Paul Kaiser. Leipzig: Teubner, Albert Derolez e Peter Dronke. Wallace Martin Lindsay, trad. Madri: BAC, Theodor Graesse, trad. Maria Helena da Rocha Pereira. Coimbra: Universidade, Patrologia Latina. Jacques-Paul Migne. Paris: Migne, , volumes. Paris: Fayard, Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda, , vol. Ensaios de mitologia medieval. Paris: Vrin, Maurice Leenhardt.
Paris: Plon, Oxford: OUP, Espace et histoire. Paris: Arthaud-Flammarion, , p. II, p. Em Patrologia Latina , vol. Vincenzo Romano. Revue des sciences religieuses. Foundations of Western cultural singularity . Roma: Polyglotta, Opera omnia, 4 , I-I, q. Em Opera omnia.
Frankfurt: Minerva, , vol. Lucca: Biblioteca Statale, ms. Versio B , I, Francis J. Lisboa: Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal, Cod. Quaracchi: Colegii S. Bonaventurae, , p. Paris: Seuil, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Paris: Hachette, , p. Em IDEM dir. Langres: Dominique Gueriot, , I,C, p. Londres: Lambeth Palace Library, ms. Stuttgart: Joseph Roth, , vol. John M. Riddle, trad. Pierre Monat. Charles Daremberg, trad. I, 7, p. Les pierres. Auguste Borgnet, trad. Michel Angel. Paris: Cerf, , p. Studio di storia del diritto e scienza del diritto comparato.
Turim: Fratelli Bocca, , p. I, col. Helsinki: Acta philosophica fennica, , p. Jan Hendrik Waszink. Leiden: Brill, Supplements to Vigiliae Christianae, , p. Lescalopier 30, fol. Charles Munier. Louis Bayard. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, , p. Bernhard Dombart e Alfons Kalb, trad. Perlesvaus , I,19a. William A. Nitze e Jenkins T. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, , vol. Guglielmo Cavallo e Giovanni Orlandi. Gesta Pontificum Cenomannensium. There is an engaging grace and spirit in the cantigas de amigo written in dancing rhythm by Fernan Rodriguez de Calheiros fi.
Joan Lopez de Ulhoa, their contemporary. Neither of these, however, possessed the poetical genius and versatility of the priest of Santiago, Airas Nunez second half are two cossantes C. Of Roy Queimado fl. Another of his poems C. Great importance has been attached to another C. Carolina Michaelis de Vasconcellos has shown that it was written to commemorate a contemporary event, probably in The Cancioneiros contain poems by high and low, prince and, one would fain say, peasant, noble trohador and hnmhXe jogral, soldiers and civilians, priests and laymen, singers of Galicia, Portugal, and Spain, but more especially of Galicia and North Portugal.
As in the case of C. Lopez de Bayan [c. See p. See Randglosse xii. An incidental interest belongs to this poem of eighteen dodecasyllabic lines from the fact that in C. But indeed no further proofs are needed to show that, even had King Dinis never existed, the contents of the early Portuguese Cancioneiros would have been remarkable for their When Alfonso X died his grandson Dinis variety and beauty.
Plentifully educated by a Frenchman, Aymeric d'brard, afterwards Bishop of Coimbra, married to a foreign princess, Isabel of Aragon the Oueen-Saint of Portugal , profoundly impressed, no doubt, by the world-fame of Alfonso X, to whom he was sent on a diplomatic mission when not yet in his teens, he became nevertheless one of the most national of kings. If he imitated Alfonso X in his love of literature, he showed himself a far abler and firmer sovereign, being more like a rock than like the sea, to which the poet compared Alfonso.
Farsighted in the conception of his plans and vigorous in their execution, the Rei Lavrador,. Among his great and abiding services to his country was the foundation of the first Portuguese University in the year , and in the same spirit he ordered the translation of many notable books from the Spanish, Latin, and Arabic into Portuguese prose, including the celebrated works of the Learned. He thus overlapped Dante's life by four years at either end. Craveiro, Compendio , cap. Diniz trouxe a idade de ouro a Portugal.
The Dedaratio placed by Guiraut Riquier of Narbonne on the lips of that king in marked the coming instinct for popular themes,. It was owing to the personal encouragement of Dinis that the waning star of both Provengal and indigenous poetry continued to shine in Portugal for another half-century. The grandson of Alfonso X was the last hope of the trohadores and jograes of the Peninsula.
From Leon and Castille and Aragon they came to reap an aftermath of song and panos at his Court, and after his death remained silent or unpaid C. The poems of King Dinis are not only more numerous but far more various than those of any other trobador, with the exception of Alfonso X, and it may perhaps be doubted whether they are all the work of his own hand. In poetry's old age he might well wish to collect specimens of various kinds for his Livro de Trovas. Amigo fals' e desleal, and C. These include dar aos jograaees. Nunez de Learn translates joglar as iruao :. And certainly, at least, his graciosas e dukes palavras well earned amor.
A Semior das Sennores songs in honour of the writing began Por que a non loades? No trace or of Alfonso. Cronica del Rei D. Diniz, ed. Mandou hum livro delles escrito por sua mdo a seu avo It does not imply that the it is obviously the source of no. Can the book three or four fingers in height have been the Cane, da Ajuda millimetres from which a section of sacred poems may have been torn? If so the letters Rey Do Denis C. Identical phrases occur.
At the Escorial he also examined an original manuscript of St. Augustine '. Sanchez, D. Pedro, Conde de Barcellos, long had a reputation as a poet almost equal to that of his father, owing to the association of his. It was as a prose-writer and editor of the Livro de Linhagens that he worthily carried on the literary tradition of.
