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At this point, they are doing two things. Second, they are using the interface, again as way to put perspective into the unbelievability of the situation. We must remember that earlier that day Rob was tossing back beers at his going-away party, while preparing for his new life in Japan. The camera allows them to see themselves in relation to the bewilderment of being under fire and under attack.

In distancing themselves from the situation, they achieve a moment of peace, then they are crushed. We are left with the last remaining footage of them as happy couple. It is in this wiggly line of panic and security that we are able to comfortably watch as all hope is lost and as characters continue to be devoured before our interfaced eyes.

Dear jgrefe: Translation request? The fans well, one in particular for whom English is a second or third language are managing to translate it into English. However, a straight translation of just the text would be huge. There are lots of English speakers who are very interested. Between the person and the interface of social media, there is a human or humans. In this medium of the blog, I present the reader with static yet increasing snippets from my side of existence and from the zone of other networked friends, bloggers, writers, musicians, designers, critics and thinkers that are blended as a part of me and projected through me into this particular interface.

Legs become restless, throats parched, yet the fingers and the eyes remain alert, remain active, irking out some yelp to be heard by a random passerby. Although, perhaps the yelp is felt in a close friend who is interfacing with the Web at the same time. Your legs, still growing restless for communication with the Earth outside, disappear from your consciousness, the power of the fingers taking control, the imagined presence of the close friend being delivered to your interface via a network, across multiple networks achieves some kind of satisfaction which stirs within you.

Outside, there is the sky and the wind, but the Web has created a new kind of outside for you: the Web is not like gazing into the vast emptiness of the sky, but akin to strolling through the labyrinthine streets of Tokyo. Around this corner, a small restaurant located next to a contemporary art museum. Your options have expanded…you feel connected, but you are merely connected to the symbolic, the imaginary, to the interface of the other, a responsible interface nonetheless. For Lacan, the subject is not only within him or herself, but also realized in the other.

We could look at the interface of the Web and, moreover, Web 2. Again, there is an intertwining, a conjoining of self and other and in this conjoining, an extimate self is realized. Meanwhile, you are brought back to your physical body, the body that wishes to move, to temporarily suspend time with this interface. I believe this to be the first time this is being presented in English. It is far from normal to say that human beings are natural. Inside the body, humans are carried away by metal bolts, that is to say, the attachment of an artificial limb or a heart with an artificial valve…Artificiality is supporting the activities of the human body.

There is the injection of nutrients or the ingestion of medicinal capsules that are passed through the internal organs. There is the hole of a cavity or the application of a white filling for a cracked tooth. This is a translation from Nature Interface Vol. The original essay can be read in its entirety in Japanese here: Nature Interface Vol. Today, I read the following article which discusses speculations regarding Web 3. The idea of two different species of websites merging together interests me very much, but beyond this I am weary about centralization, worried about the flow covering over my discovery of potential useful information.

After sharing a link, I watched as it quickly vanished into the nether world, just another blip from someone on the other side of the world. Ah, I have digressed. Where was I? Ah yes, Social Hybridity. As I was walking outside this evening under the black Japan sky amidst the industrial bleakness of the suburbs, I began to really think what feature I would like to see emerge in Web 3. I began thinking about the idea of more online literature, downloadable books perhaps merging with a literary networking site, but then I realized that I am still very much attached to a real book, the feeling of turning the pages, savoring the textures of the book….

Returning to the Tower of Babel. Then, I had a thought. What is it that would make interacting with others easier? What am I missing in the chatter that comes from languages that I have never studied and do not understand? I saw random Twitters and blog posts in foreign languages appear and, upon refreshing the page, washed away. Of course, this is far-fetched in that even with advanced online translators, we all know that the task of translating from one language to another loses something, there is something that the computerized translation software cannot grasp and cannot adequately express.

