For instance, when a member of the Oxford Group comes to me in order to get treatment, I say, 'You are in the Oxford Group; so long as you are there, you settle your affair with the Oxford Group. I can't do it better than Jesus. Jung goes on to state that he has seen similar cures among Roman Catholics. The 12 step program of Alcoholics Anonymous has an intense psychological backdrop, involving the human ego and dichotomy between the conscious and unconscious mind.
Jung had an apparent interest in the paranormal and occult. For decades he attended seances and claimed to have witnessed "parapsychic phenomena". Initially he attributed these to psychological causes, even delivering lecture in England for the Society for Psychical Research on "The Psychological Foundations for the belief in spirits". Jung's ideas about the paranormal culminated in " synchronicity ", his idea that meaningful connections in the world manifest through coincidence with no apparent causal link. Jung influenced one philosophical interpretation not the science of quantum physics with the concept of synchronicity regarding some events as non-causal.
That idea influenced the physicist Wolfgang Pauli with whom, via a letter correspondence, he developed the notion of unus mundus in connection with the notion of nonlocality and some other physicists. The work and writings of Jung from the s onwards focused on alchemy. In Jung published Psychology and Alchemy , in which he analyzed the alchemical symbols and came to the conclusion that there is a direct relationship between them and the psychoanalytical process.
Mysterium Coniunctionis was Jung's last book and focused on the " Mysterium Coniunctionis " archetype, known as the sacred marriage between sun and moon. Jung proposed that art can be used to alleviate or contain feelings of trauma, fear, or anxiety and also to repair, restore and heal. At times of emotional distress, he often drew, painted, or made objects and constructions which he recognized as more than recreational.
Jung stressed the importance of individual rights in a person's relation to the state and society. He saw that the state was treated as "a quasi-animate personality from whom everything is expected" but that this personality was "only camouflage for those individuals who know how to manipulate it",  and referred to the state as a form of slavery. Jung had many friends and respected colleagues who were Jewish and he maintained relations with them through the s when anti-semitism in Germany and other European nations was on the rise.
However, until , he also maintained professional relations with psychotherapists in Germany who had declared their support for the Nazi regime and there were allegations that he himself was a Nazi sympathizer. The society was reorganized into two distinct bodies:. The International Society's constitution permitted individual doctors to join it directly, rather than through one of the national affiliated societies, a provision to which Jung drew attention in a circular in In , this journal published a statement endorsing Nazi positions  and Hitler's book Mein Kampf.
Jung went on to say "the main point is to get a young and insecure science into a place of safety during an earthquake". For the next few years, the Zentralblatt under Jung and Meier maintained a position distinct from that of the Nazis, in that it continued to acknowledge contributions of Jewish doctors to psychotherapy. Jung's interest in European mythology and folk psychology has led to accusations of Nazi sympathies, since they shared the same interest.
Jung clearly identifies himself with the spirit of German Volkstumsbewegung throughout this period and well into the s and s, until the horrors of Nazism finally compelled him to reframe these neopagan metaphors in a negative light in his essay on Wotan. There are writings showing that Jung's sympathies were against, rather than for, Nazism. Hitler seemed like the 'double' of a real person, as if Hitler the man might be hiding inside like an appendix, and deliberately so concealed in order not to disturb the mechanism You know you could never talk to this man; because there is nobody there It is not an individual; it is an entire nation.
In an interview with Carol Baumann in , Jung denied rumors regarding any sympathy for the Nazi movement, saying:. It must be clear to anyone who has read any of my books that I have never been a Nazi sympathizer and I never have been anti-Semitic, and no amount of misquotation, mistranslation, or rearrangement of what I have written can alter the record of my true point of view.
Nearly every one of these passages has been tampered with, either by malice or by ignorance. Furthermore, my friendly relations with a large group of Jewish colleagues and patients over a period of many years in itself disproves the charge of anti-Semitism. Others have argued contrary to this, with reference to his writings, correspondence and public utterances of the s.