Latin chrysalis was in an advanced stage of development even prose as a literary instrument does not begin before the. The next two centuries redressed the balance in the favour of prose. Portuguese is then uma lingua coherente, clara, um instrumento perfeito para a expressdo do pensamento, cuja maior plaslicidade dependerd apenas da cultura litteraria, F. Adolpho Coelho, A Lingua Portugiieza , p.
King Dinis had encouraged translation was more national. The only edition that we have, Historia Geral de Hespanha , is cut short in the reign of King Ramiro cap. Joao Claro ti? The importance of these and other fragmentary versions of the Bible, in which there can rarely be a doubt as to the meaning of the words, is obvious.
Extracts from the Vida de Eufrosina and the Vida de Maria Egipcia, published in by Jules Cornu from the manuscripts formerly in the Monastery of Alcobaga, now in the Torre do Tombo, show that they were A Lenda dos written in vigorous if primitive prose 14th c. E persegujo as pias filhas de finees que Ihe aujd odio e o querid desherdar.
The Vida de Santo Aleixo also exists in two codices belonging to the middle and beginning of the fifteenth century, and Dr. Esteves Percira, who published the latter, considers that the variants point to an earlier manuscript of the beginning, of the fourteenth or end of the To about the same period i4th-i5th c. The Cronica da Ordem dos Frades Menores is a fifteenthcentury Portuguese translation of a fourteenth-century Latin chronicle,.
Evora, Here at last was some one with will and power to make the dry bones live. Livro Velho is a jejune family register iith-i4th c. Pedro, represents the lost original of the Livro de Linhagens of D. Pedro, Conde de Barcellos The Nobiliario do Conde has been shown by Alexandre Herculano, who printed it from the manuscript in the Torre do Tombo, to be the work of various authors extending over more than a century i3th-i4th , the Conde de Barcellos being but one of them. Pedro em seu livro is as natural as the mention of Innocencio da Silva in a later volume of his great dictionary.
But it was. Many other allusions, both earlier and later, to the Breton cycle, Merlin,. Alvarez chose Galahad for his model, and came In as near realizing his ideal as may be given to mortal man. Gil Vicente's time the name Percival had already descended to. Whether they were incorporated in the Cancioneiro from a Portuguese Tristam earlier than the Spanish version ? It was natural that they should undergo their influence earlier and more strongly than their more direct and more national neighbours the Castilians, whose clear, definite descriptions in the twelfth- century Poema del Cid would send those legends drifting back to the dim regions of their birth.
Even to-day connexion with and sympathy for Ireland is far commoner in Galicia than in any other part of Spain. Unhappily, most of the early Portuguese versions of the Breton legends have been lost. The probability that these were written in Portuguese, not in Spanish, is increased by the survival of A Historia dos Cavalleiros da Mesa Redonda e da Demanda do Santo Graall, as yet only partially published from the manuscript in the Vienna Hofbibliothek. It was written probably in the fourteenth century, perhaps at the end of the thirteenth, although the Vienna manuscript is more recent and belongs to the fifteenth century, in which the work was referred to by the poet Rodriguez de la Camara.
Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Cancioneiro da Ajuda, ii. This, in the same way as the. It was also known formerly as Destroygam de Jerusalem. Esteves Pereira believes that the Spanish Tennyson's revival of the Arthurian legend in England evoked no corresponding interest in Portugal in the nineteenth century, and the primitive and touching story as published in has left Sir Percival in the very middle of an adventure The descent of the Amadis romances for over a generation. The problem of the date and authorship has become more fascinating than the book.
Champions for Spain and of. Henry Thomas holds the scales. The ground is thick with their arrows. And beneath them all lies the simple ingenuous story as retold by Garci Rodriguez de Montalvo in or immediately after and published in , still worth reading for its freshness and for its clear good style, which Braunfels, following up the praise in Juan de Valdes' Didlogo de la Lengua [c- , declared could not be a translation. I, cap. He dedicated it to the molt illustre Princep Ferdinand of Portugal. Very probably the fame and origin of Amadis accounted for this 'English' original, as mythical as the Hungarian origin of Las Sergas de Esplandian, and for its alleged translation into Portuguese.
The words in this Prdlogo of his Amadis , que hasta aqiii no es memoria de ninguno ser visto, refer not to the fourth book but to Montalvo's Sergas de Esplandian, which is conveniently replaced by dots in T. Braga, Questoes , p. Spanish translation, by Johan Garcia de Castrogeriz, of Egidio Colonna's De regimine principum, at the very time, that is, when the Spanish poet and chronicler, Pero Lopez de Ayala , was reading later, in.
Pero Fcrrus in the Cancionero de Baena refers to Amadis as written in three books. This is one of the most definite early references to Amadis, but of course reference to the. Spanish, and indeed some of the vaguer allusions references occur in the Cancionero de Baena, which. Because the Portuguese language was used throughout Spain in lyric poetry, it is sometimes argued as if the Portuguese had no prose, could only sing. The more real division was not between verse and prose but between the Portuguese lyrical love literature and the Spanish epic battle of Peninsular lyrics.
The prose rubrics of the Portuguese Cancioneiros and the Poetica of the Cancioneiro literature,. His connexion with Portugal was not voluntary. It was probably when he was a prisoner after the battle of Aljubarrota that he wrote the Rimado de Palacio, in which st. We know that King Dinis encouraged not only lyric poetry but also translations into Portuguese prose, but all the early Portuguese prose works are assigned to the fourteenth, not the thirteenth century.
