Handel's works are cataloged by HWV numbers. Sein Leben in Bildern. In Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten. Cherbuliez Ein biographischer Roman des Barock. Potsdam, Athenaion. Korn, c. Berlin: Imberg und Lefson. Berlin u. Leipzig J. Re-published by Actes Sud-Classica in Atti del Convegno internazionale di studi Roma, giugno translation: Handel and both Scarlattis in Rome. Proceedings of the international study conference.
Cambridge Opera Journal. Graham Pont: "French overtures at the keyboard: the Handel tradition", Vol. Andrew V. Jones: "Staging a Handel Opera" Vol. Gregory Barnett: "Handel's borrowings and the disputed Gloria ". Diack Johnstone. Xavier Cervantes and Thomas McGeary. Hans Joachim Marx. August Judith Milhous and Robert D. Donald Burrows and Robert D. Donald Burrows. August , pp. John Arther Rice. February , pp.
Eighteenth-Century Music. B — I feel thy cruel dart! Konstanze Musketa. George III. Aspects of the elaboration and interpretation of Handel's operas in Halle at the start of the s from the point of view of their historic value] Reinhard Strohm: Ein Stattskomponist ohne Grenzen Festvortag im rahmen der Anthony Hicks. William A. Frosch, M. Journal of the American Musicological Society. Journal of the Royal Musical Association. October Ellen T Harris: "Handel the Investor". Suzanne Aspden. Festschrift Getraut Haberkamp zum Geburtstag , ed.
David Hunter. January July PM Potter. Summer John Byrt. Fall Spring Was Handel Insane? Ilias Chrissochoidis. Peter Holman. Rachel Cowgill. Ian Payne. Edited by Siegfried Schmalzriedt, published by Laaber Verlag, Most articles in German. Children's Books. Handel: Who Knew What He Liked is a witty and cleverly written book for children aged , but can also be enjoyed by older Handelians. It is an excellent biographical introduction of Handel: M. Anderson has successfully compressed a complicated life and a varied career to a few judicious words, and the book is affectionately illustrated by Kevin Hakwes.
Some small details are presented as fact that are suspiciously mythical or novel, and there are a couple of odd chronological leaps, yet they do not detract from the purpose of the book, which is to convey Handel's development from a child prodigy into the composer of Messiah. It is pleasing to note that the authors have benefited from the advice of Professor Ellen T. Harris, and include a sensible bibliography and reliable discography - possibly intended for those parents whose curiosity might be aroused.
Leslie Robarts Wales - smelfungus thellan. Return to the G. Handel Home Page. Klaus Hortschansky: Ein verkapptes Orpheus-Drama? Ulrike Krenzlin: ' It is difficult to imagine a more emphatic and powerful defense of the ultimate reality of allegorical portrayal. But what is this symbolization of particular universality if not allegory? Subjectivism is only the proper word here if we identify it with that core level of experience below the sphere of the phenomenal that Nietzsche identifies with the Dionysian; it is, perhaps, subjective, but it is nonetheless, for Nietzsche and the Expressionists, a shared subjectivism.
The drive to discover a level of universal truth and reality below the everyday dimensions of the phenomenal world was one of the characteristic traits of the Expressionist artists. One began to dissolve the surrounding reality into irreality, and to penetrate beyond the realm of appearances to the essence; , Es wird so lange gesucht in seinem eigentlichsten Wesen, bis seine tiefere Form sich ergibt, bis das Haus aufsteht, das befreit ist von dem dumpfen Zwang der falschen Wirklichkeit.
It goes beyond this. It is pursued in its most authentic essence until its more profound form comes to the fore, until a house emerges that is freed from the dull constraints of false reality. Decades before Husserl, Nietzsche emerged as the philosopher of what we might call a phenomenological aesthetics, an aesthetic theory that exploited the principle of representational mimesis as a revelatory strategy for the essence of existence. In the writers of German Expressionism he found these blood relatives, a group of artists with the analytical and retrospective abilities to grasp and apply the metaphysical mimesis he advocated in this first work of modern aesthetic theory.
