And it is one of the smartest financial savings choice that individuals can make for themselves. Our audience was mixed: thought leaders in the future of news, award winning investigative journalists, and some of NPR's most passionate voices outside of journalism. What we wanted to convey through the panel: Rather than being a Peter Pan Generation that has missed all the marks, rather than being adult children who still live at home with our parents, Millennals are fatigued by how our generational characteristics are framed I'd argue that these flaky characteristics of ours are really symptoms of massive economic insecurity.
Instead, we hack. Mason jars used as drinking containers—we just couldn't afford cups, but now lifestyle brands put out their own line of mason sippy jars. Freegan and dumpster diving, co-housing among young professionals … What have become trends and the signature traits and pride points of hipsterdom, are really manifestations of how the millennial generation copes with economic insecurity. Bringing it back now.
As I've pondered testimonies of how Airbnb and other platforms have been instrumental to providers' meaningful independence, I've begun to wonder whether providers are factoring in income reliability into acquiring decisions. For example, might a young couple who wants to own a home a traditional milestone justify that financial risk because there are platforms like Airbnb? There are already transportation network companies that offer to go in with you on a car if you are willing to lease it out on their network.
But with a multitude of transportation options, owning a car is becoming less a part of the American dream. Having a place to call our own, however, still touches us at our core. You spend a significant amount of time in the book exploring the role that MTV India has played in shifting how films are marketed and how Bollywood understands its audiences. What factors have allowed MTV India to become a core player in this space? A range of new television channels that entered the Indian market during the mids attracted audiences with a range of film-based programs.
Beginning in , with a clear mandate to forge ties with the film industry, MTV-India executives began initiating conversations with a range of producers and directors in the Hindi film industry. Once they had their foot in the door, however, MTV-India began making the case that their particular brand identity and programming sensibility would make the difference in what was a very cluttered television landscape.
And by the early s, Bollywood producers began setting aside a larger percentage of the budget for marketing and promoting films. What roles did the internet play in shifting the relations between domestic and diasporic audiences for Bollywood films? The trouble with saying anything about Bollywood-internet connections is the pace at which things change!
My research does not take into account the impact that social media has had on marketing, stardom, participatory culture, and so on. And in doing so, dot-com companies emerged as powerful knowledge brokers who shaped the imaginations and practices of film industry professionals for whom envisioning an overseas territory had come to constitute an increasingly important dimension of going global.
Exploring this terrain raised a very interesting question for me regarding the dynamic relation between the expansion of capital into new territories and the work of rendering those new territories more imaginable. In other words, these companies only thought about the overseas territory in terms of non-Resident Indians. What do you see as missing from such an approach? I have yet to see a media producer in Bombay truly grasp the potential for transmedia storytelling. At the moment, it is largely driven by a marketing sensibility: pushing Bollywood content across platforms.
But we are yet to see a major push for storytelling across media. What does this term mean and is it a good description of the changes you are discussing in your book? Using the term Bollystan to refer to a vast space of trans-national cultural production that included everything from henna tattoos and remix music to literature and films, Khanna and other writers sought to map how rapid flows of people, culture and capital across national borders have rendered difficult any easy separation between nation and diaspora.
But the fact is that where commercial media ventures are concerned, Bollystan has a very specific Anglo-American cultural geography and as a consequence, re-roots only certain kinds of Desis. And even within these cities in the Global North, it is only a certain narrow, largely middle and upper-middle class cultural sphere of South Asians that informs the imaginations and practices of media industry professionals.
This is another in a series of interviews with the authors of books we have published through the PostMillenial Pop series which I co-edit with Karen Tongson for New York University Press. He continued his graduate work at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, where his dissertation focused on the online fandom around Bollywood composer A. He has made some key contributions to the project of expanding the study of fandom and participatory culture beyond its origins in Western Culture, as reflected by articles published in Transformative Works and Culture and Popular Communication.
Global Bollywood brought together established scholars with younger researchers, many of whom received their first publications under his leadership, to create an important and groundbreaking exchange around how Hindi Cinema reflects and drives larger developments in the global media scape. In this interview, he situates Bollywood at a series of intersections between film and other media, between local, regional, national, and transnational industries, between domestic and diasporic audiences, and between producers and fans. You begin the book with the suggestion that Bollywood should be studied across media rather than through more traditional paradigms of national cinema.
What factors have contributed to making Bollywood a particularly rich case for understanding contemporary convergence culture? I worked out this perspective of media convergence or inter-media relations in part by revisiting a question that several scholars have tackled: how did Bombay emerge and maintain its position as the pre-eminent media capital in India? I argue that there is another important factor: the role played by new media—radio, television, the internet and the mobile phone—in enabling the Bombay film industry to consistently imagine and mobilize a national and now, transnational audience.
This does not necessarily mean that we think only about continuities from the s to the present. Rather, my goal is to open up a space for more grounded explorations of the interwoven histories of different media technologies and institutions and, in the process, expand our understanding of the histories and patterns of media convergence. But I should also point out that film historians like Priya Jaikumar have argued very convincingly that we need to move past the national cinema framework to understand how aesthetics, regulation, and other dimensions of the cinema in India have always been worked out in relation to various trans-national forces and factors.
You note that most work to date within the production studies tradition has focused on western and for the most part, American contexts. So, what might production studies as an emerging paradigm gain from a more thorough exploration of media production in India? Such studies are often understood as mere case studies that test and refine theoretical concepts developed within media studies proper. In writing this book, I have tried hard to steer clear of fitting what I observed into existing theories of production culture while at the same time avoiding celebrations of local difference.
