The East Roman army is the continuation of the Late Roman army of the 4th century until the Byzantine army of the 7th century onwards. The East Roman army was a direct continuation of the eastern portion of the late Roman army, from before the division of the empire. The East Roman army started with the same basic organization as the late Roman army and its West Roman counterpart, but between the 5th and 7th centuries, the cavalry grew more important, the field armies took on more tasks, and the border armies were transformed into local militias. In the 6th century, Emperor Justinian I, who reigned from to , sent much of the East Roman army to try to reconquer the former Western Roman Empire.
In these wars, the Eastern. It was located at the head of the Gulf of Suez. History Clysma was founded or rebuilt by Emperor Trajan in the second century AD to protect travellers and merchants as it lay at the junction of roads from Sinai, Palestine, and Egypt. The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, is the common name given to the surviving Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople modern-day Istanbul, and formerly Byzantium.
It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in A spin-off from Neil Gaiman's Sandman series, it features Destiny of the Endless, a character available for use by other writers because, unlike the other Endless, Gaiman had not created him.
Each issue's story was illustrated by a different artist, with Zulli, Hampton and Guay painting issues one, two and three respectively; the framing story and cover art were by Williams. Plot In October , the world's population has been decimated by the spread of new strain of the Bubonic Plague which is resistant to antibiotics.
One small gro. The present municipality, Filippoi, is located near the ruins of the ancient city and is part of the region of East Macedonia and Thrace in Kavala, Greece. Orbelos, now called Mt. The an. Josse Lieferinxe , c. A characteristic of the Plague of Justinian was necrosis of the hand. A map of the Byzantine Empire in a decade after the Plague of Justinian with Justinian's conquests shown in green. Partially-completed basilica in Philippi ; its construction is believed to have been halted by the Plague of Justinian.
List of historical plagues Medieval demography Plague of Emmaus The extreme weather events of — Third Pandemic — Floor, Willem Studies in the History of Medicine in Iran. Mazda Publishers.
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The Justinian plague bubonic plague also attacked the Sasanian lands. History Magazine. Christakos, George; Olea, Ricardo A. May 20, Maria Cheng January 28, National Post. Eroshenko, Galina A. October 26, ANT are widely spread in the high-mountain plague foci of Kyrgyzstan". PLOS One. Bibcode : PLoSO.. Damgaard, Peter de B. May 9, Bibcode : Natur. Retrieved September 28, Procopius, Anekdota, Morelli, Giovanna; et al.
October 31, Nature Genetics. Wagner, David M. April The Lancet. Rasmussen, Simon; et al. October 22, McGrath, Matt 12 October BBC World Service. Retrieved 12 October Bos, Kirsten; Schuenemann, Verena J. Russell, Josiah C. Procopius, History of the Wars, 7 Vols. I, pp. Wiechmann I, Grupe G. Besansky, Nora J ed. PLoS Pathogens. Nicholas Wade October 31, The New York Times. Retrieved John of Ephesus, Ecclesiastical History, part 2. Translation of relevant portions here. Evagrius, Historia Ecclesiae, IV. Procopius, Persian War II. Rosen, William.
Viking Adult, John S. Wacher , pp. Russell , pp. Josiah C. Mango, Byzantium: The Empire of New Rome emphasizes the demographic effects; Mark Whittow, "Ruling the late Roman and Byzantine city", Past and Present 33 argues against too great reliance on literary sources. Plague of Justinian topic Saint Sebastian pleads with Jesus for the life of a gravedigger afflicted by plague during the Plague of Justinian.
