Psychoanalysis, according to Freud, is a psychological method meant for understanding and curing mental illnesses. It has a very specific idea about how the human mind works, assuming that every human is to a certain degree controlled by unconscious mental processes. The following chapters will introduce the reader to the field of psychoanalysis, starting with the structure of the mind. But to understand this structure, the terms that appear in it have to be explained separately. She suffered from reminiscences of traumatic, painful or embarrassing situations, but she was both unaware when awake and aware when mesmerised of these memories at the same time .
Josef Breuer was able to cure her by means of hypnosis and Freud assumed that something was actively holding back her memories from the conscious part of her mind. Psychoanalysis does not try to get hold of the passed dream itself . Freud knew that in the very moment of awakening, our dreams are already distorted and we selectively forget parts of them. It normally contains images and metaphoric symbols.
Having a rough understanding of the Unconscious, a closer look at its way of functioning would be expedient. The Unconscious works according to a simple set of rules, called the Pleasure-Principle. Basically, this Pleasure-Principle makes the Unconscious both strive for pleasure and avoid displeasure . Freud assumed that any accumulation of tension or energy inside the mental apparatus leads to displeasure, and therefore, that the organism attempts to keep this energy-level low. Anything that is able to increase its level must therefore feel displeasing. In contrast to that, acting according to the Reality-Principle means to bear displeasure until it can be eliminated by an adequate action.
After having defined the most important terms, we can now dare to take a look at them working together. But few do know that Freud invented them very lately: he was already over 65 years old and had written all his major works before he conceptualised the human mind with the terms mentioned above. The rest of this chapter will therefore mostly refer to Illustration 2. The illustration shows the mental processes of an individual which express themselves in what we call consciousness and the outer factors that influence the process and provide the Id and the Super-Ego with input.
The two black arrows, pointing at the oval area in the middle, represent the two forces that influence the Ego. The first one is the Id, symbolising the dark, animal side of the mind, always longing for satisfaction or destruction. The Id acts according to the Pleasure Principle, following the instincts and drives that are inborn in every human being.
The second force is the Super-Ego. Its geometrical opposition equals its functional antagonism: it is kind of a moral instance, acting in accordance with the rules the individual has learnt. If the individual does not comply with these rules, it generates a bad conscience. When in charge, the Super-Ego makes us perfectionists that are uptight and demand too much of themselves. Taking a closer look at the Super-Ego, these factors would be mother and father for instance.
They educated the individual and shaped it with their ideals and moral concepts. The same applies to friends, neighbours and the rest of the list on the right hand side. That way, they support the Super-Ego in its function as a moral instance as well as feeding the Id, providing it with numerous stimuli like making proposals or simply a good looking outward appearance. The Ego, situated between these two forces and the reality, has to cope with the demands of either side. It has to mediate between them and find compromises, according to the Reality-Principle.
The last chapter of the theoretical part is therefore devoted to this part of his work, giving a short overview of its most important facts. Freud claimed that all human beings are born with certain instincts, showing a natural tendency to satisfy their biologically determined needs for food, shelter and warmth.
He believed the maturing of every person followed the same patterns, consisting of distinctive stages, the most important ones of which are going to be explained shortly in the following paragraphs. According to Freud, sexual life does not start with puberty, it starts with birth. When the first teeth appear, the child already shows first sadistic impulses. In the following 18 months, these impulses grow stronger: from one and a half years till the age of three, satisfaction is acquired by aggression and taking pleasure in gaining control over the function of excretion.
That way, the parent of the same sex becomes a rival, the superiority of which lets the children fear possible punishment and leads to a bad conscience for their own thoughts. When the girl realises that she, just like her mother, lacks a penis, she blames her mother for having castrated her. The girl wishes for the father to share his penis with her, longing for copulation.
Similar to the Oedipus-Complex, the Electra-Complex is solved by identification. The more the girl identifies with her mother, the more likely it gets for her to marry someone like her father in later life. Puberty finally sets an end to the distinguishable phases of psychosexual development. The target of sexuality has finally changed to reproduction. Having introduced the reader to the most vital ideal and theories of Psychoanalysis, the next logical step is its practical application. First of all, the Analyst has to decide what the aim of the work should be: to analyse the author, the text or both.