For instance, I take into account the enduring power of long-standing social and kinship relationships in the Bombay film industry and, equally important, the creative ways in which small-scale, family-run businesses have responded to changes in the global media landscape and calls for corporatization. Examining the impact that the discourse of corporatization has had on the film industry by analyzing the construction of industrial identities suggests that the narrative of transition from one established mode of production to a new one, say Fordism to post-Fordism, does not adequately explain the industrial logics and practices that characterize Bollywood.
After all, the dominant mode of production in the Bombay film industry could be described using terms like flexible accumulation and de-centralization that theorists like David Harvey use to describe the logics of late capitalism in the West. In other words, the particular histories of capital in Bombay cannot be easily set aside. But this does not imply documenting a set of practices that are somehow essentially Indian.
A closer look at the operations of family firms suggests that production relations defined by mercantile capital and kinship networks are neither static nor contained within national boundaries. And when we move beyond family businesses to consider a wider range of companies and professionals, it becomes clear that every domain of Bollywood including production, distribution, marketing and promotions, and exhibition involves negotiations among actors and institutions enmeshed in multiple, asymmetric, and seemingly incongruent cultures of capitalism.
What might we learn by looking at developments in India and Western Europe side by side as we think about the place of state funding for media production in the 21st century? Situating the emergence of Bollywood within the socio-historical conjuncture of the past two decades helps us understand how the state worked out its relationship with the cultural industries.
What changed during the late s and early s? Among other arenas of cultural production, Hindi-language films and television shows played a crucial role in mediating these concerns. This is, of course, a global story. But in the Indian context, the usefulness of the media and entertainment industries was articulated in more than just this economic sense. If anything, it is all the more difficult now to imagine carving out a space for independent and public media production.
It is also important to keep in mind that this particular re-alignment of state-media relations ended up privileging Bollywood as the global Indian media industry. Interested in learning more about Multiple Intelligences Theory? I ran a nonprofit organization in Ghana from and I now work closely with a Ghanaian journalism nonprofit. Ghana has a lot to be proud of, in political terms. After almost twenty years of rule by a man who took power through a coup, Ghana democratically elected a President from the opposition NPP party in After eight years of his rule, they elected a President from the NDC, which had ruled for the previous decades.
Due to its clean elections and history of stability, demonstrated when the death of President Atta Mills in office led to a seamless transition to his vice-president John Mahama, Ghana has become the exemplar for democratic transition in West Africa. Ghanaian politicians and NGOs are now working to export models and best practices from Ghana to the region and the continent.
Many of the politicians from the NPP party come from a single ethnic group, the Akan or Ashanti, and their close allies. The NDC has a broader ethnic base of support, but the Ewe are particularly powerful within the party. You can see these alliances in a map of electoral results — the NPP candidate won in the Ashanti and Eastern regions, the home of the Akan, while the NDC won elsewhere, but dominated in the Volta region, where the Ewe hail from.
In bad elections, Collier argues, people vote for a candidate because they expect some personal financial gain a job, a handout or because they see an electoral victory as a victory for their tribe or group. A good election is one in which people vote for a candidate because they expect he or she will make positive policy changes, benefiting a broader community and the nation as a whole.
We elect politicians because we share their aspirations and visions, but we also elect them because we hope they will ensure that tax dollars are distributed fairly and ensure that our communities benefit from those investments in schools, hospitals, roads and other essential infrastructures. In most cases, politicians work hard and their shortcomings are the result of being constrained by finances, thwarted by bureaucracy or otherwise held in check.
If we had better ways of tracking what governments do in their communities and documenting the progress of taxpayer-funded projects, we would have far more information we could use to hold our politicians accountable, to re-elect the best and oust the worst. This means a strong, free press is important, as are efforts at government transparency, and systems to ensure access to government information, like freedom of information laws. This model became popular in the United States during the progressive era of the early 20th century, and Schudson worries that the model may be out of date, not accurately representing how most people participate in democracies today.
One of the models Schudson suggests to describe our current reality is monitorial democracy, where a responsibility as citizens is to monitor what powerful institutions do governments, corporations, universities and other large organizations and demand change when they misbehave. The press is a powerful actor in monitorial democracies, as demonstrated during the Watergate scandal and the end of the Nixon presidency in the US. And new media may broaden the potential for monitorial democracy, allowing vastly more citizens to watch, document and share their reports.
This year, my students and I have been experimenting with projects that connect monitorial democracy with the mobile phone. Our core insight — that citizens can use mobile phones to document infrastructure and monitor government performance — is not a new one. We are inspired by a number of exciting projects that have demonstrated the potential and pitfalls of citizen monitoring and documentation, notably:. We hope to learn from these projects and push our work in a slightly different direction. Our system, Promise Tracker, starts from promises government officials local, state and federal have made to a community, and then helps communities track progress made on those promises by monitoring infrastructures like power grids, roads, schools and hospitals.
The use case for Promise Tracker is simple: if the mayor of a city makes an electoral promise that roads in a neighborhood will be paved during her time in office, Promise Tracker helps the local community collect data on the condition of the roads and monitor progress made on the promise over time. If the government is in danger of falling short, Promise Tracker offers an open, freely shared data set that citizens and officials can use to consult on solving the problem.