Bubonic plague topic Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis. Plague doctor topic Copper engraving of Doctor Schnabel i. Plague doctors by their covenant treated plague patients and were known as municipal or "comm Folders related to Plague doctor: Supernatural legends Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Plague doctor Revolvy Brain revolvybrain History of medieval medicine Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
Third plague pandemic topic Plague patient being injected by a doctor in Karachi. Amicia can also craft special ammunition and supplies, which include fire-starting sulfur Folders related to A Plague Tale: Innocence: Focus Home Interactive games Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Video games set in the 14th century Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Fiction about alchemy Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
Second plague pandemic topic The second plague pandemic is a major series of epidemics of the plague that started with the Black Death, which reached mainland Europe in and killed up to a half of the population of Eurasia in the next four years. It has several means of transmission and infection, including rats carried on board ships or vehicles, fleas hidden in grain, and in its more virulent forms is transmitted by blood Folders related to Second plague pandemic: Plague pandemics Revolvy Brain revolvybrain 17th-century health disasters Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Health disasters in Europe Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
Timeline of plague topic This is a timeline of plague, describing major epidemics and key medical developments. Great Plague of Marseille topic Contemporary engraving of Marseille during the Great Plague Public notice on the disposal of corpses during the Great Plague, The Great Plague of Marseille was the last of the significant European outbreaks of bubonic plague. Flea topic Flea, the common name for the order Siphonaptera, includes 2, species of small flightless insects that survive as external parasites of mammals and birds.
The Siphonaptera are most closely related to the snow scorpionflies, or snow fleas in the UK, formally the Boreidae, placing them within the Endo Folders related to Flea: Parasites of dogs Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Parasites of cats Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Veterinary entomology Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Antiqua topic Look up antiqua in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Black Death topic Spread of the Black Death in Europe and the Near East — The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague or the Plague, or less commonly the Black Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to million people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from to List of epidemics topic This article is a list of epidemics of infectious disease.
Sub-Roman Britain topic Barbury Castle, 6th century hill fort, near Swindon, in South West England Sub-Roman Britain refers to the period of Late Antiquity in Great Britain, covering the end of Roman rule in the late 4th and early 5th centuries, and its aftermath into the 6th century. Black Death migration topic Plaque in Weymouth, England The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to million people in Eurasia and peaking in Eurasia from to Dols, argue that the historical evidence concerning epidemics in the Mediterranean and specifically the Plague of Justinian point to a probability that the Black Death originated in Central Asia, where it then became entrenched among the rode Folders related to Black Death migration: Second plague pandemic Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Black Death Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
Epidemiology of plague topic Distribution of plague infected animals Globally about cases of plague are reported a year. Roman Plague of topic The Roman Plague of was a local plague that affected the city of Rome in the year First pandemic topic The First pandemic may refer to: First plague pandemic , also known as the Plague of Justinian First cholera pandemic See also Second pandemic disambiguation Third pandemic disambiguation Fourth pandemic.
In the West the end was earlier, with the start of the Early Middle Ages typically placed in the 6th century, or earlier on the edges of Folders related to Late antiquity: Historical eras Revolvy Brain revolvybrain 4th century Revolvy Brain revolvybrain 5th century Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Yersinia pestis topic Yersinia pestis formerly Pasteurella pestis is a Gram-negative, nonmotile, rod-shaped, coccobacillus bacteria, with no spores. Pandemic topic The — "Spanish flu" pandemic resulted in dramatic mortality worldwide.