For Jung, the "epithet "barbarism" was anything but a compliment". During the s, Jung had worked to protect Jewish psychologists from antisemitic legislation enacted by the Nazis. Jung's individual efforts to aid persecuted German-Jewish psychologists were known only to a few; however, during this period he discreetly helped a large number of Jewish colleagues with active and personal support in their efforts to escape the Nazi regime - and many of those he helped in this period would later become friends of his.
Jung was in contact with Allen Dulles of the Office of Strategic Services predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency and provided valuable intelligence on the psychological condition of Hitler. Jung saw the human psyche as "by nature religious" and made this religiousness the focus of his explorations. Jung is one of the best known contemporary contributors to dream analysis and symbolization. His influence on popular psychology, the "psychologization of religion", spirituality and the New Age movement has been immense.
A Review of General Psychology survey, published in , ranked Jung as the 23rd most cited psychologist of the 20th century. The Collected Works of C. Executive ed. Trans R. London: Routledge Kegan Paul From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Jung disambiguation. Swiss psychiatrist and psychotherapist. Kesswil , Thurgau , Switzerland. Important figures. Important works. Schools of thought. Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis.
See also: Psychoanalysis. Main article: Extraversion and introversion. See also: persona psychology. Main article: Carl Jung publications. Main article: The Collected Works of C. Psychiatry portal Psychology portal. Bair, Deirdre Jung: A Biography. New York: Back Bay Books. Jung emphasized the significance of the symbolic structure of alchemical texts, a structure that is understood as a way independent of laboratory research, as a structure per se.
Alkimia Operativa and Alkimia Speculativa. Some Modern Controversies on the Historiography of Alchemy. Also, C. Jung, Aufsatze zur Zeitgeschichte , Speeches made in , are excerpted. He was protesting the "slavery by the government" and the "chaos and insanity" of the mob, because of the very fact that they were the part of the mob and were under its strong influence.
He wrote that because of the speeches he delivered he was blacklisted by the Nazis. They eliminated his writings. The Cambridge Companion To Jung. Cambridge University, Toronto Life. Casey, Jason M. Wirth eds. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
Jung 1 ed. New York: Atheneum. Vision Journal. Retrieved 19 December He was an Arabist; but the family money ran out for his studies. Relief came from a family legacy, however, a condition of the will was that it should only be offered to a family member who intended to study theology and become a pastor.
Paul Jung therefore had his career determined by a will, not his will. See page The Art Therapy Sourcebook. McGraw-Hill Professional.
Retrieved 19 July Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 April A Life of Jung 1st American ed. New York: W. JUNG: Experiences".
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IWC Schaffhausen. Retrieved 7 September A secret symmetry. Sabina Spielrien between Jung and Freud. Tender love and transference. International Journal of Psychoanalysis'. The snares of seduction in life and in therapy, or what do young [Jewish] girls Spielrein seek in their Aryan heroes Jung , and vice versa? Jung: A Journey of Transformation. Quest Books. The correspondence between Sigmund Freud and C.
Translated by Ralph Manheim and R. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Jung — A Biography. Freud, Jung and Hall the King-Maker. Revolution in Mind: The Creation of Psychoanalysis. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Pantheon Books. Psychology: The Science of Behavior. Freud: A Life for Our Time.
See also: Jung, Collected Works vol. The Guardian. Journal of Analytical Psychology.
Lionel Trilling and Steven Marcus. Retrieved 7 June Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology. Constance E. Bailliere, Tindall and Cox. The New York Times. Retrieved 20 September Rubin Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 11 July Psychology and Western Religion. Ark Routledge. A third and equally weighty essay is Psychology and Religion , originally given as the Terry Lectures at Yale University in Editorial Note by William McGuire.
Book reviews - - Journal of Analytical Psychology - Wiley Online Library
Palgrave Macmillan. Jung in Africa. Jung , p. Clemens, Carl Gustav Jung, Jung , Princeton. It was first published as Antwort auf Hiob , Zurich, and translated into English in , in London.