This assignment is only meant to show the reader some fundamental mechanisms of Psychoanalysis and their application on a literary text. It would unquestionably be inadequate for its objective to collect background-information of the author in the dimension described above. It is not intended to analyse the author, consequently analysis will be limited to the text itself. She has four younger brothers. When she was five years old, her father, Frank Duffy, got a job as a fitter with English Electric and the family moved to Staffordshire.
Her father was socially and politically active; he was even a Labour Party candidate in and he also managed Stafford Football Club in his spare time.
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In the following three years she was at St Joseph's convent school in the same city. From to she went to Stafford High School for girls. She had her first pamphlet of poems, Fleshweathercock, published by Outposts in when she was One year later she went to Liverpool University to be near to Adrian Henri and left it in , completing her B. In the following years she worked for Granada Television until she moved to London in where she lived until In the early s she took up freelance writing, and she held a C.
Day Lewis Fellowship which enabled her to work as a writer in residence in East End schools between and She encouraged younger poets on Arvon Foundation courses. It was on one of these courses where she met her future partner, Jackie Kay. She has been poetry editor of the literary magazine Ambit since , written several plays for radio and stage and won numerous prizes such as the first prize in the national poetry competition sponsored by the BBC in , the Eric Gregory Award from the British Society of Authors in and the first prize in the Peterloo Poets competition in Hopes you are mostly happy.
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Gay geek loves books, monster movies, Stephen King, not acting my age! In France, the birthplace of the caricature, satirists the likes of Charles Philipon faced imprisonment for expressing dissent and criticizing royal agency. Later, during the French revolution, the genre played a significant role in empowering citizens through political engagement.
As the court ceased to be the cultural center and the readership became increasingly heterogeneous, satire evolved into an independent art form. Finally part of the mainstream media, satire enjoyed great popularity and regular publication. Good satire combines humor with informed critique. An audience only derives pleasure from satire when the irony is understood as such — if not due to opposing political views or misleading social critique, the genre ceases to be effective and even runs the risk of representing the very thing it set out to criticize.
Why do we derive pleasure from an art form known for its obscenity and hostility? A number of modern critics refer to Freud, according to whom, the sadistic pleasure is gained through rhetoric violence while others link the release of aggression to the source of pleasure. Surprisingly, psychoanalysis has never properly addressed satire despite its topicality.
It is only one of the many obstacles they have to overcome in order to achieve freedom, their freedom. That freedom, strived for youth, made of freely living without any problems. My body, my thoughts, everything is changing. Although changes and war, I must survive! They abandon their family and friends. They are no longer safe. Their beautiful cities have been destroyed, overpowered by hate. That kind of hate, that lasts over time and does not make room. No room for anything, not even for corpses. Once arrived, some are disoriented; their eyes are full of terror.
That terror, which has infested their minds and hearts during these months lasting trip. Their eyes are lifeless because of physical and mental tortures inflicted both overboard and on land. Sicily, we are almost there! Yes, I saw them. I had the honor to watch and go along with them during their last strain: the post-landing inspections. While they were arriving into the harbor of my city, I remembered all the newscast scenes and I can state that they are as we see them on television.
Arrivano disorientati, alcuni hanno gli occhi spenti dal terrore, quello che ha pervaso le loro menti e il loro cuore durante i mesi di viaggio, occhi spenti dalle torture fisiche e psicologiche subite in mare e in terra. Sicilia, ci siamo quasi! This week we have the great honor that an author decided to write a second time for us. Therefore his Introduction is now slightly modified compared to the first time. This week we are very glad to welcome back Gabriella Papadia from Palermo, Italy: She is a childhood Psychologist with a clinical and evolutionary orientation.
Continues her path of research on premature birth coming in contact with the Group of Research in Pediatric Psychology. Her fields of interest with regard to research and intervention can be traced in neurodevelopmental assessment of patients with typical and atypical development both adults and children , neurodevelopmental disorders, specific learning disabilities, psychopathology related to prematurity, parenting at risk.
At the same time, she carries out social inclusion projects in the ground of her city moving between schools and hospitals. Continua il suo percorso di ricerca sulla nascita prematura entrando a contatto con il Gruppo di Ricerca in Psicologia Pediatrica. Contemporaneamente porta avanti progetti di inclusione sociale nel territorio palermitano muovendosi tra scuole e ospedali.