Throughout this essay, translations from the German are my own. To my way of thinking, this conception underestimates the special enchantment Nietzsche held for the Expressionist writers. See Sweet, The same can be said for the scientific or Socratic worldview. For Benn Nietzsche is the greatest genius of the German language; Frantz Clement calls Nietzsche the first patheticist of modernism Hillebrand, ; Richard Dehmel and Heinrich Mann revere him as a linguistic innovator Hillebrand, , ; and Otto Flake calls him the master of the German language Hillebrand, Bennett, Benjamin.
Berry, Wanda Warren. Bloch, Ernst. Bronner, Stephen Eric, and Douglas Kellner. Passion and Rebellion: The Expressionist Heritage. New York: J. Bergin, De Man, Paul. New Haven: Yale UP, Drost, Mark P. Edschmid, Kasimir. Foster, Jr. Princeton: Princeton UP, Hillebrand, Bruno, ed. Forschungsergebnisse: Nietzsche und die deutsche Literatur. Deutsche Texte Nietzsche und die deutsche Literatur: Texte zur Nietzsche-Rezeption, — Huebner, Friedrich Markus.
Kellner, Douglas. Lacoue-Labarthe, Philippe. Martens, Gunter. McGinn, Robert E. Meyer, Theo. Nietzsche und die Kunst. Nietzsche, Friedrich. In Kritische Studienausgabe, — Kritische Studienausgabe. Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari. Nussbaum, Martha C.
Christopher Jenaway, — Pinthus, Kurt. Porter, James I. Rampley, Matthew. Nietzsche, Aesthetics and Modernity. Rethy, Robert. Ritter, Mark. Rolleston, James. Schopenhauer, Arthur. Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung. Wiesbaden: Brockhaus, Sokel, Walter H. Staten, Henry. Sweet, Dennis. Taylor, Seth. Monographien und Texte zur Nietzsche-Forschung, vol. Berlin: De Gruyter, Vietta, Sylvio, and Hans-Georg Kemper. Munich: Fink, Zweig, Stefan. The question is not only vague and ambiguous, but exceptionally difficult to answer, because we do not have criteria that would provide us with the necessary information to correctly pose the question.
Indeed, there exists a general, albeit somewhat tentative, consensus of scholarly opinion that the works of writers published in avant-garde periodicals between and the early s may be termed Expressionist. However, these are purely external and accidental criteria, conveying little about the shared formal, stylistic, and thematic characteristics of these writers. Nevertheless, they do provide a point of departure for subsequent study. Perhaps the question can be posed in this way: What are the inherent or formal characteristics shared by the many writers whose works appeared in avantgarde periodicals, book series, and anthologies between and or that would entitle us to call them Expressionist?
Would a characterization that would allow a comparison to Romanticism or Naturalism be preferable? Despite the fact that in these much longer and betterresearched literary movements terminological ambiguity still persists indeed, over-generalization is intrinsic to any definition of genre , the terms Romanticism and Naturalism are nevertheless based upon far more concise and accepted criteria than the constant vacillation found in the term Expressionism.
In this essay, the question of what criteria would be most suitable to define Expressionism will be addressed, specifically in respect to a single literary genre, namely, narrative prose. SOKEL a poetics of narration that would enable us to devise a coherent theory of Expressionist prose.
Among the writers of Expressionism there was little theoretical reflection. It is therefore much more difficult to assess the theory of Expressionism than that of Romanticism or Naturalism. The wellknown commentaries of Kasimir Edschmid, Paul Kornfeld, and Georg Kaiser, among others, have virtually nothing to say about formal, stylistic, and structural aspects of Expressionist literature. In the years between and he had already contributed many concrete and important ideas about Expressionist prose, so much so that we may use it as the basis for an Expressionist theory of epic prose.
It is impossible to speak of a single coherent theory of narrative prose in Expressionism. In short, we meet with a multiplicity of theoretical points of view, and thus we must investigate further to discover a common denominator shared by the various theories of Expressionist narrative prose.
However, this also aptly illustrates an important difference in their theories of narrative. Psychological motivation, circumstantial determination, and causality cannot be ascribed to the genre of epic, which is based upon description and naturalistic representation. The nouveau roman is mentioned in this connection to underscore the fact that the two most prominent Expressionists start out from entirely different theories of prose.
