industry since the s have resulted in nearly all copy editing of book manuscripts being outsourced to freelance copy editors. At newspapers and wire services, copy editors write headlines and work on more substantive issues, such as ensuring accuracy and taste.
In some positions, they select news stories for inclusion. They may communicate with the printer; these editors may have the title of makeup editor. Within the publishing environment, editors of scholarly books are of three main types, each with particular responsibilities: Acquisitions editor, who contracts with the author to produce the copy Project editor or production editor, who sees the copy through its stages from manuscript to bound book and assumes most of the budget and schedule responsibilities Copy editor or manuscript editor, who prepares the copy for conversion into printed form.
In the case of multi-author edited volumes, before the manuscript is delivered to the publisher it has undergone substantive and linguistic editing by the volume's editor, who works independently of the publisher; as for scholarly journals, where spontaneous submissions are more common than commissioned works, the position of journal editor or editor-in-chief replaces the acquisitions editor of the book publishing environment, while the roles of production editor and copy editor remain.
However, another editor is sometimes involved in the creation of scholarly research articles. Called the authors' editor, this editor works with authors to get a manuscript fit for purpose before it is submitted to a scholarly journal for publication; the primary difference between copy editing scholarly books and journals and other sorts of copy editing lies in applying the standards of the publisher to the copy.
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