From the first to the last prank, there is a constant conflict between Max and Moritz and the villagers: nobody is spared from the evil deeds of the two boys. The two protagonists, however, are never there to witnesses their own deeds; the reader is the only one to keep an eye on all events. For example, take these stories Of two youths, named Max and Moritz. In this way, the reader and the observer of the story are enabled to participate in the evils deeds and to live out their own aggressiveness, without however being punished or even to have a guilty conscience.
The reader, whether a child or an adult, experiences through it a pleasure. What is "Psychoanalytic Journalism"? Does it exist? Can it exist? If so, what could be the definition of it? As a first step, we are expanding our editorial team with Sabrina Zehetner, journalist and communication scientist, who will help us in the attempt to answer all these questions. She has already gained important experience in the area of scientific journalism SYN Magazine and in the psychoanalytic environment Sigmund Freud Museum Vienna.
In the future, there will be more homemade reports, interviews and articles. In the coming year, there will also be a lot of new and exciting news for our Readers. However now we would like to introduce you to Sabrina Zehetner! Welcome to the team! Here we would like to thank you again for all your emails and applications!
But not only that, through these two new hosts, it is now also possible to invite English-speaking guests to the program, so the radio series will no longer be broadcast only in German, but we will also sometimes broadcast English-language shows. We are very proud to be able to offer this new feature from now on and all this live from Vienna!
This week we will introduce you to the male new arrival! This week we will introduce you to the female new arrival! I wish I never played Oh what a mess we made And now the final frame Love is a losing game Amy Winehouse They say "if it does not kill you, it makes you stronger This sentence, at the right time, seems to balance everything.
Your "ego", the loving one, the one you did not know could also be made like this, is not able to hold anymore this "All". That moment when the "ego", which was always "All" becomes "Es" and "Super-ego" at times It breaks, shatters, overrules every objections and acquires different forms. The wounded "ego", has only one aim: to go back lovingly and naturally, fighting between the other two instances, remaining "Id" himself and to reorganize the structure of the objections and regenerate, returning an "All" completely intact, as far as possible, as much as it is able to.
It set up the walls, the objections have to resume their function, maintaining mental balance. Sei sufficientemente forte? La frase adatta al momento giusto che sembra poter riequilibrare tutto. We want to give our users the ability to read also the leading article from a different point of view. This week we are very glad to welcome Gabriella Papadia from Palermo, Italy: She is a childhood Psychologist with a clinical and evolutionary orientation. Cosa ti ha portato a occuparti di psicoanalisi, di Freud e dei suoi successi? The philosophical and anthropological influences that encounter in his thinking mean that psychoanalysis also configure it as an human care method, closer to people.
Potrebbe sembrare banale, ma sin da piccola sono stata attirata dal suo pensiero, soprattutto dalla tendenza ad acquisire ed imparare questo metodo di trattamento "fuori dagli schemi". To develop an artificial mental apparatus - to make it sound great - is misleading for many, even an affront to some. These are reactions that psychoanalysis has known too since its beginnings. The cause for such opinions may lie in legitimate concerns about a possible misuse - keyword artificial intelligence - or perhaps the fear of revealing valid deep insights about us.
Dietmar Dietrich and led by Samer Schaat in the last three years, has already shown how useful the cooperation between psychoanalysis and computer technology is. Because of the development of an artificial mental apparatus, i. In order to achieve this, both the methods and the theories of psychoanalysis and Computer Science combines - a complement and cooperation, that is actually quite logical.
After all Computer science is, on the one hand, the discipline that deals with information-processing systems - and as such, the mental apparatus can be viewed - and, on the other hand, psychoanalysis is the only discipline that offers a holistic model of the psyche. Even the claim to an integrative and functional model in the development of a computer model of the mental apparatus is achieved by the metapsychology. By showing the causal interaction of basic individual and social possibly conflicting demands in a dynamic process, the metapsychological model provides a suitable framework to research the interaction of different factors.
This allows not only thorough explanations of human thought and action, but also pointing out its complexity. Theoretically, this is a good prerequisite for a psychological science. Practically, however, psychoanalysis has often been accused of not being able to keep its high promises. Working in the interdisciplinary field of simulation of human decision-making. Completion of the pre-clinical study of medicine, however, change to medical informatics to pursue a systemic and systematic method. There, the management of projects for the translation and application of psychoanalytic and neuro-scientific concepts in computer models.