This tradition also includes Naturalism and Futurism, as well as Kafka and the nouveau roman. Indeed, Naturalism sets out to abolish the intervention of the narrator situated between external reality and the reader. Accordingly, he exhorts the Expressionist to follow in the footsteps of Realist and Naturalist techniques of narration. Edschmid too viewed Expressionism as a further elaboration of Naturalism, but elevated it to a visionary plane.
He is less concerned with literary technique than he is with conveying a specific worldview. This is an essential difference between the two authors. He opposes form to idea, but form is more than a mere technique, it is the idea of form based on Platonic philosophy, an existential concept and part of his worldview. Deeply indebted to Nietzsche, his literary theory is ultimately derived from Romanticism and German Idealism. Not only his idealism, but also his style and sentence structure are reminiscent of Friedrich Schlegel.
In general he traced the prevalent ideas of his generation back to Nietzsche. Einstein wished to revive free, creative spontaneity, and sovereignty of mind playfully exploring the multifarious possibilities of thought. In Einstein the narrator is to be present in his reflections and ideas, mediated by a character who constantly ponders and comments upon the narrative. Indeed, reflection replaces depiction. Instead of Anschaulichkeit or three-dimensional plasticity , scenic evocation and images, we are given intellectual discourse.
The fundamental difference between these two leading tendencies in Expressionist prose is evident in the use of language: specifically, in the construction of sentences. They both tend towards structural concision, forcefulness, and terseness of expression. This concise use of speech is a unique quality common to the greater part of Expressionist narrative prose and brings us close to a definition of its narrative technique.
However, we find evidence of such syntactic terseness and concision expressed in different ways in the two separate groups of Expressionist writers. In the former, syntactic brevity and ellipsis prevail, while in the latter an aphoristic sententiousness predominates. However, this distinction is most tentative and must be examined in the context of narrative perspective and structure. Subordinate clauses explaining or describing motivation are missing, and syntax is reduced to its most basic elements. This entailed a sparseness of words, the rejection of discursive reasoning, and the avoidance of ornamental figuration.
His views on narrative technique are essentially anti-psychological. However, he embraces psychiatry, since, in his view, it restricts itself to the simple notation of events and actions as such. The narrative ideal articulated in this opposition between psychology and psychiatry finds clear expression in the sentence structure and language of the short stories and novels in his Expressionist phase; that ideal requires a paratactic style, in which syntactic subordination very nearly ceases to exist.
The stones blackened; the scissors got hot; he let them drop. Even though the subject of the sentence is mentioned only once, each clause is an independent sentence, joined to the other not by subordination, but rather coordination. If the subject er he were repeated, in place of each semicolon we could place a period and this would not impair the syntactic coherence.
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Therefore, it is not the brevity of the sentences, but their paratactic coordination that constitutes this style. The elimination of syntactic subordination defines the very essence of Expressionist style. Only what actually occurs gets stated. The absence of any sort of commentary, of any narrative intervention, presupposes the paratactic principle of Kinostil. It is impossible to make an absolute distinction between naturalistic representation and the perspectives of the figures or persons in a novel, the latter fully developed in the technique of stream of consciousness.
He employs a mixture of the two. In these instances, gesture is utilized as an essential compositional technique. It is employed to symbolize the inner life of the character, which conventionally is done by a narrator. Abstractions, sentiments, and ideas are not always successfully transformed into concrete imagery and visual representation. This transformation can only occur when dialogue and stream of consciousness usurp the conventional function of narration. However, the generous use of similes in the narrative serves to make the narrative point of view more subjective.
To be sure, Heym never employs rhetorical commentary. SOKEL intends to influence the reader, as for example in this novella. Leonhard Frank — makes more extreme and direct use of rhetorical figures in his prose works. Moreover, the interjection of opinions into the narrative invokes generalizations surpassing the limits of the text. The narrator seeks to persuade the reader by a particular choice of words.
Thus the narrative depicts a worldview and seeks to demonstrate a truth that the author wants to propagate. We shall refer to this technique, employed by many important prose writers in Expressionism, as parabolic narrative. The distinction between parables told in the first and in the third person is of little relevance here. The paratactic style is also indebted to the bible.