The second conversation was more surprising: it was with the government of the state of Minas Gerais, specifically from Andre Barrence, CEO at the Office for Strategic Priorities, who is in charge of innovation in government and the private sector. Minas Gerais is a sponsor of the Media Lab and has been looking for partnerships where Media Lab students and faculty can work with residents of Belo Horizonte and other Minas Gerais communities. Our long-term ambitions are broader. We hope to build a tool that communities can customize to their own needs and campaigns, but which centers on the idea that mobile phones can collect photographic data, cryptographically stamp it with location information and a timestamp, and release it to public repositories under a CC0 license.
The key idea behind the project is a simple one: civic engagement is too important to be something we do only at elections. This alienation leads to disengagement, and can lead to more dramatic forms of dissent, including public protest. They are both life-long wrestling fans and regular contributors to this blog.
But realistically there are a host of factors that limit what a producer is going to want to do. Budget is one of those factors. Man hours are also an issue. On the surface it was a brilliant move. Two of the main characters of Total Divas , identical twin wrestlers Brie and Nikki Bella, had come across poorly for years, but became genuinely likable stars on Total Divas. Just one or two episodes completely changed the way I felt about those characters. The show did good ratings. Online fans seemed to like it. They got crickets. Nobody cared. It baffled me for a second, but then I think everyone realized what the problem was.
The show was on a different network, at a different time. They booed the Bellas. So in a way, the show had only accomplished half its goal. The WWE has about 80 wrestlers on their active roster. Better start utilizing everyone. One could imagine a reality show that focused on following tag teams. Do they get along off stage? Do they have fights right before they have to team up on camera?
Or do they love each other and have lots of fun together that we never get to see? With the WWE already airing six hours of programming on cable, and now posting thousands of hours on their archive, can they count on a significant percentage of their audience seeing any one show? They will have this always-on network of programming. And they will have their programming on other networks that will continue.
No one fan can possibly watch everything they put out there…but that has always been the case with WWE. But it needs to create almost two tracks of experiences with everything else:. Their plan is to go to a family of networks and sell all of that programming in as a package deal, to try and command the sorts of prices that sports leagues do for packaged programming with a media conglomerate. It remains to be seen if that approach will help them negotiate a better deal, but WWE would be in an interesting position if they have a really deep partnership with one centralized distribution company for its weekly first-run programming and then its own WWE Network for its monthly big shows and all its supplementary content.
Should WWE get that sort of arrangement in place and have success using the launch of its network in the build-up to Wrestlemania this year as a way to get subscribers who will sign up for an initial six-month subscription , it might allow them to think about the sorts of questions you pose here—how they craft a narrative that one can follow across watching only its most central of texts but find ways to provide depth and value across various experiences. Of course, you can never satisfy all fans, and WWE certainly has very different fan bases to satisfy.
For WWE to take full advantage of garnering the sort of in-depth loyalty from its fans to make the network idea work in the long term, it has to create a product that the fans feel confident in investing in. That all makes sense, but fans have to develop a level of trust with the organization to deepen or renew that commitment. Many more casual fans may have not gotten more deeply involved with the WWE because of frustration with that lack of continuity, and many lapsed fans may be wary of re-committing due to those continuity concerns. In short, WWE has a lot of business and creative potential with this network and its related packaging of all its cable network TV programming.
My sense is that the larger the canvas, the more the WWE needs to discipline their story from the top down. Conventionally in the industry they would plan narrative arcs in advance, draw a flow chart of some sort showing how each storyline will play out across all of the different media channels, and find a fresh and interesting part of the story for each one to tell.
They would function like the weekly episodes of any other dramatic serial, furthering the storylines and ending with cliffhangers. Much as series like The Walking Dead and Doctor Who seasons are sometimes split into two half-season arcs, the WWE season would be split into 12 monthly mini arcs. The pay-per-views would be 12 mid-season finales. Even kids should be able to afford it with their allowance. I actually think WWE Network and social media have the coolest roles to play, and they really go hand-in-hand.
At its worst, pro wrestling has cardboard cutout characters. At its best, it has real human beings that you can follow over their entire careers. Twitter should let you know how he did tonight in Poughkeepsie. If they can manage to keep all the balls bouncing, the WWE can also use the network to go two important steps further. For example, my guess would be that Bella Twins have more Twitter followers and better merchandise sales than ever, particularly among women, because fans who have seen Total Divas are identifying more personally with those characters.
I think TV is a better medium because it demands a somewhat smaller audience, and asks them to come back week after week. The WWE already has more or less the infrastructure I just described. They should keep sharpening their process. Under the hood the infrastructure could be as fine-tuned as an Aston Martin. But if the stories suck, the car is going to be running on fumes.
Last week the WWE brought back Batista. I dislike him, but RAW got the highest ratings in 10 months. By the same token, Daniel Bryan is getting the loudest crowd reactions of anyone on the roster, including John Cena. On a more general level, though, if the WWE wants to be respected in the same way as other mainstream shows, their stories need to be as intricate and well-structured as those shows. There are a lot of people working on all of the WWE divisions who need to be on the same page, and a lot of important production people who are understandably going to want a say.