Development of a model for decision-making, application for the research of cooperation and environmentally behavior. Conclusion of the thesis Decision-making in the social context. Samer Schaat: Psychoanalysis seemed to me to be the discipline that takes the role of the unconscious seriously and provides the basis for a holistic model of psychological factors and their integration. To talk about psychoanalysis in Indonesia is something very sad. I do not know when exactly psychoanalysis came to Indonesia, but in my opinion, psychoanalysis came along with psychiatry and psychology.
However, psychoanalysis is the initiator of psychiatry and psychology. Despite its incredible popularity and legendary knowledge, psychoanalysis is hardly recognized by Indonesian people. Only a few academics are familiar with psychoanalysis. But this is exactly where the bigger problem comes from. Psychoanalysis has been taught in a wrong way, it was taught with only one theory from psychology and only for less than 2 hours.
Yes, there are only 2 hours to understand psychoanalysis. Without practicing, only theory. What make it worse is that the lecturers who teach this theory are not competent enough in psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic theory has been mingled with hypnosis. The lecturers incomprehension about psychoanalysis makes it look like black magic because it talks about sexuality and unconscious. Many defamations are uttered about psychoanalysis and Prof.
Freud because of those lecturers incomprehnsion. Lets say, for example, that psychoanalysis as a knowledge is not worthy, not scientific, moreover it is full of pornography. As if this is not enough, Prof. Freud has been maligned, the rumors say that Prof. Freud left the hypnosis because he was not able in making a rapport, the betrayer, the lewd scientist. We were curious why psychoanalysis in Indonesia is not well-known and be missunderstood in such a way.
He works as a clinical psychoanalyst and is co-founder of the Association of Psychoanalysis Indonesia, where he also works as a Supervisor for young psychoanalysts in training. He has published various works, among others "Trance Phenomena: uncover phenomena, dynamics, and the pattern of trance in the formation of personality".
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Fakhrun Siraj: I have grown up in Sufism. As such I used it from childhood on to observe myself sounds like a self-analysis of psychoanalysis does it not? As a 8 year old I started studying philosophy, especially the philosophy of semiotic. Jacques Lacan is an awesome figure of psychoanalysis. I got to know psychoanalysis from Lacan. It was not until 12 years ago that I started studying psychology, especially psychoanalysis, in depth. Today in particular it is common knowledge in any event everyone has heard about it.
Frequently you can discover the guardians who need to comprehend "endure" if their tyke is doomed to have this complex and how to battle it. To answer these inquiries, we should comprehend in the first place, who Oedipus is. As indicated by old Greek myth, it was the name of the kid, who was conceived by the wife of the Theban lord Laius.
Indeed, even before its birth prophets warned Laius, that he will die because of his own child. Subsequently, on the requests of his dad, the hirelings pierced his ankles Oedipus signifies "swollen foot" , exiled him from the royal residence and abandoned him in the wild. The youngster, be that as it may, did not bite the dust, but rather was rescued and raised by outsiders, who he until then considered his folks.
Oedipus grew up by one means or another until he heard the prediction with which he identifies, and as such he was startled out of the house, not having any desire to fulfill this prophecy. Destiny as it was by the old Greeks, was constant and all-effective pushed him out and together with a stranger - Laem, who he killed during the resulting fight. Later, close to the town of Thebes, he could accomplish a great deed by killing a creature that terrorized the townspeople. Excited Thebans elevated Oedipus to the empty position of King, and he, in accordance with the custom, wedded the dowager of Laius, not realizing that it was his own birth mother.
The story did not end there and had numerous sad results, which, in any case, are not all that critical for us. We want to give our users thability to also read the leading article from a different point of view. When he was 10 years old he moved with his family to Northern Cyprus. In he had graduated from high-school and he decided study Psychology in Girne American University. After his graduation he moved to Turkey. In his student period he had trainings and courses on Sex therapy and Hypnosis.
Then in he moved to Istanbul, Turkey. In Istanbul, he developed his knowledge on psychology and got extra 13 trainings and courses on psychology. He gave seminars and conferences on several topics such as Forensic Psychology, Child Sexuality, Addiction and etc. He read almost all books of Freud and Fromm and works in Istanbul as psychotherapist.