The slang, the nuance, sarcasm and word-play tend to get lost when filtered through the computerized translator. In my dream space, this would be realizable. Perhaps, this would be one of my hopes for social hybridity. However, there is one obvious consequence of this idea of linguistic hybridity that comes to mind and that is a decline in the challenge to learn a language. Therefore, perhaps the site could also feature a rich translation tool that allows one to see just how words are being translated, online language lessons and the history of the development of the language a kind of built-in Wiki.

Of course, the site could also host various podcasts, international vlogs, downloadable educational content and the like. Another idea that comes to mind is a space that allows those wishing to collaborate on a project, brainstorm ideas visually and textually, working together to create some kind of multimedia project across the platform of a social networking site. In this way, the musicians at their own pace can work to collaborate on a piece of music, editing it in their own countries at the own homes, but uploading it and editing it through the social networking site itself.

One may visualize this as a kind of think tank social networking site for professionals to meet, network and work together. Of course, not only musicians but video artists, online poets, fashion designers, architects, urban planners and virtual reality designers as well could use this page.

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I realize that both of the ideas presented here are macro in scope devoid of any technical way of making these ideas happen, but they are just to get the juices flowing, so to speak. Social hybridity, social hybridity, social hybridity…. So now I pass it on to you…. Close attention to the technology news cycle reveals that the relationship between journalism and criticism plays out in different ways. Rising to meet the often optimistic and progress-focused boosterism of traditional technology coverage, widely-recognized contrarian Critics like Evgeny Morozov, Nicholas Carr, and Sherry Turkle have sought to temper enthusiasm for and poke holes in the technocratic, libertarian ideologies of Silicon Valley.

They rain on the progress parade. Still, their counterintuitive or counter-narrative arguments make it onto the cover of The Atlantic magazine, feature prominently in The New York Times Sunday opinion section, and dominate the Critic at Large feature in The New Yorker. They also garner significant deals with major publishers, often with repeated success. These Critics are often given the most space in the publications that shape the popular media and the broader conversation about technology. While there is plenty of space in other outlets and online for a variety of voices and approaches to technology criticism, prestigious publications have tended to give the most space to technology coverage and criticism with a very narrow, negative, and pessimistic bent.

The New York Times , as the paper of record, has featured some exceptionally problematic editorial choices in its technology coverage. This would be less consequential were Turkle not the predominant public voice of academic thought with regard to the social effects of technology. However, as a prominent professor at a highly prominent institution MIT , Turkle and her message take up a lot of space. The downfall of sociality then becomes the base from which public commentators start and have to dig out of before addressing the diverse set of questions that occupy their research agendas.

Ironically, in trying to save conversation, Reclaiming Conversation frames a debate that largely shuts the conversation down. No matter where it is published or how it is distributed, technology coverage with a critical bent matters today more than ever. As institutions like the fourth estate operate within a technologically mediated system, critical technology coverage is even more deserving of attention and support. Question 2: What is the nature of technology criticism today?

How diverse are the ranges, styles, and forms of writing contributing to popular critical discourse about technology? This section surveys the current landscape of mainstream technology criticism to uncover its modes and assumptions. I find three themes in the current technology criticism landscape. Third, much conventional criticism rests on assumptions about the notion of technological progress, and thus skews the genre negative and nihilist.

When I asked my interviewees to name those they associate as technology critics, many of the same names came to mind. Beyond the short list of identifiable Critics in the field, technology criticism has become enough of a genre to merit its own self-reflexive critique.

Their obligation to gather attention undermines their purported goals. He concludes:. Why, then, aspire to practice any kind of technology criticism at all? I am afraid I do not have a convincing answer. If history has, in fact, ended in America—with venture capital represented by Silicon Valley and the neoliberal militaristic state represented by the NSA guarding the sole entrance to its crypt—then the only real task facing the radical technology critic should be to resuscitate that history.

Changing public attitudes toward technology—at a time when radical political projects that technology could abet are missing—is pointless. While radical thought about technology is certainly possible, the true radicals are better off theorizing—and spearheading—other, more consequential struggles, and jotting down some reflections on technology along the way.