John Cena and Randy Orton have just had a TLC Match, so putting them in a standard match without a brilliant new wrinkle in the story is anticlimactic. The WWE Network is a powerful tool. Everyone is excited about it. It can transform the landscape. If WWE wants to see fans engage more deeply, there has to be more story to find there. The WWE waffles between taking its own stories seriously, on the one hand, while drawing great attention to its artifice, on the other. The creative team often sours on an idea part of the way through and drops it, in ways that trains fans to be hesitant to invest that deeply and to believe that tracking the nuances of a story will actually have any sort of payoff.
In short, WWE has a narrative world that could be the stuff of truly great storytelling that would put any entertainment franchise in awe. But it has to put a deep commitment to quality storytelling at the forefront to take full advantage of that opportunity. The WWE has barely scratched the surface of the depth of the immersive stories they could tell. And the way they can draw the audience into that story, and take advantage of being a story told in real time and in the real world…just as they have even more they can do with the depth of live fan engagement on social media.
From my perspective, WWE in sets in front of a boundless storytelling potential. And I think anyone interested in entertainment and storytelling should be as well. Recently, a reporter from Marketplace called me for a radio piece. Two Harvard profs just released a study that examined the correlation between pricing and race on Airbnb. Image by Effie Yang. I didn't make the radio cut , but in my quick interview, I defined the peer economy and then suggested that the companies are not oblivious to the fact that there are embedded inequalities in their platform.
Until they can count on survival, they will have a short-sighted outlook. Did I come off as a shill? But in my conversations with policy types at various peer economy companies, they are aware of inequalities and compounding problems interestingly enough, the sector is studded with urban planners, former prize-winning journalists and labor advocates, and former public sector employees.
But piled on top of their perspective are the immediate needs of the company, which mostly mean survival right now. In her frustration, one company employee fumed that socioeconomic justice enacted through the platform is stuff she talks about with her friends over coffee, but not something she gets to strategize from day to day. Calling all journalists, news innovators and civic actors! Terra Incognita is a news geography game and news recommendation system. Help us test Terra Incognita in its alpha stages.
At the Center for Civic Media we are conducting research around ways to engage people in news about diverse global geographies. Just as our habits in physical space show that we tend to follow the same spatial pathways on our commutes between work and home, we also form habits around reading and experiencing information. Typical recommendation systems try to match you based on criteria of similarity - i. But how can we stage encounters with more diverse information, cultures and people? How can we subtly disrupt our habits in the service of serendipity? Sometimes all you need is a fun reason to vary your everyday routine.
Enter Terra Incognita - a news geography game and news recommendation system. Terra Incognita is will be, since I'm currently in the process of coding it a game designed to help you explore news stories from around the world. In its alpha version it is a Google Chrome browser extension that monitors the news stories that you read just news stories, it doesn't monitor your email or other personal information , maps them, and recommends you stories for places you haven't read about.
As you proceed through the levels, it gets progressively harder to be informed about "the whole world". Sign up here. We are seeking early reviewers to pilot the system and give us feedback. We are especially interested in recruiting journalists, news innovators and civic actors interested in engaging citizens in global news. Get in touch. This is the Masters thesis research of Catherine D'Ignazio dignazio mit.
A small group of us gathered at Bauer Studios in the Crossroads neighborhood to talk about four exciting projects: a playground slide for an underserved neighborhood, an internet cafe and drop-in social services center, a training program for community leaders in a historically troubled part of the city and a documentary film about mental health. After some personal introductions and background on the non-profit sector work everyone around the table had been involved with, I began by explaining why I think civic crowdfunding is very different from crowdfunding a consumer product.
We're asking people to back an issue that serves a community as well as the individuals in it. That means a compelling campaign needs to articulate not just the benefits individuals can gain from the success of the project but also how the broader community will benefit — now and in the future. They also expect that their opinions and needs will be taken into consideration, and that the project will not simply be a great product, but will meet the real needs that exist.
They'll also expect a high level of transparency and integrity throughout. If government time or money is involved, those expectations will be raised even further. It's perfectly possible to crowdfund a new watch without ever coming into contact with a public official; it's impossible to do that when you're trying to build a public park. And partly because of these differences, there's a reality non-profits need to face: The for-profit sector is way ahead on crowdfunding.
The good news is that non-profits are the experts in their community, and among the best-placed people to use crowdfunding to support impactful civic projects. What are we trying to do? Has it been tried before? In other words, why this, why now and why you. Who are we doing it with? Who will be excited about the project? Whose permission do we need? How are we going to do it? What are the challenges we're going to face? Thinking through these questions before we start a crowdfunding campaign will help to ensure that we're contributing to the future capacity of the community we're serving.
Next I asked the group to take a few minutes to answer four questions, based on that framework, in one sentence each. Each person shared their answers and the rest of the group asked questions and made suggestions. We found that the act of having to synthesize these ideas into a sentence was useful — because it was hard to do. A couple of times we found that the answer to question one needed the most discussion — to refocus the answer on the problem being solved instead of the solution that seemed to be at hand.
It's a common issue in design processes, for sure, but one that's especially important in civic projects. If we want to have social impact, we have to be sure of exactly what the need or problem is that we're addressing, and let that lead the idea generation, not our interest in a preconceived outcome that's exciting to us — such as an impressive building or a beautiful park.
The final question — what next? That didn't mean that they were going to become career crowdfunders, although developing a literacy around fundraising is valuable, but rather thinking about how this particular crowdfunded campaign would boost their community's self-belief and make its members feel positive about pursuing other goals such as starting new activity groups, building relationships between neighborhoods or advocating for better support from the city. They were also seeking to do so in ways that put the community first and sought to provide for needs that weren't being met by existing services or institutions.