Toghrul Salamzade: I love philosophy! When I first to study psychology I began to read books of Sigmund Freud. Freud was different than others: he was radical! He made radical statements and forced me to think about his theories. For me specifically, the very interesting things in psychoanalysis are dream interpretation and Oedipus complex. Dream interpretation is dogma; and this is what makes it different — I think. The addiction to starve, an ailment that grew into a modern disease, whose Latin name, anorexia nervosa, is already known among laymen, is becoming increasingly fashionable.
In Austria, about , women develop an eating disorder, at least once in the course of their lives; At least 2, girls and young women suffer from anorexia nervosa. While the anorexia was known only to an elite circle of physicians until a few centuries ago, it is now regarded as a widespread mental disorder, which is increasingly affecting young girls and women.
This is, on the one hand, explained by the pursuit of thinness of industrialized countries, which has a considerable influence on the experience of self-esteem of young girls and women. The anorexia nervosa is characterized by a deliberately caused weight loss due to extreme diets or other weight-reducing measures. The desire to lose weight and the clear fear of gaining weight distinguish them from other forms of undernourishment. It is paired with a distorted image of one owns body: those affected have a distorted relationship to their weight and figure as well as a distorted perception of their own body appearance.
In addition, severe physical symptoms occur as a result of the starving. Behind the superficial non-eating, which at first may seem banal and incomprehensible for outsiders are unconscious psychological conflicts. This makes the anorexia nervosa a complex, neurotic disease which takes its own body as an enemy image. Lives and works in Vienna.
Experience in working with children and adolescents by the Caritas institution "Am Himmel", the umbrella organization of Austrian Autistic Aids and Austrian Diabetic Association. Completion of the first diploma of international business administration at the University of Economics and business Vienna, Austria.
The symptoms of anorexia with a case study. Valerie Marko: My interest and curiosity of the individual. In dealing with my own emotions and I became fascinated with the unconscious and reach my personal limits. Psychoanalysis allowed me a way, to use my creativity, which I initially tried to live out while studying art history. Therefore it is my goal, to escort my patients on their way of self-knowledge too and to arouse their curiosity about their own history. Pulsion et civilisation is a critical work of psychoanalysis. It shows the considerable influence of the external environment, and civilization, on human beings when they develop mental disorders.
Freudian psychoanalysis emphasizes the endogenous aspect of the cause for mental disorders, specifically the repressed and unfulfilled drive. Against the frustration engendered by repression, civilization should, according to Freud, meet the expectations of the subject. Since this task is not successful, the author speaks of Civilization and Its Discontents. Our position is different. Civilization is largely the cause of misfortune of human beings. Through its ethics, its superego, it breeds frustration. In fact, our argument is as follows: firstly, it identifies several aspects of the drive concept without forgetting the pseudo-Marxist critique of the death instinct, precisely that of Wilehlm Reich.
Furthermore, we are developing two topics of Freud with the aim to understand the phylogenetic superego and its close relationship to civilization. Moreover, civilization is discussed including its dimension of social cohesion and ethics. Finally, it is the impact of ethics on the human psychic that especially arouses our interest as its product are largely neurosis, perversion and psychosis. The heart of our problem remains a challenge to Civilization and Its Discontents. Or should we instead of calling it - Civilization and its Discontents call it - Discontents of the civilization?
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Faut — il dire Malaise dans la civilisation ou Malaise de la civilisation? Diplomas Master 2 in psychoanalysis. University of Paris 8. University of the French West Indies and Guiana. Darius Wesner Estevenson: I came to psychoanalysis through the transfer more precisely thanks to the influence of my professor Pierre Bayard. As son of the publisher Peter de Mendelssohn and the cultural correspondent, literary critic and novelist Hilde Spiel, Felix de Mendelssohn was born in in London.
His parents fled Vienna in because of the anti-Semitic policy of Austria - the consequences of a fate de Mendelssohn dealt with in his published book Flucht in die Freiheit. After returning to Vienna in the s, Felix de Mendelssohn was trained as a psychoanalyst and group analyst. The second residence of de Mendelssohn was Berlin, where he lived with his wife, the American philosopher Susan Neiman. Just this summer I met him there at a book presentation. The man who owed his life to a dream: a dream explorer talks] , and I was once more able to experience him as a captivating lecturer who knew how to draw his audience in his spell with expressive images.