Sentences often begin with Und, a common feature of exemplary prose, and the succession of events and statements suggests a life of wandering on earth, expressing edifying views of the holy figure from the point of view of a devout and loving disciple. Borrowing from Schopenhauer and materialism, Ehrenstein seeks to demonstrate the senselessness and absurdity of existence.
It is above all Mynona — who made the most extensive use of the parabolic form. Like Leonhard Frank, Mynona addresses topics beyond the story, and the interjections of the narrator determine the meaning of the tale. The narrator himself is marked through the use of grotesque irony. His madness is shown from a critical and sovereign point of view. It is a negativity that leads to the spiritual essence of being. His sketches are ironic-grotesque parables, illustrations of nonsense, beyond which lies a deeper spiritual meaning. Here the reemergence of authorial intention is deemed necessary.
As is the case in the works of Jean Paul, E. Hoffmann, Raabe, and later Musil, authorial intentionality prevails. SOKEL narrator absolute status, denies him absolute reality. They all reject the narrative technique of representation, that is, of Bauen as a goal in itself.
As for Mynona, parable is effective in two ways, namely, through philosophical dialogue, and grotesque fantasy. These two components characterize the dialogue as well as the circumstances, situations, and figures in the novel. The dialogue contains opinions and points of view that constitute the content of the novel. The narrative is not objective; it is subjective, intellectual and amorphous, a merely thematic aspect of the narrative structure. Ideas appear and find formulation in the text.
In Bebuquin, character development is secondary to the ideas, which are what interested Einstein. These cogitations are formulated as aphorisms and accompanied by astonishing, absurd, and fantastic events. One example taken from Bebuquin illustrates the interweaving of these aspects in this first Expressionist novel:.
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Es handelte sich um den Gedanken, der logisch war, woher auch seine Ursachen kamen. Wir sind nicht mehr so phantasielos, das Dasein eines Gottes zu behaupten. Bebuquin, sehen Sie einmal. He felt in this contradiction no animation, but rather release, repose. It was not negation that was fun. He despised these pretentious grumblers. He despised this uncleanliness of dramatic man. Yet the reasons were secondary. It was the thought that mattered, which was logical, whatever its origins.
He wanted to take it a little easy after his death, since he did not yet know anything for sure about immortality. But unfortunately you will probably have no success since you assume only a logical and a non-logical. There are many types of logic, my friend, at war within us and the alogical derives from that battle. We are no longer so lacking in imagination as to claim the existence of a God. All shameless capitulation to the concept of unity speaks only to the laziness of your fellow humans.
Bebuquin, take a look. However, he does not provide guidance or an interpretation, as is often the case in Mynona. That clearly represents an instance of allegorical and parabolic language. SOKEL epigrams. The self-reflections of the main character — in part or totally identified with the narrator — spontaneously transform external events into intellectual or cognitive experience and transmute every action of the plot into stream of consciousness.
This narrative technique is employed by Gustav Sack in Ein verbummelter Student An Idle Student, written —13, published , by Gottfried Benn in his collection of stories Gehirne Brains, , and by Flake in Stadt des Hirns City of the Brain; in Flake the title itself clearly expresses this intellectualization of narrative. We now turn to the use of allegory in Expressionist narrative prose, which is closely associated with the use of fantasy. In this skull things appear silver-plated and wonderfully polished an image obviously symbolizing the intellect.
The especially fantastic nature of the image provides a vehicle to convey ideas. With writers who employ allegory, such as Kubin, Meyrink, and Kafka, two fundamental tendencies of epic or prose Expressionism come together: namely, naturalistic, scenic, concrete representation and intellectual parables. In Kafka, however, the central idea, as expressed through images or material objects, ultimately remains unknown, and his allegories therefore permit an infinite number of interpretations.
In Einstein, Meyrink, and Kubin, the meaning of the allegory is more accessible. With allegorical clarity, these linked ideas appear as the visionary content of the narrated sequence of events. The meaning of the bureaucracies appearing in these works is so multivalent that it remains inseparable from the representation in the work and remains irreducible to any simple equation with specific ideas.