For civic crowdfunding to be truly valuable, we need more of the people who tackle tough social issues to be able to access its potential and to benefit from the engagement it can provide with a new audience. I'm inspired by what I've seen in Kansas City and look forward to following the progress of these campaigns. Cross-posted at rodrigodavies. The title comes from a post on Transom. At the end of an essay about the podcast and the financial struggles to support it, DiMeo offers this observation:.
If you posted the most incredible story—literally, the most incredible story that has ever been told since people have had the ability to tell stories, it will never, ever get as many hits as a video of a cat with a moustache. You can tell how maddening this is for DiMeo and for many other people creating innovative and important audio.
We are in the midst of a moment of extreme creativity in the world of audio production. Podcasting has made it reasonably easy for a competent producer to share original audio with an audience of potentially millions, but generally, dozens, of listeners. Some of these podcasts are finding audiences on public radio through new distributors, like the Public Radio Exchange.
Alcorn examines this phenomenon structurally, considering the weaknesses in the audio ecosystem that make audio less likely to spread online than text or video. Unlike text, audio is hard to skim. All these are good points. But the whole experience is no more than a glance. The first assignment I ask my students in News and Participatory Media to complete is a media diary, tracking everything they read, watch and listen to over the course of a week.
I ask students to track not only what mediums they encounter, but what kinds of stories, and to think about whether they were following up on existing interests or learning about new topics. Radio is a serendipity engine precisely because it downplays choice. We need to find better ways of supporting long form media, media that encourages serendipity, media that asks that you give up some choice in exchange for unexpected discovery.
We need ways for producers like DiMeo to find audiences who can support their work. But I would hate to see audio producers give up what they do well in search of virality. At its best, audio has a way of blindsiding you, of helping you discover that you are deeply invested in a story you thought you were only half listening to, of changing your life in a small, subtle way by introducing a stray and unexpected thought. Please listen and see if it changes your life in a small way.
Many thanks to Microsoft Research for running this event and to all participants in the panel. In a new landscape defined by drones, data centers and secret rendition, can these portraits jolt us into new understanding, or give us some comfort by letting us laugh at the situation we are encountering? Artist Nick Felton is blurring the line between data portrait and portrait by offering data-driven annual reports of his life, analyzing his personal data for the year: every street he walked down in NYC, every plant killed.
In honor of the Snowden revelations, he is preparing a edition that examines the uneasy relationship between data and metadata. Two figures in grey suits carry mirrored briefcases. He became interested in the inadvertent expressions he made when he used the computer. Seeking more imagery, he installed monitoring software on all computers in the Apple stores he could reach in New York City, and captured a single frame each minute only when someone was staring at the screen , uploading it to Tumblr.
The artist collects detritus from public places that could contain traces of DNA — cigarette stubs, chewing gum, pubic hairs from the seats of public toilets — and scans the DNA to measure 50 markers associated with physical appearance. The government decided to try a novel approach to economic recovery: they decided to gather and sell the data of their citizens , including bus and taxi data, credit card usage data and anonymized telephony metadata.
These labs, Kate tells us, are being established around the world, and according to their marketing brochures, they look remarkably similar no matter where they are located. You leave a data trail, and someone else gathers and analyzes it. This form of pervasive data collection raises questions of the line between stalking and marketing. Turnstile, a corporation that has set up hundreds of sensors in Toronto — gathers the wifi signals of passing devices, mostly laptops and phones.
Often this pervasive tracking is justified in terms of predictive policing, improving traffic flow, and generally improving life in cities. But she wonders what kind of ethical framework comes with these designs. What happens if we can be tracked offline as easily as we are online? How do we choose to opt out of this pervasive tracking? She notes that the shift towards pervasive tracking is happening out of sight of the less-privileged — some of the people affected by these shifts may be wholly unaware they are taking place.
Behind these systems is the belief that more data leads us to more control. The big data city is, ultimately, afraid of risk and afraid of cities. The affects are systemic and societal, not just personal, and we need to consider implications for the broader systems. Faced with this implacable light, we can design technologies to minimize our exposure. We can use pervasive, strong cryptography; we can design geolocation blockers. In the smart city, you are still being tracked and observed unless you are taking extraordinary measures. What does resistance look like to these systems when opt-in and opt-out blur?
Citing Bruce Schneier, Kate suggests that we need to analyze these systems not in terms of individual technologies, but in terms of their synergistic effects. What do we lose when we lose a space without surveillance. Kate offers desire lines, the unpredictable shortcuts that emerge in public spaces, as a challenge to the smart city. We need a reflective urban unplanning, an understanding of the organic ways in how cities should work, the anarchy of the everyday. This is a vision of cities that values improvisation versus rigidity, communities versus institutions.
In the process, we need to imagine a different ethical model of the urban, a model that allows us to change our minds and opt for something different altogether. We need a model that allows us to reshape, to make shortcuts and desire lines.
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We need a city that lets us choose, or we will be forever followed by whoever is most powerful. Latonero works at the intersection of data, tech and human rights, focusing on human trafficking. Human trafficking is common, and in severe cases, is a gross violation of human rights, sometimes involving indentured servitude or forced sex. His work has focused on human trafficking on girls and boys under 18 in the sex trade, a space where intervention is especially important as victims often experience severe psychological and physical trauma.