The Infante whom he here on the strength of the passage in Montalvo's Amadis identifies with the son of King Dinis, not with the earlier Prince Afonso [c. There is no means of deciding with certainty whether Lopez de Ayala and Ferrus read Amadis in Spanish or in Portuguese, but there are inherent probabilities in favour of Portuguese.
No one without a thesis to support would deny that, generally, the. Conde D. Joao de Leite Ferreira agree with Zurara. Soledad certainly occurs in the first three books more frequently than in other Spanish prose. The Portuguese atmosphere is altogether absent in Las Sergas. Livra d' Amadis, como quer que soomentc este fosse feito a prazer Cap.
This passage is, however, absent in the earliest manuscript. The spelling cour. The obviou. Cronica de D. Fernando, cap. The year of his death, given as , quite uncertain. Floruit tempore Fernandi Regis.
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Nicolds Antonio , Bib. Clarimundo in his youth. If he Hved on through the reigns of Pedro I and Fernando , and acquired new distinction in battle in the reign of the latter, this might account for Zurara's assertion that he wrote Amadis in the reign of Fernando. But the chief obstacle to the authorship of Vasco is the existence in the Cancioneiro Colocci-Brancuti Nos. Amadis [lAh. II, cap. But does the existence of the poem entail that of a prose romance?
The early mention of Tristan, e. Osiendere Gaula cuius laudes nos inter Anonymos curiose collegimus. The challenge in the last sentence is of interest, as coming in date between the two statements by Leite Ferreira and the Conde da Ericeira asserting the existence of the Portuguese text. There was a Canon of Santiago of this name in , and he may have come to the Portuguese Court on business concerning certain privileges of the Chapter which King Dinis confirmed in Amadis that of the father, this Joao de Lobeira, written in the time of King Dinis a long-lived race these Lobeiras!
The threefold authorship of this family heirloom is even more cruu of :. Moreover, if the tance to nohiliarios and Portuguese adaptation of an Anglo-French legend had been even remotely as developed as the form in which we now have the Infante Afonso must have seen at once that the faithit, But fulness of Amadis was absolutely essential to the story. Leonoreta poem belongs to a Spanish Amadis in prose. But although the priority and relations of early Portuguese and Spanish prose works are intricate and have not yet been thoroughly studied, it is clear that in many cases versions have been more carefully preserved in conservative Spain, while the Portuguese through neglect, fire, and earthquake have perished, and also that the natural tendency and development of prose, in view of.
In the document the only son mentioned is named Gon9alo. According to D. Portuguese, was from Portuguese to Spanish, not from Spanish to Portuguese. Nor would the Portuguese, for all their familiarity with the story and topography of the Breton cycle, be likely to compose original works dealing with Vindilisora Windsor or Bristoya Bristol. Unhappily, however deep may be our Bretagna. Portuguese, it has now ceased to belong to Portuguese literature another instance, if we may beg the originally ;. Portuguese history, with its heroic achievements such as the conquest of Algarve, seems to have begun just too late to be the subject of great anonymous epics, or rather the temperament of the Portuguese people eschewed them.
Of five poems, long believed to be the earliest examples. Cava or da Perda de Espanha was an infant prodigy indeed, it was supposed to have been written in oitavas in the eighth century. Cronica de Cister, Bk. VI, cap. It has been several times reprinted cf. Barreto, Orlografia , p. Minotaur, and must be the echo of some Algarvian song. Its simple repetitions have a haunting rhythm, but they are perhaps a Httle too emphatic. One early epic poem Portugal undoubtedly possessed, Poema da Batalha do Salado, by Afonso Giraldez, who himself probably took part in the battle The subject of the poem is the same as that of the Spanish Poema de Alfonso Onceno, but whether its treatment was similar we cannot say, as only forty lines of the Galician-Portuguese poem survive.
Since the authorship of the Spanish poem is doubtful and its rhymes run more naturally theory has arisen, in Galician. It is perhaps more extraordinary that both should have. Since the battle was fought in Spain it would be considered in Brandao's day a proper subject for a romance, but would be noticeable as being written in Galician. Castilian was throughout the Peninsula regarded as the fitting the epic, just '.
SeeGrundriss, p. Fitzmau rice- Kelly, Litterature Espagnole, ed. Duardos the Cavalheiro dc Oliveira fessed to have found it. It is therefore surprising to find in Portugal a large number of romances. Had the romances been elaborated in the same way as in Spain, we might have expected a large number of anonymous Portuguese romances dealing with the Breton cycle, and indeed with early Portuguese history, so rich in heroic incidents.
The fact that this is not the case and the number of romances collected in Tras-os-Montes alike point to their Spanish origin, while their frequency in the Azores denotes how popular they became later in Portugal. In the sixteenth century their Spanish character was recognized. The poor escudeiro in Eufrosina is. The partiality for Spanish applied to poetry of other kinds, and Manuel de Galhegos says that it is a bold venture to publish poetry in Portuguese.
It is therefore noteworthy that the nurse in Gil Vicente sings romances in Spanish. Theophilo Braga, who considers Spanish influence on the romances in Cf. Rodriguez Lobo, Primavera ed. Romance he poesia propria de Hespanha, but Hespanha and Portugal and he instances G6ngora and Rodriguez ed. Spanish romances.
