Helly's encounter with spiritualism changed her life. Jung's Medium, Stephanie Zumstein-Preiswerk -- Helly's niece -combines information from unpublished family documents with the reminiscences of her father Helly's older brother , her mother a school friend of Helly and others in the Preiswerk and Jung families to construct a semifictional narrative of her aunt's career as C. Jung's Trilby to his Svengali. The essential information in the book fits with what we know about the histories of the Preiswerk and Jung families and seems to be a more reliable account of Jung's life between and than has previously been reported; in fact, it is more consistent with the known facts than any of Jung's own published remarks on this episode in his life.
On that fateful night in June , the first seance proved more remarkable than anyone could have dreamed. Jung sat in the ring of women around the large, round wooden table, presiding nervously. As was the custom in table-tipping groups, he placed a water glass in the center. It would be disturbed if, any minute, imperceptible levitation of the table occurred. He instructed everyone to rest their hands gently on the table, and hold hands by lightly touching fingertips. After a few moments in complete silence, the air suddenly felt thick, electric. Without warning, the water glass on the table began to shake violently.
Despite himself, Jung was as terrified as the rest. With great difficulty he exclaimed, "We have a gifted medium in our midst. To everyone's amazement, she began to speak. Ask where he sends me. It is my place to accept. Scared out of their wits, Jung and Luggy lifted her up and placed her on a sofa. Jung was the first to come to his senses. Her eyelids fluttered open, and she began to respond. But her voice sounded like that of an old man. Pray to the Lord and ask him to please make sure my grandchild reaches her goal, as she finds herself now over the North Pole in icy heights.
That is the shortest way to America. Grandfather Preiswerk would be the primary spokesman during each of the first three seances, acting as a sort of spirit guide or "control" for Helly. The answer he received made it apparent that, like the shamans of old, Helly's soul had left her body and had embarked on a "magical flight" in order to save the soul of another. She is now flying over the Isthmus of Panama. Helly's soul didn't reach Brazil in time to help Bertha. In a deep voice, Grandfather Preiswerk urged them all to pray for Bertha because she had already "given birth to a little nigger" "Berthi hat soeber ein kleines Negerlein geboren".
In , Bertha had emigrated to Brazil and had, in fact, given birth to a black baby after marrying a man of mixed race. Allegedly, Helly had no knowledge of any of this prior to her first trance. Although two Jung-Preiswerk patriarchs were fatally ill, the possible birth of "a little nigger" to Bertha -- the introduction of a "degenerate" strain into the family line -appeared to be the greater family trauma. Now, Grandfather Preiswerk, a good Christian soldier even beyond the grave, returned on that first evening to urge those there to pray for God to forgive his fallen daughter.
A second seance was held in July. To prevent Helly from entering another deep trance in which her soul would once again fly far from her body, Jung changed the technique. This time he devised a kind of a letter board, much like the Ouija boards of today. An empty water glass would act as a planchette, moving from the center of the table onto the surrounding circle of little slips of papers containing letters and numbers. Words were spelled out letter by letter until the message became clear. Helly warned Jung that, for the second experiment, "I no longer want to travel so far.
Helly was afraid that she would die during one of these trances if the thin thread that connected her soul to her body snapped inadvertently. This time Helly planted two fingers of her right hand on the overturned container. The glass suddenly began to dance across the table, moving quickly from letter to letter as Jung transcribed. Once again, Grandfather Preiswerk introduced himself and told them not to be afraid. This time he brought along "Carl's grandfather, Professor Jung," who remained silent throughout the proceedings.
Following this last message, Helly sank back in her chair in a semiconscious state. Jung moved her to the sofa, where he took the pale medium's pulse. After a while she told everyone in her own voice that she had seen Grandfather Preiswerk and Grandfather Jung arm in arm in conversation like two old friends.