A pandemic is an epidemic occurring on a scale which crosses international boundaries, usually affecting a large number of Folders related to Pandemic: Future problems Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Doomsday scenarios Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Biological hazards Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Great Northern War plague outbreak topic During the Great Northern War — , many towns and areas of the Circum-Baltic and East-Central Europe suffered from a severe outbreak of the plague with a peak from to This plague was the last to affect the Circum-Baltic, which had experienced several waves Folders related to Great Northern War plague outbreak: 18th century in Latvia Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Health disasters in Europe Revolvy Brain revolvybrain 18th-century deaths from plague disease Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
Kayanian dynasty topic The Kayanians also Kays, Kayanids or Kaianids, or Kiani are a semi-mythological dynasty of Persian tradition and folklore which supposedly ruled after the Pishdadids. In scripture The earliest known foreshadowing of the major legends of the Kayanian kings appears in the Yashts of the Avesta, where the dynasts offer sacrifices to the gods in order to earn their support and to gain strength in the perpetual struggle against their enemies, the Anaryas non-A Folders related to Kayanian dynasty: Iranian dynasties Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Ancient Persia Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Zoroastrian dynasties and rulers Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
Low estimates of mortality in the early twentieth century have been revised upwards due to re-examination of data and new information, and a figure of 40—60 perce Folders related to Black Death in England: Edward III of England Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Death in England Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Medieval health disasters Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
Medieval demography topic The peasants preparing the fields for the winter with a harrow and sowing for the winter grain, from The Very Rich Hours of the Duke of Berry, c. The science of medieval demography relies on various lines of evidence, such as administrative records, wills and other types of records, archaeologi Folders related to Medieval demography: Medieval society Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Demographic history Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Extreme weather events of — topic The extreme weather events of — were the most severe and protracted short-term episodes of cooling in the Northern Hemisphere in the last years.
Viral hemorrhagic fever topic Viral hemorrhagic fevers VHFs are a diverse group of animal and human illnesses in which fever and hemorrhage are caused by a viral infection. The severity of symptoms varies with th Folders related to Viral hemorrhagic fever: Tropical diseases Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Neglected diseases Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Animal viral diseases Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Black rat topic The black rat Rattus rattus —also known as ship rat, roof rat, or house rat—is a common long-tailed rodent of the stereotypical rat genus Rattus, in the subfamily Murinae.
Post-classical history topic The Diamond Sutra, of Dunhuang, China was published in AD as the first printed book in world history using woodblock printing techniques. The era was globally characterized by the expansion of civilizations geographically, the development of three of the great world religions Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism , and de Folders related to Post-classical history: World history Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Medieval Asia Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Civilizations Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
List of environmental disasters topic This page is a list of environmental disasters. Timeline of Istanbul topic The following is a timeline of the history of the town of Istanbul, Turkey. East Roman army topic The East Roman army refers to the army of the eastern section of the Roman Empire, from the empire's definitive split in AD to the army's reorganization by themes after the permanent loss of Syria, Palestine and Egypt to the Arabs in the 7th century during the Byzantine-Arab Wars. In these wars, the Eastern Folders related to East Roman army: Cleanup tagged articles with a reason field fro Paul's approach to power consistently requires his upbringing under the female-oriented Bene Gesserit, who operate as a long-dominating shadow government behind all of the great houses and their marriages or divisions.
A central theme of the book is the connection, in Jessica's son, of this female aspect with his male aspect. In a Bene Gesserit test early in the book, it is implied that people are generally "inhuman" in that they irrationally place desire over self-interest and reason. This applies Herbert's philosophy that humans are not created equal, while equal justice and equal opportunity are higher ideals than mental, physical, or moral equality. Throughout the novel, she struggles to maintain power in a male-dominated society, and manages to help her son at key moments in his realization of power.
Throughout Paul's rise to superhuman status, he follows a plotline common to many stories describing the birth of a hero. He has unfortunate circumstances forced onto him. After a long period of hardship and exile, he confronts and defeats the source of evil in his tale. Author Frank Herbert said in , "The bottom line of the Dune trilogy is: beware of heroes.
Much better [to] rely on your own judgment, and your own mistakes.
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Juan A. Prieto-Pablos says Herbert achieves a new typology with Paul's superpowers, differentiating the heroes of Dune from earlier heroes such as Superman , van Vogt 's Gilbert Gosseyn and Henry Kuttner 's telepaths. Unlike previous superheroes who acquire their powers suddenly and accidentally, Paul's are the result of "painful and slow personal progress. Early in his newspaper career, Herbert was introduced to Zen by two Jungian psychologists, Ralph and Irene Slattery, who "gave a crucial boost to his thinking".