True historical romances the Portufor their. Ill, cap. Vicente, Os Almocreves Hei os de todos grosar Ainda que sejam velhos. Antigo may similarly mean antiquated ' rather than ancient. Barros, Grammatica, ed. Renins, the lines are Polos campos do Mondego Cavaleiros vi somar. The second edition of Dr. Theophilo Braga's Romanceiro runs to nearly two thousand pages. The first two volumes contain over romances together with numerous variants. Of these 5 belong to the Carolingian, 8 to the Arthurian cycle, of the best. In the third volume are reprinted romances composed by well-known Portuguese authors of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
It must be admitted that Spain generously repaid to Portugal the loan of the Galician language for lyrical composition although in each case it was. But even after the birth of the romance Spain continued to cultivate the Galician lyric, until the second half of the fifteenth century. The last instance is sup-. One name dominates the period. The love and tragic fate of. Joan Soarez de Paiva in the preceding century.
Of his story we know definitely nothing, but some lines in one of his poems. En men of D. In later Portuguese his name was often written Mansias. In an older version, that of the Constable D. Pedro in his Satira de felice e infelice vida, he. Enrique de Villena , who was perhaps only six when Macias died. Juan de Mena in Spain. But there were other poets whose verse was probably not inferior in-law as a Court poet corresponding to Nobleza de Andalvzia , ii, f.
In his farewell poem A Deus Amor, a Deus el Ret, which Cervantes perhaps remembered, he bids good bye to the trohadores con quen trobei, and in a quaint humorous testament he mentions a number of friends and relatives, two of whom, at least, his cousin Pedro de Valcacer or Valcarcel and Lope de Porto Carreiro, also wrote verse. In the last of the sixteen stanzas [ahhacca] of this testamento the Archdeacon appoints his namesake Gongalo Rodriguez de Sousa and Fernan Rodriguez to be his executors.
He may have been alive in , for a Doctor Gongalo Rodriguez, Archdeacon of Almazan, is mentioned as one of the witnesses to the oath taken by the city ;. Burgos to the Infante Maria in that year. King Juan I's dancing girls [una juglara in the belief that she was rich, he repented when he found que non tenia nada.
He next became a hermit near Gerena, and, this not proving more congenial than married poverty, he embarked ostensibly for the Holy Land, but in fact landed at Malaga with his wife and of. The name was a common one. Madrid, , p. There was also a fourteenth-century poet called Ruiz de Toro. He wrote to order and was considered the crown and king of all the poetas e trovadores who had ever existed in the whole of Spain '. This extravagant subservient ingly,. Cancionero de Baena has preserved over twenty. He writes in varying metres with unfailing ease and harmony, rarely sinks into mere verbal dexterity, and well deserves to be considered the best of these later Galician poets.
Alfonso upbraids Garci Ferrandez for renouncing the Christian faith and leaguing himself with the Devil [gannaste C. Five fragmentary poems belong to the Infante D. Pedro , Constable of Portugal. There are, besides his three short Portuguese poems in the Cancioneiro de Resende, only fortyone lines in all, for while Galician, already separated from her twin sister of Portugal, went to sleep a sleep of nearly four.
As a transition be mentioned here before his father D. Pedro, Coimbra, since his prose works, which would naturally. His life of thirty-seven years was thus as full of wandering adventure as that of any troubadour of old. To him Santillana addressed his celebrated letter on the development of poetry, and his own influence on Portuguese literature was important, for he introduced not only at Alfarrobeira he escaped. Carolina Michaelis de Vasconcellos years after Queen Isabel's death. His longest and most important poem, in octaves,. Coimbra - his Portuguese poems were also wrongly ascribed to King Peter I of Portugal, through confusion with the later King Peter, of Aragon , it was incorporated in the Cancioneiro de Resende, which appeared half of.
Another sister, D. Philippa de Lencastre , lived in retirement convent of Odivellas near Lisbon, and as a dedicatory poem to her translation of the Gospels wrote the simple, impressive lines beginning Non vos sirvo, nnn vos amo, '. Ribeiro dos Santos, Obras MS. Pedro, In reality he was not gifted with greater poetical filho do Snr. Rev D. Jodo I Cf. He had himself seen Nun' Alvarez as a young man and the heroes who had fought in a hundred fights to free their country from a foreign yoke, and he had father of Portuguese history, c. His work at the Torre do Tombo covered a period of over thirty years.
He won and kept as prince. The last document signed by Lopez as official is dated in July he seems to have resigned his position at least temporarily, and on June 6, , he was definitely superseded by Zurara as being so old and ; '. It appears from a document presented by Dr. Pedro de Azevedo at a meeting of the Sociedade Portnguesa de Estudos Historicos in July that his wife's niece was married to a shoe. Joam, cap. Needless to say, no English translation of Lopez exists. Joam I. The latter is but a brief sketch, and lacks the unity which the subject-matter gives to the other two.
His :. Whatever sources he utilized, Latin, Spanish, or Portuguese, he stamped his work with his '. Keenly alive to the dignity and responsibilities historians, See A. Braamcamp Freire, ibid. V arias Antigvidades de Portugal , cap. Goes, Cron. Manuel, iv. Joam, Prologo. Lopez' preface to his Cr. Joam Oo com quamto cuidado e diltgemfia vimos gramdes vollumes de livros, de desvairadas lingtiagees e terras ; e isso meesmo pubricas escprituras de muitos cartarios e otitros logares nas quaaes depois de longas vegilias e gramdes trabalhos mais ertidom aver nom podemos da contheuda em esta obra 19 15 ed.
Da Guerra see Zurara, Cr.
Calaméo - Catálogo
Mello refused the governorship of captured Ceuta in 5. A work on a similar subject, Tratado da Milicia, is ascribed to Zurara's friend and patron. King Afonso V Barbosa Machado, i. Fernam Lopez, as in the account of the murder of the Infante Fradique, which Lopez copies very closely although abbreviating it as really foreign to occasionally rises to the height of his history ,.