That meaning differs from the analytical meaning of the critique as practiced in cultural criticism: an attempt to judge the merits of and provide social and cultural context for a creative work. Cultural critics love culture.

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Critics might be harsh at times, but their passion for the subject is the source of their authority and conviction. They offer value judgments, but those judgments are not inherently negative. Too often in the current discourse of technology, being a Critic of technology means offering reactionary disapproval of the forward trajectory of progress. A movie critic loves movies. A technology critic is a Luddite. In that vein, Critics like Morozov, Turkle, Carr, and Lanier bemoan the loss of that which makes us human, or extol the folly of solutionist thinking.

Their literary colleagues—Jonathan Franzen and Zadie Smith—also focus on what is lost, as these new technological modes of writing and reading threaten both their craft and their audience. What do we make of that?


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Senior editor at New York Magazine Max Read offered his support of the negative, critical associations with the enterprise of criticism:. It is ideologically committed to ideas of success and end points and perfect, empirically derived futures. I think that some small amount of negativity implied in the word criticism is important for us to hold on to.

I think it is good to say that not everything that is being proposed to us by the Marc Andreessens of the world is going to work out. In fact, a lot of it relies on suppositions that are deeply harmful and shitty and crappy. What makes the pessimistic stance of much technology criticism so persistent? And why is it so hard to imagine an analytic meaning of technology criticism? For many people, technology is associated with the teleological ideal that history moves toward progress. Technology exists to make things better: It is a means to an end with the goal of improving.

We understand technology to be an element of modernization along with developments in science that improve societies over time. So in criticizing technology, criticism seems to be against progress. The negative and anti-progress associations of technology criticism are long established.

1. You think about feelings.

Science and technology studies professor Langdon Winner articulated this tension in his introduction to The Whale and the Reactor: This is a work of criticism. In other words, because progress, and by association technology, resist criticism, the task of constructing thoughtful technology criticism is especially difficult. For this reason, it is all too easy to dismiss Critics of technology when they focus only on the drawbacks of a dominant system. Carr acknowledges their more complicated history and sets them as a model for us all.

They stepped back and thought critically about technology. Moreover, approaching technological change with skepticism and scrutiny need not be inherently pessimistic. Historians of technology and science, as well as science and technology studies scholars, have done a lot of work to unpack the assumption of the inevitability and benevolence of progress.

Some technologies fail. Others are not widely adopted. Other technologies live on long after they are considered innovative. And still others follow completely different paths than intended by their creators. Criticism of technology can and should address all of these possibilities, but most mainstream technology criticism still only offers contrarian opposition. You must try to be a loving resistance fighter. A resistance fighter understands that technology must never be accepted as part of the natural order of things, that every technology—from an IQ test to an automobile to a television set to a computer—is a product of a particular economic and political context and carries with it a program, an agenda, and a philosophy that may or may not be life-enhancing and that therefore requires scrutiny, criticism, and control.

In short, a technological resistance fighter maintains an epistemological and psychic distance from any technology, so that it always appears somewhat strange, never inevitable, never natural. In part, this is because the criticism that major media outlets elevate is so often riddled with problematic styles, tactics, assumptions, and ideologies. Most Critics perpetuate negative associations by using unexamined assumptions and ideologies. In this section, I list common fallacies and follies present in much contemporary, mainstream technology criticism.

In doing so, I aim to both surface hidden patterns in the writing of current technology criticism and to empower future technology critics to avoid these traps. Ironically, mainstream technology criticism is itself a product of the internet and media conditions it seeks to criticize. Contrarian views are clickbait. Critical writing, particularly in the quick cycle of hot takes, has to garner attention.

While these strategies may draw attention to the problems that Critics raise, they end up doing more harm than good by clouding the argument and incensing their targets to the point of ignoring the message. More than just missing the social and political factors that bring a technology into existence, Critics of technology often fail to address the people for whom the technology is made.