Linguistically speaking, we cannot define any of the Austrian writers using allegory, whether they are from Prague or from Vienna, as Expressionists. The general stylistic features of Expressionist prose parataxis, ellipsis, syntactic distortion do not apply to the narrative styles of Kafka, Meyrink, Kubin, or Musil. Here, syntactic complexity and subordination still remain the rule. Therefore, those authors cannot be included among the Expressionists. While the aforementioned features cannot be applied to that group of authors, the Expressionist use of narrative perspective, form, and structure certainly can.
We have already drawn attention to stylistic parallels and relations between Musil and Einstein. Kafka plays a special role in the development of narrative technique in Expressionism, evident in the way he intensifies the ambiguity of the parabolic-allegorical forms of narration, widely used by Expressionists. In regard to narrative perspective, Kafka develops to an extreme the exclusion of the omniscient narrator. These prose works, among the most interesting and finest narrative works produced by Expressionism, all convey a distorted view of the world narrated from the very personal viewpoint of the main character, who in three of these works is insane.
The petty bourgeois is revealed as a fantastically macabre and grotesque menace. Mann maintained the same grotesque intensity of narrator perspective through large sections of the book. Nonetheless, there exists between Kafka and the other Expressionists an essential distinction in regard to the use of figural perspective. The internal point of view, the point of orientation for narrated events, is entirely coherent in Kafka, untouched by any reference to an external reality.
However, from a linguistic point of view, we cannot consider him a true Expressionist. This example shows us that we must proceed with nuanced care when seeking to define Expressionist prose. After this discussion of narrative perspectivism, let us now again turn to linguistic features of Expressionism in order to reiterate that the two fundamental features of its prose were the pursuit of the utmost compression of language and syntactic distortion. We observe that aphorisms predominate whenever naturalistic representation yields to the expression of ideas.
Aphorisms deal with generalizations and as such refer to ideas beyond the text, to a region shared by reader and narrator. Events and characters assume secondary importance; the identical relationship of the narrated events to reality external to the narrative is of primary importance. Aphorisms disturb the autonomy of the fictional world represented in the narrative. Aphorism is linked to irony. The irony of Einstein and Mynona rests upon the keen awareness of the abyss that separates the world of ideas from empirical reality. In the works of Alfred Lichtenstein — , which depict the milieu of the Berlin artistic community, ironic anecdotes, composed of aphorisms, are the most prominent feature of the narrative.
In order to live decently, one has to be a scoundrel; Aphorisms convey a philosophy or a truth about life in concise wording of universal applicability. The escalation of the aphorism from a sentence into a scene, anecdote, or even story by necessity leads to parable. Two flies are drowned in an inkpot, and in this grotesque and trivial event the narrator finds an illustration of the tragic meaninglessness of existence. The distinction between the parables of Lichtenstein and Ehrenstein and those of Mynona is that the latter, despite his use of irony and relativity, permits the Platonic idea to shine through, as the eternal possibility of intellectual freedom.
In contrast, the former two writers demonstrate the absurdity of life by grotesquely combining the trite and ridiculous with sorrow and tragedy. However, in Kafka, the incomprehensible defeats all attempts at interpretation. SOKEL employed parables. The sentence structure and linguistic aberrations transform his stories into ironic, or rather, burlesque parables.
This widespread tendency toward ellipsis in Expressionist prose has however also an entirely different cause that the admirer of Sternheim, Gottfried Benn, formulates as follows:. However, beneath those differences lies a deeper affinity uniting these authors in their shared antipathy toward psychology, namely, the rejection of causality as a sufficient explanation of human behavior and of the world.
In both of these currents of Expressionism, the writers are bent on eliminating the opposition between the self and external reality, between subject and object, between inside and outside. In a formal and linguistic respect, inner monologue achieves the elimination of the subject-object opposition. In these writers, the distinction between inner and external reality ceases to exist. Everything flows together. A narrative structure of shifting perspectives and absence of narrative orientation makes the reader feel everywhere and nowhere at all.