Later, at an Italian restaurant in Wilmersdorf, everyone wanted to sit next to him. What was the fascination that emanated from de Mendelssohn? Whoever had to do with him, soon learned the incredible kindness with which, in spite of his disputability, he encountered his fellow-man, and which always gave one the certainty of dealing with someone special.
This year around "Taferlklassler" [N. T children just starting school] have just started school in Austria. The School Cone- large cornet of cardboard filled with sweets and little presents given to children in Germany on their first day at school] " in front of a blackboard - one imagines something like this when one thinks about these children on the first day of school. When I go to the Freiburger Starbucks, I see some zealous medical students who rehearse diligently with thick earplugs in their ears.
There is usually also always a person who is a bit antisocial: The homeless-psychotics who smells bad, falls asleep and then jumps briefly to defend his table; a little washed up dog owner who lets his furry pet run around, even to the tables of frightened mothers with dog hair-allergic children; lately a young woman who lets out a terrible curse, which sets the teeth on edge every 5 minutes, so that inevitably I begin to fantasizes, what she could do with the men who have her cursing so much.
On the other free tables, where no individualists are, sit couples, girlfriends or French families. And one can have become so accustomed to that one no longer may noticed it: Of those who sit together at the table, at least half at the moment of viewing it, is busy with their cell phones: The young woman with the strict perfume odor types all the time on her I-phone, in between she takes some bites from her muffin and then smiles briefly with her mouth full at her male counterpart, who also types around somewhat listless on his cell phone.
There are the twenty-year-old female twins, each of which taps on their phone, each with headphones in the ear. There is the French family, woman, man and the pubescent daughter: the father strokes his I-Phone, obviously searching something on the Internet, the daughter types something into her cell phone, the mother checks her makeup in the mirror of the cell phone.
Talking without a side view to the mobile phone is a rarity in the microcosm of Starbucks. That it is not about an artifact of an underclass-Niche-cosmos, knows anyone who has ever experiences meting young high school students during a school trip in the train: He will find that seventy-five percent are kinda busy with their cell phones. Their battles in the martial computer game worlds of the nursery on the one hand, their staying at home even if they could have already moved out on the other hand, is their compromise to keep the maternal castle and to strike out at the same time, to remain at her bosom while being her man and to prove his warrior status.
We continue to grow! Starting today Sabine Schreckenthaler will enrich our team in the feuilleton. Her focus will be to write book reviews in the area of child and adolescent psychoanalysis. Welcome aboard! Sabine Schreckenthaler from Vienna, Austria. Schreckenthaler, in the future you will write in the column "Feuilleton" about selected psychoanalytic books as a critic for our readers.
What can our readers expect? Sabine Schreckenthaler: I will review books and journals in the field of psychoanalytic infant, child and adolescent psychotherapy. I want to give the readers a short substantive overview with the reviews and share some thoughts about it. The honoree, which died in , would have been, on September 20, a hundred years old. To commemorate his work and his lovable personality several events are planned in Vienna and Zurich, which deal with the various aspects of his work as a physician, neurologist, psychoanalyst ethno-psychoanalyst and writer.
We psychoanalysts, who came afterwards, are grateful to him especially for the renewal of psychoanalysis and for his lifelong socio-critical commitment. He was a fearless fighter against fascism and Stalinism and also a gifted storyteller. Shortly afterwards he experienced the first Jewish persecutions at his high school in Graz. Attending the university he studied the classics of Marxist and became an unorthodox Marxist. Clear-sighted he interrupted his medical studies before the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany and moved as a Swiss Abroad to Zurich. It was not long until the two encountered the like-minded young Swiss doctor Fritz Morgenthaler, resulting in a lifelong friendship.
Medical studies at the University of Zurich, afterwards five years working as a general practitioner. Psychoanalytic training at PSZ, private practice since , lecturer and supervisor since , founder of the Foundation for Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis Numerous publications on psychoanalytic training drive theory and narcissism, psychoanalysis and politics see Bibliography www.