Joam, Certo he que quaaesquer estorias muito melhor se entemdem 5 ed. The words apply more accurately to Fernam Lopez. Ines' murthe murder of D. Maria Tellez and with skilful care the character of the actors, pleasure-loving King Ferdinand, cunning, audacious, and accomplished Queen Lianor Tellez, wise and noble Queen Philippa, even morose Juan I, and principally the popular Mestre d'Avis and his great Constable, Nun' Alvarez Pereira. And the Portuguese people is delineated both collectively and derers,.
That Lopez paid attention to his is proved by his modest disclaimer bidding the reader e. Esteves Pereira and Snr. Joam, at which he was working in Braamcamp Freire, Cr. Joam 5 , Inirodufdo, p. Joam it. A single age does not produce two Fernam Lopez any more than it produces two Montaignes or two Malorys. Those who read the continuation of the Cronica de D. Joam e. Xenophon, a motley company, mourn the death of Queen Philippa cap. Sermons extend over whole chapters, although, as he into Lopez' is.
Philosophy had been graciously woven but here it stands in solid icebergs interrupting the story. And if he wishes to say that memory fails in old he must quote St. Jerome often age a date could not be given. Roberto Correia Pinto Livro da Guerra de :. Ceuta Ceuta had been captured so swiftly that many had left the corn of their fields stored in their granaries and returned in time for the vintage '.
The whole description of the expedition against Ceuta and the attack and sack of the city are extremely clear. He also delights in elaborate metaphors. Nun' Alvarez has faded into the background, but in his place appears the intense and fervent spirit '. In this chronicle, written at the request of King Afonso finished in the king's library in. Pedro de Meneses was completed in , and the Cronica dos Feitos de D. Duarte de Meneses about five years later.
Manuel escrevia com razoamentos prolixos e cheos de Cr. His style is less involved than is often said. Some of his sentences may contain as many as words and yet be perfectly plain and straightforward, whereas Mallarme could be obscure in five words. This chronicle has the same plethora of learned quotations.
Chapter i quotes St. Pedro de Meneses twice. Joao de Barros, who was inclined to slight earlier and contemporary historians, acknowledges his great debt to Zurara. Damiao de Goes regards him less Cf. Zurara was a Knightof theOrderof Christ, with a comendane2ir Santarem, owned other property, and suffered himself to be adopted by a wealthy furrier's widow, an unusual proceeding for a person But if, as this indicates, he had a love of riches in his station. Not he but harshly been somewhat the taste and fashion of his time was to blame if he laid desecrating hands on the invaluable chronicles of Fernam Lopez, and as a punishment, '.
Zurara, on the other hand, with feigned diffdence represents himself a poor scholar ', a man almost entirely ignorant and without any knowledge ', and if he has any learning it is but the crumbs from King Afonso's He can rise to real eloquence, as in the table [Cr. Pedro, cap.
Oo iu cellestrial padre, que com beginning of cap. He has autor ', meaning himself. The immediate successor of Zurara as Cronista MSr was Vasco Fernandez de Lucena, whose life must have coincided almost exactly with the sixteenth century. He represented King Duarte at the Council of Basel in , and according to Barbosa Machado, who calls him um dos varoes mais famosos da sua idade assim na profundidade da litteratura como na eloquencia da frase, he was Unfortunately none of his works have survived.
His still living in Afonso Henriquez Duarte, Cronica That is to de D. Afonso V, and Cronica de D. Jodo II. Pina was no flatterer, :. Both King Joao II and King Manuel showed their appreciation of his services, and Barros lent authority to a foolish story that Afonso de Albuquerque sent him rubies and diamonds from India as a reminder, in Correa's phrase, to glorificar as coiisas de Afoiiso. Jodo II was laid under contribution by Garcia de Resende.
It may be doubted whether the Cronica de D. Afonso V contains much that is not Ruy de Pina's own. It was poetical justice that the interest of the story should be transferred from the Infante Henrique to the Infante Pedro. Pedro, D. Pedro and dedicated it to the Duke of Braganza Chronica Inedita, 3 vols. Lacking Lopez' genius, but possessed of an excellent plain style, which only becomes flowery on occasion, and on his guard against what he calls the vicio e avorrecimento da proluxidade, Pina relates his story straightforwardly, almost in the form of annals.
He does not attempt to eke out his matter with rhetoric and has chapters of under fifty. The Cronica de D. Afonso V effectively contrasts weak and chivalrous Afonso, who is praised as man but not as king, and the vigorous practical Joao H, and has an inimitable scene of the meeting of the former and Louis XI at Tours in The glow of Fernam Lopez is absent, but Pina none the less deserves to be accounted an able and words.
Fernando's misfortunes and one of the few of his companions to survive. The founder of the dynasty of Avis, King Joao I , found time in his busy reign of forty-eight years to encourage literature, ardently assisted no doubt by English Queen Philippa, and was himself an author. His keen practical spirit turned to Portuguese prose, and while as a poet he confined himself to a few prayers and psalms, in prose he caused to be translated the Hours of the Virgin and the greater part of the New Testament, as well as foreign works such as John Gower's in detail is the correct spelling of a.
The fact that no other name is given shows that then as now Basques were known by their nicknames. The same name figures in Pierre Loti's Ramuntcho Itchoua. Joao II. Valuable and interesting in itself, book of great significance in Portuguese literature by reason of the impulse thus given to Portuguese prose. It is.