Moreover, such a narrative technique is the ultimate triumph of literary Naturalism; for the narrator by relinquishing the role of reporter allows the characters an unmediated expression of fictional reality. Annulling the distinction between dialogue and narrative achieves complete autonomy of the text. This form of inner monologue is more radical than anything encountered in Naturalism. It deconstructs syntax by means of radical ellipsis and destroys the mimetic representation of reality. It undermines the coherent narrative logic presupposed in Naturalism, that is, causality, argument, and order.
Developing out of Naturalism, the narrative technique of inner monologue became a normative form and visionary experience in Expressionism, composed of musical leitmotifs. Instead of sentences expressing a logically coherent world, Broch utilizes sequences of associative appositions. That omission of predicates and the liquefying of sentences into a stream of language suggests a reaching out toward infinity.
The essays in that volume all followed the same format, with no notes and no page numbers for citations. The current translation now provides page numbers to the most recent available editions, rather than to the edition available when the article was first published. Additional notes are thus from the editor, not the author, as are all English translations. Works Cited Beissner, Friedrich. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, Walter Muschg. Olten and Freiburg im Breisgau: Walter-Verlag, Olten and Freiburg im Breisgau: Walter, Leipzig: Kurt Wolff, ; Stuttgart: Reclam, Ehrenstein, Albert.
Fritz Martini, 72— Werke: Band 1, — Rolf-Peter Baacke, with assistance from Jens Kwasny. Frank, Leonhard. Der Mensch ist gut. Potsdam: Kiepenheuer, ; repr. Heym, Georg. Prosa und Dramen. Karl Ludwig Schneider. Hamburg und Munich: Heinrich Ellermann, Hollier, Denis. A New History of French Literature. Kafka, Franz. Hochzeitsvorbereitungen auf dem Lande und andere Prosa aus dem Nachlass. Max Brod. New York: Schocken Books, Lichtenstein, Alfred.
Gesammelte Prosa. Klaus Kanzog. Zurich: Arche, Mierendorff, Carlo. Otto Best, — Mynona Salomo Friedlaender. Prince, Gerald. Sack, Gustav. Prosa, Briefe, Verse. Sternheim, Carl. Wilhelm Emrich and Manfred Linke. Darmstadt and Neuwied: Luchterhand, Walser, Martin. Beschreibung einer Form. Munich: C. Hanser, Tiere in Ketten. Berlin: Fischer, ; Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, Wendler, Wolfgang. Carl Sternheim: Weltvorstellung und Kunstprinzipien.
Zeller, Bernhard. Mai bis Oktober The drama of Expressionism with its incantations and bombast also seems uncongenial to audiences in the twenty-first century. Yet the lyric poetry and short prose of Expressionism retains a capacity to shock, to unnerve, and to shatter habitual modes of perception: the Expressionist period abounds in short works of intense narrative experimentation, some successful, some less so, but which all put on display the energy and ambitions of the day to reform the genre. Such texts exhibit, despite the time that has now elapsed since their composition, remarkable virtuosity and freshness.
Indeed, the formal and linguistic experimentation by the authors I shall discuss in this chapter makes their work not only challenging but also of enormous literary-historical significance. As a literary movement Expressionism is conventionally dated between and It is characterized as sharing with other movements around the turn of the century, variously categorized as neo-Romanticism, Symbolism, Impressionism or Jugendstil, a rejection of scientific positivism and its artistic counterpart of Naturalism in literature and painting.
Expressionism proper seeks to take that opposition to Naturalism to a new formal extreme, insisting that its aim is not a naturalistic depiction of the external world, nor even an impressionistic capturing of the shifting patterns of light on the surface of that reality, but an intuitive grasp of essence. The theoretical underpinning of Expressionist writing suggests an eclectic appropriation of ideas current in art history and philosophy. Its precondition is a confident relationship between man and nature, which produces an art of immanence.
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But Worringer considers that much of the history of art falls outside this canon, and he postulates a diametrically opposed tendency, namely an urge to abstraction, which in turn produces an art of transcendence. This art springs from a spiritual unrest, a disturbed relationship with nature, which is manifest, in different ways, in primitive man, in Egyptian art, in Gothic art, but also characterizes modern civilization and its discontents.