Jung was provoked to remark, "I thought these two spirits couldn't stand one another when they were alive and that they barely knew one another. Then she woke up fully, miffed, telling Jung he should leave, and that "He doesn't deserve the flowers. On the whole it had been much less dramatic than the first, but following Jung's urging, the group agreed to meet again. A week later, on a hot Saturday evening in July, the spiritualist circle once again congregated around the old wooden table at the parsonage in Kleinhiiningen that had belonged to Grandfather Preiswerk.
At this sitting Helly almost immediately fell -- literally. Jung put her on the sofa. Soon she lifted her head and said that he should leave the room. Helly stood up and, accompanied by vivid gesturing, claimed that her older sister Dini Celestine had sinned mightily and had fallen deeply from grace. She had recently married but was about to give birth to a child scandalously soon after the ceremony. Having made this pronouncement, Helly began to lose consciousness.
With a sigh she fell into a deep sleep, lying rigidly on the sofa after becoming cadaverously pale. But she wasn't done. I can't save it. After a second such tragedy the following year, it was revealed that Dini had syphilis. Unable to accept this, Dini insisted that she had been bewitched by her mother-in-law. This third seance would prove to be the last for the next two years. After Helly's father died in September, her uncle Samuel the first child of the old reverend had learned of Jung's experiments and forbade Helly's participation. The excuse was Helly's religious instruction for confirmation, a long process in those days.
During the typical two-year period that climaxed with the reception of first communion, piety was expected to replace youthful frivolity, and special religious instruction precluded simple entertainment, let alone acting as a medium at a seance. Helly received this instruction from Samuel, who was a strict Pietist. He was also violently opposed to dabbling in spookery and did not share the fascination with contacting the dead that occupied most of his family and his disagreeable nephew, Carl. Jung was furious.
He had carefully planned the strategy of the seances and had been keeping detailed notes. To have his experiments cut off in midstream seemed tremendously unfair. Despite -- or perhaps because of -- the fact that his father was a pastor, Jung rarely attended Sunday church services himself and instead spent the day of rest reading. But his choice of reading material was, as we shall see, highly unorthodox. Mostly, Jung read the literature of spiritualism and of psychical research the British Society for Psychical Research had existed since to promote the scientific study of such phenomena.
Using this literature as his model, Jung's practice of scrupulously documenting the seances with Helly points to his intention to use or publish the material. The interruption of the seances compromised this long-term goal. Helly, for her part, had wanted to continue the sessions with Jung and in the long interim found herself prone to quasi-trance states and intuitive pronouncements about poltergeists in the Jung household.
To feed the flames of their interest in spiritualism, Jung sent Helly and Luggy many books on the subject, inscribing them with the date and with encouraging messages. Jung wasn't going to let go of his cousins too soon. Helly he needed as his medium; Luggy he had fallen in love with. But as she was his first cousin, this was one flower that could not fully bloom. Other events, however, eclipsed these setbacks.?
Jung began attending medical-school classes and Zofingia fraternity meetings in the latter half of In January , his father died, leaving him, his mother, and his young sister without any source of income. Although he never acknowledged it in MDR, he received significant financial support for medical school from the Preiswerk family, who made sure he had opportunities to make money -- such as selling off one Preiswerk's antiques -- to pay back what they had loaned him.
When a new pastor was found in April to replace Paul Jung, the family had to leave the parsonage of Kleinhuningen. Eduard Preiswerk, himself a pastor in St. Leonhard, saved the family from homelessness by placing them in a house he owned at Bottminger Mill. The Jungs lived there with Emilie's sister Auguste, Jung's "Aunt Gusteli," who was said to be like a second mother to him. Jung remained there until he moved to Zurich in December Reading philosophy, seeking spirits There is no doubt that during his medical-school years Jung believed in the potential of human beings to communicate with discarnate or otherworldly entities.
Yet the usual grounding of spiritualist practices in Christian beliefs left him cold. His disillusionment with Christian dogma and ritual fueled his skepticism about the veracity of the all-tooChristian messages that were usually sent from beyond the grave. Could there be a nonChristian spirit world? And if so, what would this say about the true nature of religion and its place in the everyday lives of human beings? How could the monotheism of his own Judeo-Christian civilization be reconciled with evidence of a polydaemonic spirit world?