Examining ideology is important. But so is understanding practice. Much mainstream criticism also fails to understand the development cycle within technology companies. So while Critics might be capable of writing more nuanced critiques that take into account the human side of technological development and management, this would require a greater degree of access and mutual trust between tech companies, reporters, and critics.

For example, greater understanding of software development would lend more credibility and efficacy to outsider critiques ii. Another common mode in mainstream technology criticism is for the Critic to generalize personal gripes about technology into blanket judgments about technological progress. This is the mode used by Franzen when he complains about Twitter, a technology that threatens his livelihood by distracting him from his writing practice and changing the way his readers consume media. Lanier has issued similar laments about the lost analog range in lossy, compressed music.

And Carr has expressed his own wistful longing for the stick shift with which he learned to drive. In this mode of mainstream criticism, Critics seem to worry about the collective present and future on our behalf, but they are actually worried about themselves. If you have a Ph. Picture the Critic, sitting in his leather office chair, stroking his chin and milling over his analysis of society without evidence beyond his subjective experience.

This is an association a number of my interviewees cited as a deterrent to being known as a Critic. Though it is important to understand the ideological positions of the titans of the tech industry, some technology Critics unduly focus attention on individual personalities in isolation from their contexts. These profiles also perpetuate the mystique of ownership and power attributed to these Silicon Valley leaders.

Morozov, in particular, is guilty of personal, vindictive, intellectual bullying of his targets, no matter what side of the argument they represent. In ways that are both offensive and extravagantly wrong, Morozov tempts these intellectuals to respond in public. Though a narrow focus on personalities can miss important context, this kind of criticism can also be an important corrective for the hero narrative so common in technology circles.

For example, in writing for Valleywag , Sam Biddle and Nitasha Tiku took a tabloid approach to the industry, holding the industry to account for its hypocrisies, excess, and thinly veiled ideologies. Incendiary posts target skeptical readers likely to forward on these pieces to their family members. They dig deeper into an entrenched position, and they fall on deaf ears, thus minimizing their potential for impact. One of the most widely recognized Critics of technology has made it his mission to destroy the industry and everyone associated with it. Perhaps he offers different ways of thinking about technology and its capabilities for influencing and producing change, but these are little more than tools for thinking and certainly not tools for construction.

Though they are willing to deconstruct the logic and assumptions of their targets, Critics are sometimes opaque about their own biases, ideological positions, and disciplinary blind spots. This section attempts to lay out the traps of ideology and unexamined positions that underlie much contemporary criticism. Is technological determinism making us stupid? Or just making us write bad headlines? Technological determinism is a common blind spot in much of contemporary criticism.

The idea that technology has a teleology, that there is an inevitability to its development and effects, removes all human agency from the equation, both in the consumption and the production of technologies. It is compelling to think that technology does things to us. Doing so acknowledges the power dynamics at play in sociotechnical systems.

The most sensational forms of criticism offer alarmist, fear-mongering warnings about a loss of humanity. It can be hard for critics, who have to clarify what is at stake in their writing, to avoid overstating their concerns. When they share things together, what they are sharing is what is on their phones. If so, it is not doing the work of the old conversation.

The old conversation taught empathy. These students seem to understand each other less. Throughout history, commentators have worried about the effect of technologies on vulnerable populations, namely women and children. Genevieve Bell, an anthropologist at Intel, has identified factors that prime us for moral panics: technologies that change our relationship to time, space, and each other. Many Critics are guilty of romanticizing the past or fetishizing the real. She has recently turned her attention toward the ways technology damages interpersonal relationships by removing the ability to communicate with each other, but her work skirts over the fact that communication technologies connect people who may not share physical space.