The children involved are also below the age of consent, which makes it easier in ethical terms — there are no considerations of whether a victim voluntarily chose to become a sex worker. Both victims and exploiters are using digital media, Mark tells us, if only mobile phones to stay in touch with family members.
As a result, there are digital traces of trafficking behavior. Mark and colleagues are working to collect and analyze this data, including facial recognition as well as algorithmic pattern identification that could indicate situations of abuse. But this work forces us to consider not only the promises of data and human rights, but the quagmires. Human rights work always involves data: data about humans, both about individual humans and aggregate data and statistics about groups of humans.
As we ask about the involvement of big data companies, we should ask about the balance between civil liberties risks and human rights benefits. Despite those questions, the human rights community is moving head first into these spaces. Google Ideas, Palantir and Salesforce are assisting international human trafficking hotlines, analyzing massive data sets for patterns of behavior, hot spots where trafficking may be common.
But all the questions we wrestle with when we consider big data — what are the biases in the data set? Whose privacy are we compromising and what are the consequences? One of the major issues for the collaboration between data scientists and human rights professionals is the need to work through issues of false positives and false negatives. Is the appropriate model adopted from corporate social responsibility, which is primarily self-regulatory?
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Is it a more traditionally regulated model, based on pressure from NGOs, consumers and others? The net effect is about the who, not the what, he offers. Personal monitoring tools like Fitbit generate lots of individual value, and potentially lots of societal value, by helping us understand what behavioral and diet interventions are most helpful. Will you get fitter on the paleo diet?
Or will red meat kill you? Or the first step towards the Google-powered smart electrical grid. Given the field, we can imagine situations where more data would be helpful. Sure — if we had more rigorous understandings of what teaching techniques work and fail, what makes a good teacher and a poor one, could we potentially transform that critical field? Ramez pivots to the problems. There will be accidental disclosures of data. It could have been worse, and it probably will, Ramez argues. It could have been data about where you go, your SMS messages, your email — they will inevitably be released.
Chevron recently lost a massive lawsuit in Ecuador and has sued to identify the activists who sought charges against the company. But if the current abuses are significantly more minor, the scale is massive, with millions of individuals potentially at risk of blackmail. There are checks and balances between we the people, corporations, government.
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There are conflicts between all of these. We vote within a democracy, Ramez argues, and we can vote with our feet and with our dollars. Sometimes government does the right thing, as with the Church Committee , which investigated intelligence activities and helped curb abuses. We may need to consider the legacy of the Committee closely as we examine the current situation with the NSA.
His talk is called Big Data and he closes by imagining big data 7 millennia ago, showing an image of a clay tablet covered with cuneiform. That image of the control of technology in one mighty hand, not distributed, is at the root of our technological fears. But technology can be liberating — the rise of the printing press put technology into many hands, allowing for the spread of subversive ideas including civil rights.
The future of the net, he hopes, is in from big data as something in the hands of the very few to data in the hands of the very many. Big data is an inevitable path to totalitarianism! The tensions Mark Latonero identifies between wanting surveillance to protect against human rights abuses, and wanting to protect human rights from surveillance are ones that every responsible big data scientist needs to be exploring. I was surprised to find, both at this event and in a recent series of conversations at Open Society Foundation, that these are tensions the human rights community is addressing head on, in part due to enthusiasm for the idea that better documentation of human rights abuses could lead to better interventions and prosecutions.
The less powerful you are, the more surveillance you should be protected from. Kate Crawford echoed this concern, tweeting a story by Virginia Eubanks that makes the case that surveillance is currently separate and unequal, more focused on welfare recipients and the working poor than on more privileged Americans.
Lidia Martín: humanismo, Dios y las Crisis
Her research focuses on the social and policy implications of digital media with a particular interest in how differences in people's Web-use skills influence what they do online. His research focuses on political and economic dimensions of collective action online. Who edits and contributes to Wikipedia? Why does that matter, and why should we care? It's one of the most popular websites online, and people use it to find information on many topics. Irixoa, Cor. IV y VII, copiada hasta Hay varias inscripciones del Corp. Siempre con dudas. Notas 1.
Otras son: Portugal: Port. Romero y X. Laredo y J. Los estudios de B. Bimilenario de la conquista romana del Norte de Hispania; A. Pose: op. Lucus Feroniae lo hemos localizado en el famoso Der Kleine Pauly. Lexikon der Antike 5 vols. Ver el trabajo de I. Monteagudo: Galicia en Ptolomeo. Schulze: Zur Geschichte lateinischer Eingennamen. Mapa 3: Las provincias administrativas del Noroeste bajoimperial romano en tiempos de Diocleciano ss.
I y II, Madrid, Istmo, Bermejo, Romero, Ana Ma. Tussel, Javier dir. Lexikon der Antike, 5 vols. Emerge, al mismo tiempo, el nuevo discurso de la ciencia que fundamenta una nueva imagen del mundo. No es conceptual; c. El sujeto es fundamental y se recupera al ser el elemento central de los planteamientos ilustrados. Ver A. Idem, p. Tatarkiewicz: op. Ver J. Valverde: op. Ver W. Lessing: Lacoonte, p. Lessing: op. Praz: Mnemosyne: El paralelismo entre la literatura y las artes visuales, p. Ver Idem, p. Kant: op.