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Liable to fits of melancholy, and of less active disposition than his brothers. Henrique and Pedro, he proved himself not less gallant in action than they at the taking of Ceuta in , and had even earlier been entrusted by his father with affairs of State. His scruples as philosopher- or rather student-king during his of five years. Bragain Historiada Univ. Portuguese as opposed to the latinized word, it has chapters on the art of translation, food, chapel services, and other subjects. Wit and originality he also lacked. But as a prose-writer he ranks among the greatest Portuguese authors, and in style was indeed something of an innovator, using words with an exactness and scrupulous nicety hitherto unknown in poems of others.
He gave the matter long and serious consideration, and the directness of his style corresponds to his sincerity of thought. His clear, concise sentences and careful choice of words show a true artist of unerring instinct in prose. The first part of the precept has been :. In his youth the king was noted for his horsebeen neglected. An excellent translator himself, he encouraged the Bishop translations into Portuguese, in Portugal and Spain ;. Deos aja. Jose Ignacio Roquette , comments p. Regent from to , he resigned when the young His king, his nephew and son-in-law, Afonso V, came of age.
Civil strife followed, and D. Pedro fell in a preliminary skirmish Had he been granted a peaceful at Alfarrobeira in May The work lacks King Duarte's gift of style which set the Leal Conselheiro high above contemporary prose. One of his sons was the famous and unfortunate Viceroy of India , D.
Francisco de Almeida. He prays to be delivered from this darkness of death, and a very fair youth appears clothed in clothes of gleaming fire and his face shone as the sun when it rises in the season of ' '. His glorious guide ', grorioso guyador, leads him dona sabedor and to dom francisco solitario, who in a fre? The colophon runs Acaboiise do [so] emprimir este lyuro chamado boosco delleytoso solitario p. A no da encarnaga de nosso ScUuador 6- Redentor jhesu xpo.
Jose Saramago's O Evangelho Segundo Jesus Cristo: Outline of a Newer Testament
Nacional de Lisboa, Res. Nicolas Antonio thus refers to the work Bib.
Nova, ii. Bosco deleitoso. Olisipone Imperial 14th or early 15th c , the language of which often bears traces of a Latin original. The Gentiles and Moors gradually accept her doctrines, but the Jewish rabbis prove more contumacious. Saints and angels and all the company of heaven discourse sweet music in the intervals of the discussion. Veneti opera Omnia Coloniae, , pp. The writer claims to be only a compiler comedo este livro nom como autor e achador das cousas em elle contheudas mas como simprez aiuntador dellas em huii vellume.
It has been attributed to the Infante D. Pedro and to Joao I. Pedro, in the middle of the fifteenth century A Portuguese version of a scriptural work entitled Sacramental, originally written in Spanish by Clemente Sanchez de Vercial, was published apparently in it would thus be one of the earliest books printed in Portugal , and was reprinted at Lisbon in The colophon in Spanish gives the alternative title [das tres 'virtudes The French original was also called Tresor de la Cite des Dames. Leite de Vasconcellos, Lifoes de Philologia Portuguesa, p.
Cancioneiros lasts for over a century, scarcely interrupted by the twilight murmurings of the later Galician poets, and is only broken for us by the publication of the Cancionetro Geral five years before the death of King Manuel. The native trovas had no doubt continued to be written by many poets in a country where poetry is scarcely rarer than prose, far commoner than good prose. But no one had cared to preserve them in a collection corresponding to the Cancionero de Baena in Spain. When Portuguese poetry again emerges into the clear light of day Spanish influence is infuU swing and behind it looms that of Italian poetry, the natural continuation of one side of the Cancionetro da Vaticana.
No Spanish poet now writes in Portuguese, many Portuguese in Spanish. Popular poetry and royal troubadours have alike disappeared, leaving a narrow circle of Court. It is to one of these that we owe the collection which embraces the poetry of the day, from the middle of the fifteenth century Stout, good-natured to the actual year of publication, Garcia de Resende [c. Evora and brought up in the palace as page and then as secretary of King Joao II, he had every opportunity of observing the events which he so graphically describes Talented and many-sided, in his Vida de Dom Joao II Resende not only drew and wrote verses but was a musician and an accomplished singer de tudo :.
He was not a great fidalgo da casa del Ret. If in his. Court persons. With an artist's eye for the picturesque he makes his readers see the event described, and his chronicle is throughout singularly vivid and dramatic. He is certainly an attractive writer, and perhaps he is also instructive. The incident, for instance, of the Duke of Braganza a more limited Court chronicler.
Historiadores Portugueses in Opusculos , ii. Cancioneiro Geral , often known as the Cancioneiro de Resende to distinguish it from the Spanish Cancionero General A large number of the Cancioneiro' s poems some 1, poems by between and poets should scarcely have been included, for, however well they might answer their purpose as occasional verse, they were not intended as a possession for ever, and massed together produce an effect of dull and endless triviality.
These love poems can indeed be as monotonous, the satiric poems as coarse, licentious, and irreverent, as those of the Cancioneiro da Vaticana. One of the poets, D. Joao Manuel, like King Alfonso X of old, does beseech his colleagues to cease singing of Cupid and Macias and turn to religious subjects. But it was not Garcia de Resende's purpose to include religious verse. Poems recording great deeds and occasions he would gladly have printed in larger number, but, as he among others complained in his preface, it was character-.
While Columbus was discovering America, Bartholomeu Diaz rounding the Cape of Good Hope, history most calculated to ' Or he would seek to obtain them through a friend as in the case of o Cancioneiro do abade frei Martinho of Alcobafa. It is improbable that Resende, who valued friendship above good poetry, altered the manuscripts he received, in spite of Francisco de Sousa's permission as quaes podeys enmcndar. Had you forgotten that irovas are still written in Portugal? Vasco da Gama sailing to India, or Afonso de Albuquerque making desperate appeals for men and money to enable him to maintain his brilliant conquests, the Court poets were versifying on an incorrectly addressed letter, a lock of hair, a dingy headdress, a very lean and aged mule, the sad fate of a lady marrying away from the Court in Beira, a quarrel between a tenor and soprano, a courtier's velvet cap or hat of blue silk, a button.