And what would the greater implications of such evidence be for the nature of individual human existence? His relentless curiosity about these questions in his early twenties led him along some unusual paths. Jung realized that he needed to put the mediumistic phenomena of Helly into a wider intellectual context outside traditional Christian thought. He began to read ravenously on a variety of subjects that were clearly far beyond the medical texts he was required to study. Schelling , and evolutionary biology Lamarck, Darwin, Ernst Haeckel.
Psychiatric texts -- especially the works of French alienists of the "dissociationist" school who studied hypnosis, hysteria, and multiple personalities, men such as J. Of course, they became a special area of focus after December , when Jung's psychiatric career formally began at the time he assumed a position in Zurich at the Burgholzli hospital for mental disorders.
Jung's most extensive readings, however, were in occultism, mesmerism, psychical research, and spiritualism, all areas that touched upon deep personal concerns. Zoellner, Cesare Lombroso, F. Myers, and William James. Some argued that evidence for such phenomena also supported the hypothesis of postmortem survival or the existence of other realities coexistent with our own. Zoellner, for example, in Transcendental Physics , hypothesized the existence of a "fourth dimension" of reality as a place from which "four dimensional beings" occasionally entered our experiential world through the filter of the symbolic contents of our own memories and mind, an idea that Jung reworked again and again throughout a lifetime of speculation on parapsychological phenomena.
Jung was single-minded in his pursuit of a particular kind of knowledge. It appears that even his extensive readings in philosophy were guided primarily by his quest for a true understanding of the human soul and the conditions under which postmortem survival was possible. Jung felt that the opinions of respected philosophers legitimized the unconventional obsessions that set him apart from many of his fellow students and from the majority of the scientific community. Although he claimed throughout his life that Kant and Schopenhauer were major influences on his ideas about the nature of the unconscious mind, it is primarily their writings on the spirit world that he had in mind, not their major works that are traditionally studied.
Jung was never a very sophisticated student of philosophy, and most of his philosophical knowledge was absorbed secondarily and only as it pertained to the survival of the human soul beyond the body and the three dimensions of conscious human experience. Kant's analysis of the prophetic experiences of the Swedish clairvoyant Emanuel Swedenborg, a little book entitled Dreams of a Spirit-Seer ,  was a particular favorite of Jung's during these years, and he mentioned it in his Zofingia lectures and in his earliest publications.
Kant's discussion of how experiences of the future can be obtained in the present even though they violate the known a priori categories of experience of space, time, and causality became the basis of all subsequent discussions of paranormal phenomena throughout the nineteenth century. As for Schopenhauer, the one work that Jung seemed to be most familiar with was his Essay on Spirit-Seeing , which affirmed the validity of hypnotic phenomena and clairvoyance. Schopenhauer offers the theory that all visions of future events are "allegorical or symbolical"  -- that is, they are filtered through the personal memories and symbolic system of the individual clairvoyant.
Furthermore, according to Schopenhauer, all visions of the Dead are merely clairvoyant visions of a "past reality," an ability he calls "retrospective second sight," and are not to be regarded as proof of a living spirit world. Jung-Stilling, animal magnetism, and the spirit world. The theory of animal magnetism and the practice of trance induction and of magnetic healings and exorcisms flourished in the popular culture of France and Germany at this time. Many early nineteenth-century German natural philosophers, often physicians by training, experimented with mesmerism to learn about the forces of nature and the cosmos without embracing the spiritualist uses of such techniques.
However, the more widely read researchers did explore the spirit world through mesmerism, and this literature was familiar to Jung during his student years.
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As we know from his own published statements and the recollections of colleagues from that time, two books from this genre were of singular importance to him. Anecdotal, almost folkloric, fully three quarters of it is filled with wondrous tales of second sight, prophecies that came true, precognitive dreams, and, especially, ghost stories.