Bayer: op. Praz, Mario: Mnemosyne. El paralelismo entre la literatura y las artes visuales, Barcelona, Taurus, El ser es. La existencia es acto puro. Seguramente la vulgar realidad se encargue de refutarnos. El nacionalismo que lo estrangulaba deja de reivindicar al indio, por lo menos al indio real, para mitificarlo como base del alma nacional. El acto violento se repite como acto original.
Se trata, en otras palabras, de superar la historia del resentimiento. A riesgo de perder la identidad, los gigantes caminan sin los elementos que han constituido la individualidad occidental: la responsabilidad y la culpa- bilidad. Krauze edit. Gruzinski: El pensamiento mestizo, pp. Libro en audio. Krauze, Enrique edit. En el barroco, la hora de cocinar no estaba disociada de la hora de contemplar. En general, se estructura en la silva una epopeya, la del saber y la del estar confinada Sor Juana a callar.
En el poema prevalece la ausencia del color, para, en cambio, presentar el destello dorado de la luz a la manera de los retablos del barroco hispanoamericano. Autodefensa espiritual.
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Obras completas, vol. Versos y ss. El equilibrista, Bravo Arriaga, Dolores. Bravo Arriana, Dolores. Ver T. En juicio de T. Herrera: op. Por ejemplo, el estudio de A. Bases tomistas. Por ejemplo, J. Como G. Ver V. Su naturaleza es la de un simulador. Carpentier: Los pasos perdidos, en Obras completas, tomo II, p. Carpentier: Los pasos perdidos, p.
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Marechal, al igual que tantos otros creadores del momento, se adhiere al ideario socialista en un primer momento, para luego identificarse con el proyecto yrigoye- nista. El reconocimiento literario de Marechal es oficial e indiscutible. Se estrena el 30 de diciembre en el anfiteatro del Cerro de la Gloria en la provincia de Mendoza. Finalmente, el 26 de junio de fallece a causa de un infarto general, en su departamento de la calle Rivadavia Tal la tarea que nos queda por delante. Ver G: Maturo: Marechal: el camino de la belleza, pp.
En este te- nor, es necesario referir a algunas obras como J. La obra de A. Rosbaco: Mi vida con Leopoldo Marechal, y la citada de G. Maturo, siguen siendo de obligada consulta por su vigencia y actualidad. Marechal: Obras Completas, tomo I, p. Para acceder a un panorama general de las vanguardias literarias del inicio del siglo XX ver D. Jitrik coord. Alonso: Las revistas literarias argentinas —; H. Para observar las notas fundamentales de esta recta final mar- tinfierrista, se recomienda el incisivo estudio de B.
Buenos Aires — Revista PROA, no. Romero: Breve historia de la Argentina. Ver G. Maturo: Marechal: el camino de la belleza, p. Hemos seguido la historia de los C. Ver al respecto G. Rosbaco: op. Los detalles de su tercer viaje a Eu- ropa se encuentran en D. Revista PROA, op. Ayala en P. Barcia coord. Maturo, op. Leopoldo Marechal: op. Destacado nuestro. II, pp. Ver al respecto J. Romero: op. Por citar algunos de diferente extracto referimos a: G. Revista de Estudios Literarios, no. Arturo Cancela y Leopoldo Marechal, entre otros. En cuanto a la presencia textual del peronismo en las letras argentinas, ver R.
Borrelo: El peronismo en la narrativa argentina — ; N. Jitrik: Las armas y las razones. Ensayos sobre el peronismo, el exilio, la literatura y R. Baschetti: Presencia textual del peronismo. Barcia, op. Es notable lo que escribe P. Sic transit gloria mundi Marechal: el camino de la belleza, pp. World Literature Today, no. Loco, V, Buenos Aires, Perfil, II, no.
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Korn, Guillermo coord. I, Buenos Aires, Perfil, Revista Realidad, no. El traductor debe estar consciente de eso. Esto nos recuerda las zonas de contacto de Mary Louise Pratt. A partir de este punto, las palabras maquiladoras y maquilas pueden aparecer sin apoyos adicionales. Morquecho Guerrero: Dos lecciones. Los entes y las denominaciones, p. Myers—Scotton: Duelling Languages. Grammatical Structure in Codeswitching.
Jacobson ed. Myers—Scotton: op. Lipski eds. Roca and J. The New Mestiza, p. Bhabha: The Location of Culture. Coloniality, Subaltern Knowledges, and Border Thinking. Bandia: Translation as Reparation. Writing and Translation in Postcolonial Africa, pp. Contact zones Mignolo: op. Bandia: op. Bradford: op. Ka- chru ed. Poniatowska, III. Chesterman and E. Wagner: Can Theory Help Translators? A Dialogue between the Ivory Tower and the Wordface, p. Poniatowska, I. Stavans ed. Bandia, Paul F. Writing and Translation in Postcolonial Africa, St. Jerome, Manchester, Jerome, Jacobson, Rodolfo ed.
Kachru, Braj B. Mencken, H. Myers—Scotton, Carol: Duelling Languages. Baltes eds. Roca, A. Laura Montemurro sobre arte argentino y latinoamericano. Muchos de estos ejemplares muestran un prominente fiador36 de forma triangular que sujeta el manto de la Virgen. El extremo izquierdo del manto cruza en diagonal el pecho para luego quedar escondido bajo el lado opuesto del mismo.
Bermejo: Arte y coleccionismo en la Argentina — Del Virreinato al Centenario y M. Co- leccionismo y consumo cultural en Buenos Aires. Baudrillard: El sistema de los objetos y P. Criterios y bases sociales del gusto. Es decir, que llega a la altura de los talones. El Es- corial, ms. Ver entre los milagros publicados por H. Avec les miracles correspondant des mss.