Fernando de Coutinho before da Costa wrote to this rate would prefer to have no he Garcia de Resende that at pepper, and Resende answered that for his part he certainly had Calicut, with the death of the latter, Bras. But, as a rule, such events received not even so trivial a comment, and no doubt the poets felt that the verse which served to pass the time at the seroes was inBut the trovador segundo as adequate to any great occasion.
For over lines of verse this cap It must weigh four is bandied to and fro by the witty poets. Another advises him to lock it up :. The Cancioneiro contains many references to Venice. Besides the elaborate Spanish poem by that noble prince the Constable D. The correspondent of Gomez Manrique and contemporary of his nephew Jorge, in the metre of whose famous Coplas His he wrote, he was present at the battle of Alfarrobeira. The few simple lines written as he lay dying show him at his His friend and distant relative Fernam da Silveira, best. Espero dir adianie.
He deals with affairs of State, writes an account in trovas of six syllables of the Cortes held by the king at Montemor in and a short poem, on the appointment of various bishops in Or he sends a poem to his nephew Garcia de Mello with detailed instructions His trovas are as to how he should dress and behave at Court. He is less at. JoAO Manuel [c. Legitimized in and brought up at Court with the prince. Manuel, he continued to be a favourite after the latter's accession, became Lord High Chamberlain, and was sent to the Court of Castille in.
In Spanish octaves he had. Augustine that our soul exists not where it lives but where it loves which in the following century was quoted by two writers so different as Ferreira de Vasconcellos and Frei Heitor Pinto and soon became a commonplace. In other works he shows a high seriousness, sometimes a sententious strain, combined with a very real poetical talent. His death during his mission to Castille was a loss for the Court and for Portuguese poetry.
Byanotherwriter, Fernam da Silveira , we have. His death was tragic, for, having succeeded his father as secretary to King Joao II, he took part in the ill-fated conspiracy of the. He finds, he says, more pleasure in his vines, in the chase, in digging and watering his garden, than in being a favourite at Court.
He had not always thought thus, for when the lady he was courting married a rival he could devise no worse fate for her than to bid her go and die among the chestnut groves of Beira. It is pleasant to find him bidding them not speak their insipid Castilian in his presence. He also used the octosyllabic metre with breaks of single lines [quehrados of four syllables, so familiar in Gil Vicente's plays, and in his Fingimento de Amores[2y verses of 8 octosyllabic lines , under SpanishItalian influence, he touches a richer, more generous vein of his courtly satire, ' '.
Jorge de Manrique is absent from the stanzas written in the metre of his Coplas by Luis Anriquez on the fatal accident which ended. Both poets invoke Death O morte que morte que matas quern e prosperado Brandam matas sem tempo e sazam Anriquez. Other historical poems by Anriquez in the same metre are the verses written on the occasion of the transference of the remains of Joao H and thirty: ;.
Duke of Braganza, when he attack Azamor in 15 If we turn to Anriquez' other. Angelo Poliziano ti and died a cena poem in decimas describing the arms of the noble families of Portugal, and translated into trovas three long letters from the Latin which by their spirit of saudade Penelope to Ulysses, Laodamia appealed to Portuguese taste He was also versed in the to Protesilaus, and Dido to Aeneas.
Greek language, and for his noble character and courtly ways as well as for his learning and poetical talent was venerated by Antonio Ferreira the younger generation into which he lived salutes him as the ancient sire of the muses of this land '. The most discreet D. Francisco de Portugal, first Conde de Vimioso 'i , although he did not live to be a centenarian, also survived most of the poets of Joao IPs reign and died towards the end of that of Joao HI.
Son of the Bishop of Evora and greatgrandson of the first Duke of Braganza, he was created a count by King Manuel in , and was equally renowned as soldier, statesman, courtier, and poet, wise and prudent in peace and war '. His Sentengas , over one hundred of which are rhymed quatrains, were published by his grandson D. Anrique de Portugal. Some of these moral sayings have considerable subtlety, and they reveal a fine character and insight into the character of others. A culpa de quern se ama doe mats perdoase mais asinha, louvor quern o merece. Joao de Menescs, from most of the other writers in Resende's song-book.
The redondilha in his hands is no wooden toy but a living, moving instrument. The Italian influence, working through Spanish, was already present in Portuguese poetry in the fifteenth century,. The real busmess of the seroes, so far as poetry was concerned, was ouvir e glosar motes. These glosas and the similar cantigas and esparsas, short poems of fixed form, often written with skill and spontaneous charm, were merely one of the necessary accomplishments of a courtier. Such a view of poetry could scarcely give rise to great poets, and these versifiers.
But, worse still, the poets of the Canwere often scarcely Portuguese. Unlike Macias, who is but a name, Santillana :. On the other hand, King Dinis, unexpectedly introduced once as a poet. By method, subject, and foreign imitation, this Court poetry was thus inevitably artificial and Perhaps in the whole Cancioneiro the only poem uninspired.
SousA the few lines beginning monies erguidos, Deixai-vos cair.
The contributions of Sa deMiranda, as those of three other famous poets, give no sign of the coming greatness of the contributor. The names of the other three are Bernardim Ribeiro, Cristovam Falcao, and the prince of all these poets, here the humblest of Cinderellas, Gil Vicente. Andre de Gouvea , whom Montaigne called sans comparaison le '.