Emilio Modena: There have been two motifs during my adolescence and early adulthood. Even today, I still own his research microscope. On the other hand, my curiosity, which was directed towards biology, as well as sociology and politics. I discovered psychoanalysis as a link between the two areas. The idea, introduced in Western culture, in Vienna, a little more than a century ago, that a part of our subjective personal life is unconscious, or even that there might be a hidden region somewhere in the space of our psyche, has become widely accepted.
Few other notions have given rise to so many controversies and debates throughout the last hundred years, be it on the way we obtain knowledge about the unconscious, on its relation to other layers of the psyche, on its relations to the body and organic processes, or simply on the correct methods used to conceptualize it. Moreover, the subsequent generations of psychoanalysts and other psychiatrists and theoreticians have discussed and explored many different paths to continue to make sense of the Freudian ideas.
In the present context we witness a relative opening in the psychoanalytical practice towards other methods and conversely an opening of other schools towards psychoanalytical problems and concepts. In the therapeutic relation, the issue is to articulate the two dimensions, i. He has been a research fellow of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation at the University of Heidelberg His latest book is entitled Jean-Luc Godard Philosopher Stefan Kristensen: I have come to psychoanalytical literature through the study of the French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty.
From such a vantage point, Freud appears as the groundbreaking classic author who made many things possible, but whose ontological prejudices prevented him from going all the way through. But as a genuine classical thinker, his text contains a potential of new questioning at each new reading.
We are expanding our feuilleton , from now you can not only read about reviews of psychoanalytic events but also book reviews. Today we want to introduce our first reviewer who from now will write exclusively for our readers.
Intersubjectivity in psychoanalysis As a result of dealing with the theory and technique of psychoanalysis, I came across the "theory of intersubjectivity" which brought me closer to my goal. I want to give a small insight. A definition that I find succeeded puts the patient and analyst at the center of understanding and shows that "psychoanalysis tries to illuminate phenomena that occur within a specific mental field, which through the intersection of two subjectivities - of the patient and the analyst - is constituted" Atwood and Stolorow in Donna M.
Orange et al. Subjectivity is presupposed in the theory of intersubjectivity. More precisely, it is about two or more different subjectivities and the interaction between these cf. Donna M. The point is to understand that we can work and understand psychoanalytically only within the intersubjective field, that means, we "have to check the theories, the prejudices and assumptions that underpin our own subjectivity" Donna M. It is argued, "that relational contexts reciprocally constitute each other: As literary theorists sometimes say, the writer creates the reader, and the reader let the writer emerge" Donna M.
Orange et al , It soon turned out that this definition was more than insufficient, especially in terms of technique. Since study of Psychotherapy Sciences Psychoanalysis at the Sigmund Freud University Vienna Psychotherapist in training under supervision in private practice. Alisa Bartl: My father works as a Gestalt therapist as such the contact with psychotherapy and the unconsciousness was so to speak unavoidable.
I made the decision to become a psychoanalyst, because I wanted to learn the profession from the bottom up and also to challenge my father and because psychoanalysis for me is more than a method of treatment. Despite some emphatic claims to the contrary, psychoanalysis was never simply a method for the treatment of mental disorder.
Almost from its inception, psychoanalysis was — and to this day, remains — a rich and evolving approach to interdisciplinary research in the humanities and social sciences. It is also, beyond a doubt, a social movement whose growth and decline, fluctuations and internal conflicts warrant careful scrutiny and reflection in their own right, irrespective of how analytic clinicians practice their craft.
This dimension of the history of psychoanalysis has traditionally been neglected by clinicians, and is often over-emphasized by critics of psychoanalysis, who sometimes study the history of the discipline in order to discredit, rather than to strengthen or improve it. A striking feature of the psychoanalytic movement was its odd combination of revolutionary and conservative elements. On the one hand, thanks to Freud, psychoanalysts had revolutionary insights into the nature of human sexuality and psychic functioning; insights that could potentially bestow greater insight and self-knowledge, liberating patients suffering from neurotic symptoms of one sort and another.
Indeed, for the first half century or so after the IPA was established, fidelity to Freud was frequently invoked as a criterion of intellectual probity or worth, while disagreements with Freud on fundamental issues were interpreted as signs of resistance or of latent psychopathology. This week we are very glad to welcome Daniel Burston from Pittsburgh, U.