What especially pleases me is to see the interwoven themes, the fuguelike relationships of images that exactly replay the way Dune took shape. As in an Escher lithograph, I involved myself with recurrent themes that turn into paradox. The central paradox concerns the human vision of time. What about Paul's gift of prescience-the Presbyterian fixation? For the Delphic Oracle to perform, it must tangle itself in a web of predestination. Yet predestination negates surprises and, in fact, sets up a mathematically enclosed universe whose limits are always inconsistent, always encountering the unprovable.
It's like a koan, a Zen mind breaker. It's like the Cretan Epimenides saying, "All Cretans are liars. Brian Herbert called the Dune universe "a spiritual melting pot", noting that his father incorporated elements of a variety of religions, including Buddhism , Sufi mysticism and other Islamic belief systems, Catholicism , Protestantism , Judaism , and Hinduism. Science fiction author Arthur C. Clarke has described it as "unique" and claimed "I know nothing comparable to it except Lord of the Rings. Heinlein described Dune as "Powerful, convincing, and most ingenious.
An astonishing science fiction phenomenon. Algis Budrys praised Dune for the vividness of its imagined setting, saying "The time lives. It breathes, it speaks, and Herbert has smelt it in his nostrils".
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He found that the novel, however, "turns flat and tails off at the end. Budrys faulted in particular Herbert's decision to kill Paul's infant son offstage, with no apparent emotional impact, saying "you cannot be so busy saving a world that you cannot hear an infant shriek". Tamara I. Hladik wrote that the story "crafts a universe where lesser novels promulgate excuses for sequels. All its rich elements are in balance and plausible—not the patchwork confederacy of made-up languages, contrived customs, and meaningless histories that are the hallmark of so many other, lesser novels.
Writing for The New Yorker , Jon Michaud praises Herbert's "clever authorial decision" to exclude robots and computers "two staples of the genre" from his fictional universe, but suggests that this may be one explanation why Dune lacks "true fandom among science-fiction fans" to the extent that it "has not penetrated popular culture in the way that The Lord of the Rings and Star Wars have".
Up to this point, Chilton had been publishing only automobile repair manuals. Jacobs optioned the rights to film Dune. As Jacobs was busy with other projects, such as the sequel to Planet of the Apes , Dune was delayed for another year. Jacobs' first choice for director was David Lean , but he turned down the offer. Charles Jarrott was also considered to direct.
Work was also under way on a script while the hunt for a director continued. Initially, the first treatment had been handled by Robert Greenhut , the producer who had lobbied Jacobs to make the movie in the first place, but subsequently Rospo Pallenberg was approached to write the script, with shooting scheduled to begin in However, Jacobs died in It was at first proposed to score the film with original music by Karlheinz Stockhausen , Henry Cow , and Magma ; later on, the soundtrack was to be provided by Pink Floyd.
Jodorowsky's son Brontis was to play Paul Atreides. Jodorowsky took creative liberties with the source material, but Herbert said that he and Jodorowsky had an amicable relationship. Jodorowsky said in that he found the Dune story mythical and had intended to recreate it rather than adapt the novel; though he had an "enthusiastic admiration" for Herbert, Jodorowsky said he had done everything possible to distance the author and his input from the project.
O'Bannon entered a psychiatric hospital after the production failed, and worked on 13 scripts; the last of which became Alien. In Dino De Laurentiis acquired the rights from Gibon's consortium. De Laurentiis commissioned Herbert to write a new screenplay in ; the script Herbert turned in was pages long, the equivalent of nearly three hours of screen time.
Giger retained from the Jodorowsky production. Scott intended to split the book into two movies. He worked on three drafts of the script, using The Battle of Algiers as a point of reference, before moving on to direct another science fiction film, Blade Runner As he recalls, the pre-production process was slow, and finishing the project would have been even more time-intensive:. But after seven months I dropped out of Dune , by then Rudy Wurlitzer had come up with a first-draft script which I felt was a decent distillation of Frank Herbert's.