Her work today privileges the real rather than exploring the possibilities of the virtual as she has done in the past. They romanticize the past, perpetuating a dualist binary between life before and after the selfie, or between the real and the virtual. Dualist criticism also drives readers toward binary questions rather than critical thinking. This kind of criticism offers either utopian or dystopian narratives of the near future. Though they appear to stand on opposite sides of the spectrum—unapologetic utopian squaring off against wistful pessimist—the Shirkys and Franzens of the world only reinforce this problem: things will get better or worse, pro or con.

As early as , technology writers have been making the case for more nuanced rather than polarized writing about technology. Writing today, Virginia Heffernan resists the reductive binaries that publications so often employ in headlines. Technology is both good and bad, makes us smart and stupid, connects us and separates us.

For Heffernan, the internet is Magic and Loss. Her aesthetics of the internet leave room for both possibilities, often at the same time. Rather than directing us to a binary conclusion, she encourages us to explore the murky spaces in between. At best, we are just making careers; at worst, we are just useful idiots.

There is a place for the radical, deconstructive type of criticism Morozov practices and calls for, and he can be credited for his prolific contributions where a dearth of skepticism in the discourse about technology once existed. This is not a practical or productive criticism of technology. My aim in outlining these traps of problematic styles, tactics, ideologies and unexamined positions is to illustrate how they influence our wider understanding of what technology criticism is, what it does, what its aims and audiences are, and how effective it is.

He advocates for a mixed-methods, intersectional approach to criticism that leaves room for all these approaches. Madrigal takes a more open stance to critical work that wants to produce change:.

You also need people inside the companies who are just barely more ethical than the next person. Also you need people who try and connect the big ideas of technology companies with the ethical standards the country at least nominally sets out for itself. You need all those different things. You need people who are completely uninterested in the ideological battles that are super into reporting the dirt on these companies. Exactly how things are going.


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  • If technology criticism is to be useful, to accomplish something, then it has to acknowledge and include in it a suite of strategies, positions, approaches, and voices. Question 3: Who is recognized as a technology critic and where is technology criticism published? Who else could be recognized as a critic and what work do they do? So far I have assessed the state of technology coverage, and I have diagnosed the state of mainstream technology criticism including its problematic styles, tactics, and assumption. This section takes up the question of categorizing and classifying the set of writers contributing to a wider critical discussion about technology, understanding the nature of their work, and the venues where such work is published.

    Through my interviews and reading, I find that a wider circle of journalists, bloggers, and academics are contributing to a critical discourse about technology by contextualizing, historicizing, and giving readers tools for understanding our relationship to technologies in our everyday lives. With a few prominent voices leading the charge of mainstream technology criticism, many writers I spoke with wanted to avoid associations with the problematic styles, tactics, and traps I describe above.

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    But my work uncovered an emerging cohort of writers who are bringing a critical approach to their writing, and their work exemplifies some of the best technology criticism today. Recognizing their contributions to technology criticism as examples in practice helps to build a more evolved notion of technology criticism as a whole.

    Regardless of their titles, these writers are taking positions and making editorial choices that do the important work of critique by holding power accountable, by introducing and expanding upon ideas, and even through deep investigative reporting. Each of these journalistic efforts contributes to critical discourse in meaningful ways. At the center of their work, they are giving readers tools for thinking about how we relate to technology, how we use it, and how it impacts our lives.

    Though she may not read like Morozov or Turkle, her work widens the current understanding of what technology criticism can be, and what it can do to help readers understand the world. Her passion for her subject pulls technology criticism out of a relentlessly pessimistic spiral. They are writers like Rebecca Solnit and Astra Taylor, whose title is author rather than critic. Or they are journalists like Clive Thompson, Alexis Madrigal, and Virginia Heffernan, who are covering technology and culture.

    They are academics like Kate Crawford or Zeynep Tufekci. When pushed on their reluctance to be called critics, much of it is due to a commitment to reporting.

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    A lot of what we do can fall under the mantle of technology criticism. We tend to talk about it in terms of journalism. Having to talk to other people using the things and seeing how it works in real life and how people feel empowered by it and how people feel disempowered by it—I think that tends to make work better. That tends to improve ideas and bring in new ones. Michael Keller adds that he associates a Critic as a columnist with an identifiable voice. Not everything is great. I think the last thing that journalism has in that case—if it has lost all access—is the rhetorical ability to make a case.