Nicholas of. King Joao III and especially his son, the young prince Joao , Cardinal Henrique , and the many-sided Infante Luis , favorecedor de toda habilidad, himself a poet of no '. Nicolai Clenardi Episiolarum libri duo. Antuerpiae, Several fine sonnets have been ascribed to hini cf. Fenix Renascida, iii. Lianor de Noronha , daughter of '. But Portuguese literature lost something by its latinization, and it is pleasant to turn back half a century to a time when it was.
Dressed as a herdsman on the night of June 7, , he congratulated the queen on the birth of the Infante, later King Joao III born during the night of June 6 , in a Spanish monologue of lines. Severim de Faria speaks praerogatitias The author of Dos prinilegios of her sancto desejo de saber. His life is wrapped in obscurity, and the known existence of half a dozen contemporary Gil ViThere was a page centes makes research a risky operation. This would seem to place his birth a few years before As, however, it was written before the Templo de.
Almost certainly he was not of exalted parentage. Esto e novello Se eu digo Vos aveis de confirmalo. It is a method which might lead to comical Was results if further pressed in the case of Vicente or other dramatists.
Números em texto integral
Mello seventy-three when he wrote the Fidalgo Aprendiz? Martim Vicente, said to have been a silversmith of Guimaraes Minho. If it were only that his peasants use words such asnega, nego, which according to the grammarian it might pass remarks that old-fashioned words will not be out of place if we assign them to an old man of Beira or a peasant. But it is impossible. We do not know when Vicente to Lisbon, nor whether, as Jose de Cabedo de Vasconcellos, another 17th c. Pederneira is mentioned again in ii. This genealogist, says Castello Branco, era as vezes ignorante e outras vezes mal intencionado.
He does not say that Martim Vicente exercised his alleged profession of silversmith at Guimaraes, or that Gil was bom there. What more probable than for Guimaraes, proud of its poetical traditions, to invent a silversmith father for the famous poet-goldsmith? Jodo terceiro poeta celehre, foi natural de Barcellos e andam algumas cousas suas impressas. Ixxviii, and again f. Some hold that he married his first wife, Branca Bezerra, in 15 12, that he owned the Quinta do Mosteiro near Torres Vedras a supposition no longer tenable , that the name of his second wife was Melicia Rodriguez, but we have no certainty as to this, nor as to the number of his children.
There is some reason to believe that he died in the year of his last play or early in He suffered from fever and plague, which brought him to death's door in , and he had grown stout with advancing age. An incident at Santarem on the. Manuel Tavares, Portugal illustrado pelo sexo fcminino , calls her a discretissima mulher. Jorge Ferreira, Ulysippo, iii. Our faith in manuscript documents and genealogies is not increased by the fact that one investigator, the Visconde Sanches de Baena , emerges with the triumphant conclusion that the two Gil Vicentes were uncle and nephew, while another,.
For indeed this was a singular instance of The goldsmith wrote verses the poet takes a remarkable interest in the goldsmith's art. The gold-. See Barros, Asia, i. The goldsmith in the Farsa das Almocreves uses the technical word hastiaes which occurs in the Livro Vermelho of Afonso V E porqiie alguns Ouriueses It occurs, however, in the tern ora feita algua prata dourada e de bastiaes. Cancioneiro Geral galantes bastiaes , in Resende's Miscellania bestides , and ' ' :. Concrete, definite images spring from his brain in contrast to the vaguer effusions of most Portuguese poets.
Every one wrote verses. Had a celebrated poet say the Gil Vicente of wrought the custodia his contemporaries might have recorded the fact, but Gil Vicente was not a famous. Yet the rubric of the Auto dos Quafro Tempos say? It should be said that Dr. Coelho agree with Menendez y Pelayo. Theophilo Braga even declares that he can prove an alibi. Carolina Michaelis de Vasconcellos opposed identity in , and has not definitely expressed herself in its favour since. On the other hand, Snr. Braamcamp Freire is a convinced supporter of identifying poet and ' Antologia, vii, p.
Perhaps the gold-beater of Seville, Lope de Rueda ? But the comico who was dramatist and lyric poet, musician, actor, preacher in prose and verse, the art of Gil Vicente the poet. The offerings at the end of the Visitagam seem to have suggested to Queen Lianor the idea of its repetition on Christmas morning, but Gil Vicente, considering its matter inappropriate, wrote a new play with parts for six shepherds. This Auto Pastoril Castelhano is four times as long as the Visitagam.
To them the Angels announce the birth of the Redeemer, and they go to sing and dance before aquel garzon. The principal part, that of the mystic shepherd Gil Terron, inclined to the life contemplative ', well read letrudo in the Bible, with some knowledge of metaphysics and perhaps of the Corte Imperial, devoted to Nature and the sierras benditas, was evidently played '. Dialogo em lovvor de nossa linguagem, ed. Registers of the Chancellery of King Manuel vol. Cancionero, i. Ixxxvi v. Torre do Tombo, Lisbon. Nearly twice as long as the Auto Pastoril CasteIhano, of a. Abraham, and Moses, who describes the creation of the world.
The play includes a profane theme, since Cassandra in her mystic aversion from marriage realistically portrays the sad life. Although Cassandra appears as a shepherdess and her aunt Peresica as a peasant, they speak a purer, more flowing Castilian than the toscos, rusticos pastores of the preceding autos, and the play is remarkable for the beauty of its lyrics Dicen que me case yo, Sanosa estd la nina, Muy graciosa es la doncella, and A la guerra.
Related A Relíquia (Biblioteca Essencial da Literatura Portuguesa Livro 30) (Portuguese Edition)
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