The rest focuses on his own encounter with animal magnetism, and fifty-five propositions that he derived from his researches. For Jung-Stilling, a Pietist and an old hand at the psychological techniques of directing his attention to his internal fantasy world, the "magnetic visions" induced through mesmerist procedures had the ring of familiarity. Many still considered animal magnetism a viable scientific theory to explain certain psychophysical phenomena that fit with new knowledge about galvanism, electricity, magnetism, and the luminiferous ether that excited the scientific community.
As Carl Jung would also argue in an lecture, Jung-Stilling points to the scientific evidence of mesmeric and paranormal phenomena as evidence that the human soul could exist independent of the body. Proposition nine of Jung-Stilling's grand theory states that "Animal Magnetism undeniably proves that we have an inward man, a soul, which is constituted of the divine spark, the immortal spirit possessing reason and will, and of a luminous body which is inseparable from it.
However, Jung-Stilling did warn in propositions twenty-three and twenty-four that it was a sin to use these trances to foretell the future or to communicate with spirits, even though such trances made this possible. By the time he began his own experiments with spiritualism, its alleged "sinfulness" would have been no real concern to Carl Jung.
Jung-Stilling distinguishes the "real" experience of apparitions of the Dead from mere "visions," which are waking dreams that exist only in the imagination and hence are. Every thing is then jumbled together, and much knowledge and experience is necessary to distinguish a vision from a real apparition. Even Jung, who in devoted his doctoral dissertation to this issue, believed that spiritualist mediums may or may not have genuine psychic abilities, but they all share an affliction with hysteria.
It is clear that Jung had made these connections between hypnosis, hysteria, and spiritualism long before he ever read a single psychiatric textbook. The Seeress of Prevorst Jung-Stilling's long-forgotten book is an important clue to Jung's earliest beliefs about the nature of personal reality. Yet of the vast, strange literature on spiritualism it was Justinius Kerner's extensive case history of a young clairvoyant woman in the German town of Prevorst that became Jung's model for his very first publication as an alienist. This book, Die Seherin von Prevorst , also became Helly's training manual for mature trance mediumship.
Although not much of a reader, Helly reread Kerner's account of the most famous medium of the early nineteenth century many times. It is not hard to see why Carl Jung and his cousin were so fascinated by this book. Kerner employs language that has a psychological ring to it. In his detailed descriptions of the "inner world" of the Seeress and her "inner eyes" or "spiritual eyes" that allowed her to witness apparitions, we find precursors to Jung's later attempts to reductively psychologize paranormal experiences in public statements, while in private pursuing the possibility of communication with the Dead.
Many of Jung's later paradoxical opinions concerning the tension between the nature of "psychic reality" our experienced psychological reality and the actual reality of spirits and the spirit world can be traced directly to this book, although its contents are virtually unknown to most people interested in Jung and his ideas. Justinius Kerner, the impresario of the seeress, was the appointed city physician of the town of Weinsberg in the German state of Wurttemberg. He was also a minor Romantic poet and the host of a salon that brought philosophers, theologians, writers, poets, and even royalty to his home for stimulating conversations.
As part of his medical therapies he on occasion "magnetized" his patients and, if they were deemed to be spiritually possessed, he performed his own exorcisms. On November 25, , a twenty-five-year-old married woman, Frau Friedericke Hauffe, was brought to Kerner at his home, gravely ill: skeletal, pale, barely breathing, and wrapped in a white gown like that of a nun. He had treated her once before in her own. For the previous five years she had suffered from a multitude of physical and psychological complaints of unknown cause: intermittent headaches and other bodily pains, paroxysmal "spasms" of writhing in her bed, fevers, night sweats, diarrhea, crying fits, gums that bled to the point that she lost all her teeth, reclusiveness, and, most mysteriously, somnambulisms or trancelike episodes.
During these latter "magnetic" episodes of illness she would regularly see the spirits of the Dead near her, particularly family members and people from her village. Sometimes she had visions that presaged the deaths of others, in one instance seeing an image of a coffin with her paternal grandfather in it six weeks before his death. She foretold her own death in a similar vision three weeks before it happened. The "magnetic passes" of the hands of local physicians over her body and trials of homeopathic remedies calmed her for a while, but then misfortune intervened.