But I also realised Dune was going to take a lot more work—at least two and a half years' worth. And I didn't have the heart to attack that because my older brother Frank unexpectedly died of cancer while I was prepping the De Laurentiis picture. Frankly, that freaked me out. So I went to Dino and told him the Dune script was his. In , the nine-year film rights were set to expire. De Laurentiis re-negotiated the rights from the author, adding to them the rights to the Dune sequels written and unwritten. Around that time Lynch received several other directing offers, including Return of the Jedi.
He agreed to direct Dune and write the screenplay even though he had not read the book, known the story, or even been interested in science fiction. The team yielded two drafts of the script before it split over creative differences. Lynch would subsequently work on five more drafts. This first film of Dune , directed by Lynch, was released in , nearly 20 years after the book's publication. Though Herbert said the book's depth and symbolism seemed to intimidate many filmmakers, he was pleased with the film, saying that "They've got it.
It begins as Dune does. And I hear my dialogue all the way through. There are some interpretations and liberties, but you're gonna come out knowing you've seen Dune. In , Paramount Pictures announced that they would produce a new film based on the book, with Peter Berg attached to direct. Anderson and Frank Herbert's son Brian Herbert , who had together written multiple Dune sequels and prequels since , were attached to the project as technical advisors. Yueh,  and Stephen Henderson in an undisclosed role.
In , Recorded Books Inc. Dune has been widely influential, inspiring other novels, music, films including Star Wars , television, games, and comic books. Touponce called "something of a tribute to Herbert's success on college campuses", noting that "the only other book to have been so honored is Tolkien 's Lord of the Rings ," which was parodied by The Harvard Lampoon in There have been a number of games based on the book , notably the strategy adventure Dune and its sequels.
The online game Lost Souls includes Dune -derived elements, including sandworms and melange—addiction to which can produce psychic talents. The Apollo 15 astronauts named a small crater after the novel during the mission,  and the name was formally adopted by the International Astronomical Union in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the novel. For the related franchise, see Dune franchise.
Main article: List of Dune religions. Main article: Dune film. Main article: Frank Herbert's Dune. Novels portal. Gulf Professional Publishing. Retrieved August 25, World Science Fiction Society. Retrieved March 8, Archived from the original on December 17, Retrieved March 17, Frank Herbert. Boston , Massachusetts : Twayne Publishers imprint, G.
Locus ran a poll of readers on April 15, in which Dune 'was voted the all-time best science-fiction novel … It has sold over ten million copies in numerous editions. March 18, Archived from the original on September 28, Retrieved September 28, Since its debut in , Frank Herbert's Dune has sold over 12 million copies worldwide, making it the best-selling science fiction novel of all time Frank Herbert's Dune saga is one of the greatest 20th Century contributions to literature.
The Guardian. Retrieved Willis E. Retrieved January 26, During my studies of deserts, of course, and previous studies of religions, we all know that many religions began in a desert atmosphere, so I decided to put the two together because I don't think that any one story should have any one thread. I build on a layer technique, and of course putting in religion and religious ideas you can play one against the other. Retrieved September 8, Author Britany R. Publisher POW! Author Hidenori Kusaka.
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Whose side is it on.?. Diamond, Pearl and Platinum divide forces to stop them, but can they conquer?. And who will rescue Platinum's hapless bodyguards from the mysterious Distortion World they've been banished to.?. Can the most powerful being in the universe be convinced to give up the Gauntlet?.
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Author Ron Marz. Binding: Hardcover Publish date: Condition: New! Other notes. The Monkey king and Havoc in Heaven. Scott Pilgrim, Vol. Title : Scott Pilgrim, Vol. Authors : Bryan Lee O'Malley. Pages : About Turning the Page. Condition : Good. Publisher : Oni Press. Benefits charity. She is a special correspondent for The Rodent's Gazette, Mouse Island's most famouse newspaper, which is edited by her famouse brother, Geronimo Stilton.
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