Ver, por ejemplo, los cam- bios sufridos por la Virgen de Vico en M. Museo Nacional de Arte Decorativo. Ver sobre este tema: M. Terceras Jornadas de Historia del Arte, pp. Grabar: El primer arte cristiano, p. Grabar: op. Laura Montemurro Ver, por ejemplo, I. Forsyth: op. Acerca de esta pieza, F. Corti: op. Bernis: op. Idem, pp. Actas del Congreso internacional. Pertenecen a este grupo, por ejemplo, la Virgen de la Esclavitud, de la catedral de Vittoria.
Criterios y bases sociales del gusto, Madrid, Taurus, Laura Montemurro esculturasmedievales. El que Theodor W. El principio de identidad de los indiscernibles se aplica hoy al arte y a la publicidad. Los textos que componen el Carmina Burana pertenecen a la cultura goliarda de la alta Edad Media.
El buen artista era identificado con el buen ejecutor. La sociedad de consumo se ha establecido definitivamente. Adorno, de esta manera, describe correctamente el elemento de verdad del arte musical, pero yerra al entender su momento de falsedad: aquello que hace susceptible al arte de decaer en el escepticismo. La jerga de la autenticidad. Obra completa 6, p. Obra completa 7, , p. Beckett: El innombrable, p. Libro A, 1, a.
Adorno, Th. Adorno, Theodor W. Benjamin, Walter: Obras. Libro I, Vol. Madrid, Abada, primera y segunda ediciones, y Madrid, Alianza, Las cosas se arreglan, el padre reconoce a la hija, y esta se casa con su novio. Al saber esto, Beppo rompe definitivamente su matrimonio, pero finalmente el signor Ottavio se convence de la honradez de Checchina, se produce el reconocimiento y el final feliz.
Goldoni al definir a los personajes al inicio de la obra lo llama caricato, o sea, afectado en el hablar y en las maneras. Insiste en que no hay que traducir, hay que crear, imaginar, inventar. El apunte de teatro manuscrito. Curti Q. Goldoni: Tutte le opere di Carlo Goldoni. Idem, v. I, Verona, Mondadori. Goldoni: op. Les italiens negligoient un peu; la comedie chantante faisait tout, la comedie parlante ne faisoit rien. Carlo Goldoni, op. I, pp. La comedia es breve pero completa. III, pp. Opere di Goldoni I pp. Calderone y V. Goldoni, Tutte le opere, I, pp. Goldoni, Carlo: I pettegolezzi delle donne, introd.
Paola Luciani, Mar- silio, Venecia, Giacomo, Pizzamiglio, Gilberto: Una delle ultime sere di carnovale, Marsilio, Ve- nezia, Vittore Branca, N. Mangini: Studi goldoniani, Venezia, Istituto per la collaborazione culturale, Esto no implica invadir el organismo, sino confiar plenamente en sus propias capacidades estabilizadoras. La sangre y la leche son fluidos fundamentales en el cuerpo femenino, necesarios para el mantenimiento de su equilibrio.
Advierte el Egineta que la epi- lepsia infantil suele declararse tempranamente y desaparecer con el desarrollo sexual en la adolescencia. Esta debilidad es compartida por mujeres y ancianos, a quienes no se puede tratar con medicamentos mayores a las fuerzas de su orga- nismo. Hunayn b. Textos y estudios 5. Sobre este punto, ver J. Tomo XI: De la generation. Des maladies IV. Du foetus de huit mois.
Corpus Hippocraticum. Latronico: Storia della Pediatria; O. Garzya et al. Historia Antigua 17—18, pp. Leiden, Brill, Sentencia 67, p. Sentencia 81, p. Textos y estudios 5, Efeso, Sorano de: Gynaecia, N. Historia Antigua 17—18, — El pacto de Alcaraz ha sido estudiado en diversas publicaciones por J. XXVI, pp. XX, p. III, p. Lator: art. III, Granada, , pp. XX, El Cairo, Amin , El Cairo, Laoust, Henri: Essai sur les doctrines sociales et politiques de Taki. Vrin, III, Madrid, , pp. III, Murcia, Ed. El tesoro de las reinas consortes castellanas en el siglo XV. La suntuosidad del entorno de la reina.
Revista de Arte, no. Nieto: op. R—VI—4, doc. El tesoro de las reinas consortes castellanas Redondo y M. Zalama coords. AMG, Leg. Yarza: La Nobleza ante el Rey. Los grandes linajes castellanos y el arte en el siglo XV, p. Barral I Altet: op. Rucquoi: Valladolid, el mundo abreviado — , vol. II, p. Rosell ed. XII—XX , p. Citado por J. Entre ellos, los Vizuete: op.
Yarza: op. Ladero y M. Carmona coord. Bartra, El salvaje artificial, pp. Alonso: op. Archivo General de Simancas. En este marco se inscribe el trabajo de Arthur Young, en el cual se defienden activamente los cercados, entendidos como fuente de mejora social. La propiedad colectiva se reconoce en el cruce entre los con- dicionamientos de la estructura y el campo de comportamientos recurrentes que desarrollan los agentes sobre su medio.
Estudios sobre la crisis de la sociedad preindustrial, p. Congost: op. Ver sobre Young las referencias de R.
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