In February , she gave birth to her first child, but it died in August, plunging her into a depression that rendered her almost comatose, indeed being "so much afflicted, that she became cold and stiff as a corpse. For example, as she lay in bed in her home she claimed that "she heard and felt what happened at a distance," and since she had become "so sensible to magnetic influences" the nails in the walls of her room had to be removed because they irritated her.
She also became hypersensitive to light and avoided it at all costs, traveling only in enclosed carriages. It was also during this period that she developed the gift of ghost-seeing, and "for the first time, she began to see another person behind the one she was looking at," often viewing the Dead in the company of the living in the roles of guardians or "protecting spirits. After other physicians treated her "magnetically" and gave her special powders and amulets -- all to no avail -- Kerner was finally summoned.
Suspicious of all the previous medical attempts, especially magnetic ones, he immediately ordered that such methods be stopped until he could observe her at length. He had come reluctantly to Prevorst because he had long heard the gossip about her and doubted that he could help her, as he believed she was a hopeless malingerer. It soon became clear that the special tonics he had ordered were not working. Her friends attempted their own exorcism of the "demoniacal influence" through long prayer vigils. Finally, said Kerner, "much against my will, they brought her to Weinsberg to see if anything could be done for her there.
No one could have predicted the curious therapeutic relationship that developed between the doctor and his patient, an experience that transformed both healer and patient and made them two of the most famous people of the nineteenth century. The story of their celebrated collaboration began with a therapeutic innovation by Kerner that later became a standard psychotherapeutic technique: allowing the patient to express her own thoughts and needs.
One day when Hauffe had lapsed into a dissociative trance state, Kerner suspected that he could communicate with an intelligent source within the patient despite the deep disturbance in her sense of self. Simply, he asked her what course of treatment she thought might be helpful, and thus began the pattern of the Seeress prescribing her own treatments.
Not surprisingly, she often recommended mesmeric treatments, which then seemed to lead to a recovery of strength the next day. Kerner carefully recorded her reactions to various materials, such as magnetized and unmagnetized water, a spider's web, metals, laurel leaves, minerals, plants, precious gems, and even animal parts thought to have healing properties, such as the hoof of an elephant which produced an epileptic fit in her , the nipples of a horse, and the tooth of a wooly mammoth.
The few details we know about Hauffe's personal history do not provide many clues to the origins of her later career. Kerner tells us that she was the daughter of a gamekeeper in Prevorst. She had little formal education other than what she gleaned from her Bible and psalm book. Kerner points this out because the Seeress's sophisticated prophecies and verse compositions are seemingly inconsistent with this lack of significant formal education.
To Kerner and others this seemed compelling evidence for the ability of trance states to give people access to ancient spiritual mys teries or to higher forms of knowledge. Jung made similar, if less plausible, disclaimers about his own patients' lack of formal education or prior exposure to occult symbolism or mythological themes when arguing for the existence of an impersonal or collective unconscious that he believed was the true source of such symbols. Hauffe's strange ability to diagnose the physical conditions of others by looking into their left eye and then to prescribe successful courses of treatment brought a steady stream of people to her for consultations.
Many of these visitors later wrote about their impressions of the Seeress and, accepting her phenomena as genuine, several contributed their own theories on the origins and significance of what they observed. Jung read, and in most cases owned, these commentaries. One of the more interesting psychological theories put forth by the Seeress herself was the notion that subjective emotional states could be externalized and perceived, symbolically, as apparitions.
Hauffe insisted that everyone had a "protecting spirit" who stood behind them at all times-in her case, her deceased grandmother. However, when she saw apparitions hovering around another person, "sometimes this appeared to be his protecting spirit, and at others the image of his inner self. But in private Jung spoke quite differently. Among the most mysterious pronouncements of the Seeress of Prevorst were her decidedly unorthodox metaphysical theories about the spiritual nature of human beings.