Boston: Little, Brown. Carl G. Jung is Dead at 85; Pioneer in Analytic Psychology". Jung the Mystic. Psychological Types. Armstrong had the client close her eyes, focusing on the sensation of her throat closing and when she first remembered feeling it. Together, they traced the sensation back to her childhood.
Armstrong talked to the client about her ultimate goal — to be able to swallow and eat without difficulty. She first worked with the client to come up with an image that would replace the thought of the dinner table. Armstrong asked her to picture something that flowed, and the client came up with a waterfall. Armstrong then had the woman envision stepping back into the dinner table scene but instructed her to think of the waterfall instead of how she would do anything to not have to eat there.
Armstrong also likes to use music in her counseling practice, particularly with clients who are dealing with grief.
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She first asks clients to come up with a playlist of songs that remind them of the loved one who is no longer there. Sometimes the healing benefit of the playlist extends beyond the client. Armstrong recalls one client who developed a playlist in counseling after his child died. Armstrong traces the advent of her use of creativity in counseling to her time as an intern and young counselor working with inner-city youth in New Orleans. As part of a grant-sponsored school counseling program, she went to schools in impoverished neighborhoods to help students.
Armstrong needed to understand their world, so she started small and offered a bribe of sorts. As Armstrong learned more about the adolescents, it became obvious that their biggest concern was getting to and from school and in and out of their neighborhoods without getting shot. The youth used their art to explore lives and careers outside of the projects. Armstrong also gave them practical challenges by having them create a mock design business, and she appointed the students to various roles — designer, CEO and so on.
She thinks this creative approach taught them more about how to work together than any of the traditional conflict resolution techniques she was originally prepared to apply. In fact, a decade later, Armstrong was in the airport in New Orleans, and one of the girls she had counseled — now a young woman — was working there. She recognized Armstrong and stopped to thank her, telling her that Armstrong had genuinely helped her believe that she could change her life trajectory. Counselor educators and co-researchers Tina Paone and Krista Malott, members of ACA, believe that using creative methods to teach can make it easier for counseling students to learn about and discuss controversial topics.
Paone, an associate professor at Monmouth University in West Long Branch, New Jersey, and Malott, an associate professor at Villanova University outside of Philadelphia, are both longtime proponents of creativity and experiential learning. They have recently been studying the effects of using sand trays, journaling, photojournaling and other creative techniques in their classes on racism and white privilege.
The counselor educators say that it can feel confrontational to students to be lectured on these topics and uncomfortable to be forced to sit and have open discussions on the subject matter. Sometimes, Malott notes, students get defensive about the concept of white privilege or, conversely, discouraged at how thoroughly entrenched racism is in society. When learning about microaggressions, students may also feel guilty or upset upon realizing how often they have participated in those small acts of racism.
Malott and Paone have their students write journal entries about what they are thinking and what they have learned after each lecture. For example, Paone positions students in poses that she thinks reflect how they have reacted verbally. She also acts out how she feels the students are reacting to her — for instance, by posing with her back to the class if she thinks they are not really listening.
Paone uses experiential and physical techniques in part because she believes they can be more engaging. In addition, she thinks it is important to use multiple teaching styles because students learn in different ways — some are predominantly verbal learners, whereas others are more visual. Malott agrees. For instance, Malott has her students engage in various physical or almost gamelike activities. The class then discusses which items should or should not be defined as microaggressions and why. Placing the most cards correctly becomes almost like a competition, further engaging the students in learning.
Malott also directs students to form groups for some of the activities so they can problem-solve together. Talking about what they see helps reinforce what they are learning, she says. For example, Malott might put up statistics related to racism and quotes from counselors about best practices to support diversity. Students then walk around, read the information and decide which topics they want to dig into at a deeper level.
The activity offers students an almost museumlike experience, but enhanced, she says. Malott says that creativity also makes her a better, more engaged teacher. Malott points out that some research indicates that students learn more when they are actively engaged. Paone adds that when students learn more, they make better counselors. Although their study of the efficacy of using experiential techniques to teach students about racism and privilege has covered various methods, Paone and Malott are particularly excited by the prospect of photojournaling.
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