    It is hard not to see the contributions to cultural criticism in his work, however thoroughly reported it is. I think of that as a specific genre practically where you basically had thoughts and then did reporting around them. Morozov, a self-styled critic, acknowledges he does not report, but only researches and theorizes based on what has already been put out in the world. What is On Photography , but a huge tract of technology criticism? Sontag defined photography and its relationship to art forms that came before it and gave us language to address the aesthetic and ethical questions surrounding photographic practice.

    My close reading of the body of technology writing and criticism reveals that a larger collection of writers, often professors and academic experts, are contributing to popular discourse through policy positions and op-eds. These voices commenting on technology come from a wide range of places and professional backgrounds. The media might recognize them as pundits, commentators, or public intellectuals. I offer a taxonomy of these voices below to better integrate and recognize their contributions to the critical public discourse about technology.

    To build a more robust rubric of contributions to the critical discourse about technology, I started with writers acknowledged in the popular press as critics. I also relied on interview material and took my own estimations and analysis into account. I recognize the possibility of oversight and have admittedly skewed this list toward English-speaking and American sources based on my own limits of language and scope.

    It is by no means exhaustive and only reflects a snapshot of contributors at the time of publishing. Having done this analysis, I find that the critical voices tend to fall into a few cohorts, with some overlaps reflected in the visual diagram. The network was created in Gephi using the ForceAtlas2 layout spatialization, where each name reflects a node, and their proximity is based on shared categorizations and roles. For example, academics who also focus on policy work are arranged closer together. Overlaying the network graph are Venn diagram shapes meant to highlight overlapping categorizations.

    The first diagram image shows the primary categorization of the way contributors are writing, either as journalists, bloggers, writers, technologists, or academics. The second illustrates more focused specialities in their roles as activists, policymakers, critics, futurists, or artists. Secondary categorizations are less closely concentrated, so the Venn diagram areas capture more than just those who associate with that form of work.

    These graphs give a sense of the diversity of identities and roles contributors take on in the critical discourse of technology. These people make their living writing as self-proclaimed Critics, publishing books about their critical angles on current trends in technology with a decidedly negative, anti-technology stance.

    Cross-over academics include those who publish beyond their audience of peer-reviewed journals and academic conferences. They blog, tweet, write on Medium, and contribute opinion pieces and popular book reviews, testing ideas in publications with broader reach. They are bridge figures, working to make their writing accessible to general audiences and stakeholders—from consumers, to technologists, to policymakers.

    These are academics who drop in to write commentary and opinion pieces and who attach their relevant work to the latest news hook. Writing for the public may not add much to their tenure portfolios, but these writers are motivated to have a direct policy impact in the near future. Immersed in the new forms of publishing the internet allows, these academics do not judge their impact solely on the traditional metrics of academic publishing.

    Many of these academics also grew up as bloggers. A select few in this crowd get the time and space to tackle questions about technology and society for publications like The New Yorker and The New York Times. Many of these journalists act as a bridge, translating academic material into contemporary contexts and issues. Rusty Foster and Paul Ford overlap between the technologists and writers. These voices critique the technology industry from the inside, often in blog posts, op-eds, and speaking engagements.

    They are entrepreneurs, developers, engineers, and venture capitalists with something to say. Their primary audience is often their peers in the industry, but their material sometimes reaches beyond techies. The greatest commonality among this diverse cohort of critics is not that they are technically adept, but that they grew up on the internet. For instance, Heffernan recalls accessing Usenet from her university town connection.

    Max Read remembers his time in AOL chat rooms. These critics live closely with technology and want to better understand it. Many of the critics I identify here share an interdisciplinary curiosity.