But in bringing together primitivism, transcendence, and abstraction, Worringer lays the foundation for much of the thinking about both art and literature in the Expressionist period. His reflections on art supply the Expressionists with a rationale for formal distortion and linguistic dislocation. Developments in philosophy around and immediately after the turn of the century offer interesting parallels to Expressionist theory.
In one or two incidences one may speak of influence, but the process of reception is usually far less precise. Heinrich Rickert, a Neo-Kantian philosopher of the Baden school, published in a work entitled Die Grenzen der naturwissenschaftlichen Begriffsbildung The Limits of Conceptualization in the Natural Sciences, , a landmark in the rejection of scientific positivism. As Jost Hermand has pointed out, the impact of this work was felt far beyond the realm of philosophy in art history and literary criticism 1—6.
While the natural scientist seeks to distill universally applicable laws from this Mannigfaltigkeit or multifariousness , the historian seeks to arrive at historical concepts that, though not obtained by the same process as scientific concepts, have equal status with them. The aim of the artist is now to provide knowledge of the world by a process of conceptualization that runs counter to scientific positivism; artistic and cultural value lie not in a mimetic reproduction of the empirical world but in a process by which the particularity of an object may be distilled.
The outbreak of the First World War shattered the bourgeois complacency of Wilhelminian society, and both the disastrous course of the war and the Bolshevik revolution further polarized political opinion. What is striking is the fact that writers on both sides of this political spectrum, the anarchists and the communists, asserted the revolutionary nature of their artistic enterprise, arguing that the new modes of perception, the new ways of seeing, represented a radical break with what was deemed bourgeois conventionality.
Influenced by the physicist Ernst Mach and the art historian Conrad Fiedler, as well as by contemporary writers like Paul Scheerbart, Einstein produced a novel that eschewed psychological verisimilitude in the interest of constituting a metaphysical, quasi-religious reality. Art is concerned not with the depiction of objects but with the structuring of a way of seeing. The totality that thus comes into being is transcendent.
If one ignores questions about the existence of the object and disregards everything contingent, one arrives at the essence das Wesentliche , a recurrent term in the theoretical writings of the Expressionists. Christians must speak up more about the things they care deeply about, he challenged delegates. The first-ever youth synod of the Evangelical Church in the Rhineland concluded on 6 January in Bad Neuenahr with five resolutions for the regional synod beginning the next day.
It proved a positive experience. For the first time in the Evangelical Church in the Rhineland there will be a youth synod. It is taking place on January And what is exceptional is that half of its delegates will be youth and half will come from the regional synod. In the Summer of Dr Christoph Zenses spent three weeks as a doctor on board the Sea-Watch rescue boat, and a year later he also got involved at the Moria refugee camp on Lesbos.
These assignments pushed the doctor from Solingen to his limits.
But he is planning to return there in From conviction. In the beginning was the Word. The biblical Word. Seniors of Uellendahl photographed by Andrea Rompa. Learning from each other and building peace: For 16 years the secondary schools Bodelschwingh-Gymnasium in Herchen and the Goethe School in Ulaanbaatar in Mongolia have been cultivating a close partnership.
The voice search trend. Using chatbots. Podcast tips. Developments in digital learning. Latest discussion about virtual church. WhatsApp features. Lots of topics, lots of sessions, lots of sunshine: BarCamp Church online in Cologne brought together hundreds of church onliners and digital specialists. A photo story. He calls on governments and political leaders in Europe to stop breaking international law and criminalising civilian rescuers of persons in distress at sea.
Sometimes the sea rescuers have to make horrible decisions: keep resuscitating someone or keep saving more people from drowning? Sea Watch crew member and physician Barbara remembers a night she will never forget. Watch the video where she pledges to fight on for the right to rescue. Sharp criticism of the charges against private rescue ships in the Mediterranean has come from Manfred Rekowski, president of the Evangelical Church in the Rhineland and chair of the advisory commission on Migration and Integration of the Evangelical Church in Germany EKD. Together with other young adults, he is starting a term of voluntary service this summer in the Israeli peace village Nes Ammim.
Spots are still open for other interested youth. The situation in Syria is becoming ever more dramatic, especially in Eastern Ghouta, where people are starving and dying and medical care has collapsed.
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