He was raised and educated in Toronto, Canada. He received a Hons. He achieved his M. He also receives a Ph. He is married with two children. Daniel Burston: Two things, primarily. The instrumentally rational strong and the weak tragic subject in comparison The tragic self-understanding thus contains a different idea of the subject than the instrumentally rational self-understanding, in which the cognitive behavioral therapy is based on. From the perspective of tragic self-understanding, however, such a separation of the subject from its disturbance seems questionable.
By assuming that the person is not the master in its own home and does not flourish in the pursuit of his rational objectives, it expects and admits to the patients to follow with the external disturbance also intentions that may not be identified in the superficially applied significance connection. The tragic subject understanding does not claim such ability to domesticate the world qua Ratio.
On the contrary, it leaves it to the subject to respond according to his individual disorder of repressed anthropological sensibilities and needs. Behind what is called in the behavioral therapy as inadequate perception of reality, therefore, is to to quote an expression of Holzhey-Kunz, the "ontological clairaudience" of the patient. Psychotherapies always include an examination of a suffering person, a suffering subject. On how they think about the subject, psychotherapeutic approaches differ. The author contrasts a purposive-rational with a tragic self-understanding. The first he identifies with the behavioral therapy, the second he locates in psychoanalysis, even if it contains a contradictory subject understanding.
In contrast to the purposive-rational self-understanding, which defines the subject on self-mightiness and self-availability, the tragic self-understanding sees the subject as weaker, but sums it up further at the same time. Where the behavioral therapy must separate the patient of its failure, the tragic self-understanding admits to the patient, to secretly pursue in its failure also a subversive intention and to respond to otherwise suppressed truths.
The author observes a disappearance of the tragic self-understanding in recent psychodynamic approaches and outlines how a re-orientation of the tragic self-understanding could bring among other the expression in the socialization of psychotherapists. The strong subject in modern behavioral therapy In modern cognitive behavioral therapy, the patient appears to be well presented as a strong subject.
It is his right to self-control in rational goals, self-availability and even self-mightiness, from which it emanates.
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After his studies he received a psychodynamic training at the Heidelberg Institute for Psychotherapy. Since completion of the month psychiatric psychosomatic activity at three clinics and change to the depth-psychological-analytical training at the Psychosomatic Hospital Freiburg he has worked since at the Sigma-clinic for acute psychiatry.
Starting from July he will be working in an outreach clinic in Freiburg and in ambulant therapeutic practice. Pohlmann published texts for Aware and the Sigma Academy. In addition to his psychoanalytic training Pohlmann is currently attending a training course for qualifying as a boxing trainer. Moritz Pohlmann: The time that I spent with a man named Peter, had an important part in it. Peter was "resident" in a house in Ireland, where I spent a year after graduating taking care of formerly homeless people. With Peter, who had crashed after a breakup, I spent many hours discussing the trajectories of our own life, hopes, big issues, the little things and experiences of everyday life.
Sometimes we were even silent and listened to the bubbling of the fish aquarium which stood in the corner. To experience the effect of shared closeness and reciprocal listening was for me then a beneficial-happy experience that also led me to the desire to study psychology. During this time, I also began reading intensively psychological writings, at first mainly of existential-oriented authors: Ernest Becker, Viktor Frankl, Irvin Yalom.
Their basic idea that neurotic suffering is always also a struggle with fundamental questions of human existence under the conditions of the respective time and the individual history of the patients, has always appealed to me. In here well-versed psychoanalysis fans can as critics, write for the readers either briefly and concise or long and eloquent of various psychoanalytic events worldwide and thus give the people at home an impression of what they have, or have not missed.
It can start at any time now! Schleske , 22 Until now Pregnancy as well as maternity were little to barely investigated in terms of introspection for woman. Since the mother is subjected to big changes in physical and psychological sense during the time of pregnancy, it is of great importance to pay more attention to pregnancy.
For this reason, I conducted a study on dreams of pregnant women for a scientific work. The dreams of pregnant women serve as an aid to reach the unconscious conflicts, wishes, fears and needs in the time of pregnancy. In this article I will only briefly discuss my study and place the emphasis on the importance of pregnancy for woman. In this very significant change for the woman fantasies over the unborn child start and are often quickly displaced because they trigger anxiety. Likewise occurring desires that are connected to the unborn baby are displaced too, as these can also cause fears of the unknown.
During this time, the needs of the mother shift to the baby.
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