    2. You pause.

    Nicholas Carr is a prime example, pulling from economics, philosophy, psychology, sociology, design theory, the history of technology, and even poetry to build his case in his most recent book, The Glass Cage. Virginia Heffernan does something similar in Magic and Loss. Like many journalists, these critics tend to come from liberal arts backgrounds, and many noted in interviews that they had considered an academic career. Heffernan describes how her English Ph. Like, use the same tools and methodologies and viewpoints and assumptions and impulses to criticize [as I would to] talk about Keats.

    In this interdisciplinary sense, critics play an important role in bridging audiences and translating ideas. One of the useful things journalists can do here is be that bridge between different communities, between the technology community and the sort of study of technology. A lot of critics are organic intellectuals without academic training but often able to bridge the worlds of academic and public debate better than scholars can. I also found that among these categories many types of voices are missing. Some of the most novel critiques about technology and Silicon Valley are coming from women and underrepresented minorities, but these people are seldom recognized as critics.

    So far, social media platforms seem to submerge the machinery more than it reveals ways to disrupt it. Still, advocates for acknowledging diverse contributions to the tech industry are vocally and visibly creating change. Who is defining the set of voices readers look to for technology criticism? That oversight, from even someone as enlightened as Farrell, says a lot about the state of twenty-first-century intelligentsia. But for women, having a strong opinion in the public sphere where these conversations take place can be daunting.

    For while men are free to adopt the ready-to-wear identities of futurist and nostalgist, no woman in her right mind can slip on such shopworn garb. Where does technology criticism and coverage live? Or rather, where are critics and journalists publishing about technology? This section surveys the places where criticism and coverage is thriving. Criticism exists in a wide range of formal and informal publications and in a range of media formats. Cobbled together from variety of sources, readers face a loose agglomeration that constitutes a body of technology criticism.

    The proliferation of venues and voices results in a seeming lack of coherence and a diffuse sense of the critical enterprise itself. The elite audience ends up reconstituting the elite publication out of all the views of many publications, some of which are elite, some of which are not, but all of which can cover things that would make it into that wheel of policy, wealth, power, etc. While traditional venues for cultural criticism still carry a lot of weight, they no longer have a monopoly on big ideas.

    With diversifying publication platforms, online critical contributions can be found anywhere, though their reach may be limited within specific social circles or a tech-savvy audience.

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    Cultural publishing institutions still have the potential to reach the widest and most diverse audiences. Pools of Lodging for the Moon. Flowing Bridges, Quiet Waters. A Thousand Waves. Thirsty, Swimming in the Lake. Rainbow Rising from a Stream. Plunging Through the Clouds. Reflections on the Tao te Ching. Light Waves. A Handbook for Constructive Living. New York: Morrow, , U. Nihonjin to Morita Ryoho, Natsumeisha, Uchikara Mita Jisatsu, Sewashoten, Nayamiwo Ikasu, Sogensha, Kodotekina Ikikata, Sogensha, Jibunwo Ikasu Kodo Kakumei, Kairyusha, Seikatsu Onchi ni Naranai, Hakuyosha, In Kawahara, Ryuzo.

    Naikan Ryohono Rinsho. Shinkoigaku, In Miki, Yasuhiko In Japanese , In Sheikh, A. New York:Wiley, Morita Therapy in America. In Ohara, K. Tokyo:Kongen, Japanese Models of Psychotherapy. In Norbeck, E. Health, Illness, and Medical Care in Japan. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, In Corsini, R.

    Handbook of Innovative Psychotherapies. Naikan Therapy. Psychocultural Perspectives on Death. In Ahmed, P. Living and Dying with Cancer. New York:Elsevier, l98l. In Kora, T. Modern Morita Therapy. Tokyo:Hakuyosha, l Suicide in Aftercare Facilities. In Parad, H. In Farberow, N. Suicide in Different Cultures. Baltimore:University Park Press, l Morita Psychotherapy in Japan. In Masserman, Jules, ed. Articles Published -Reynolds, David K.

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