Borrowing a compass from Kerner one day, she drew a series of elaborately designed concentric circles to represent the shades of spiritual existence and the passage of time. The rings of the circles corresponded, in part, to areas of "magnetic" influence over the body. In many respects they resembled diagrams of the planetary orbits of the solar system, or cross-sections of the Earth. These diagrams made a powerful impression on both Helly Preiswerk and her older cousin, and similar illustrations appeared in Jung's publications throughout the next sixty years.
On August 5, , after failing to recover from one of her many physical crises, the Seeress of Prevorst died.
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The following night, Justinius Kerner saw her and two other female forms in a dream, relieved that in the spirit world she had "apparently perfectly recovered. Kerner's descriptions of the extraordinary states of consciousness of the Seeress -- states of mind that seemed to offer the promise of direct contact with the Dead or, perhaps, access to genius -- tempted the curious and the bored, believers and doubters, to open the same doors of perception. A return to the "border zones" In autumn , the spirits returned to the Jung household.
Confirmed as a Christian in good standing, Helly was able to resume the most important role of her young life. She was especially eager to once again be the center of Jung's attention. She didn't hesitate when he approached her about resuming the seances, although there was considerable pressure from her uncle and her mother to keep away from such things. This time additional deception was required. According to her niece, Helly used the excuse that she was going to the Jung home to work in the garden.
In fact, Jung had already given two lectures to the Zofingia fraternity that demonstrated his budding theoretical views on spiritualist phenomena. Jung turned the seances from a parlor game into a more serious affair, at times inviting his medical-student colleagues to witness Helly's phenomena and to make their own judgments. In the new series of seances, Helly's trances took on an entirely new character. Grandfather Preiswerk receded in importance as Helly's "control" spirit, and instead a crowd of deceased personages took turns speaking to the group.
Some of these were based on actual historical persons, others claimed to be barons and baronesses who seemed to have fictitious names. At one point, Helly mediumistically produced the greatgrandmother of Jung' s who had been seduced by Goethe. Over and above this flood of new contacts, the spirit known as "Ivenes" eventually took. Ivenes was described as a small, sensitive, dark-haired Jewish woman who was morally pure "snow white" , a wise, mature personality. A novel feature of these new communications from Ivenes was the theory of reincarnation.
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Ivenes, through Helly, claimed to be the Seeress of Prevorst, as well as a fifteenth-century woman who she said was burned at the stake as a witch, a female Christian martyr executed in Rome during the reign of Nero, and a paramour of King David. She claimed to have had numerous children in all of these incarnations, and in her "romances," as Jung later called them, she created detailed genealogies and marvelous tales of her past lives.
Ivenes even claimed that she traveled between the stars and had visited Mars, and she described in great detail the Martians and their highly developed civilization. Helly now began to arouse Jung's suspicions. A popular book of the s was Camille Flammarion's pseudoscientific speculations on the Martian civilization that had created the famous canals that many astronomers claimed to see on the red planet's surface. Jung realized that much of the personality of Ivenes was based on the figure of the Seeress of Prevorst in Kerner's book.
By giving Helly a copy of the book, Jung had inadvertently created Ivenes. He learned a valuable lesson about the power of "hidden memories" and textual material to reemerge in an entirely novel form in consciousness. In fact, material that one has "forgotten" can reappear in thoughts, fantasies, or dreams and have all of the emotional force and visual clarity of actual memories. At the turn of the century, this quite normal phenomenon was called "cryptomnesia," literally "hidden memories.
Despite his awareness of the influence of cryptomnesia on Helly's performances while he observed them, however, he did not use such psychological terminology to characterize them until he completed his medical training. More significant, he was later to deny seemingly clear cases of cryptomnesia that if acknowledged would threaten his most central theories. Miraculous explosions, acts of love, acts of fraud In the autumn of , the table around which Jung and Helly led their spiritualist seances suddenly cracked down the middle.
Jung later mounted these pieces and kept them in a safe in his home as a lifelong reminder of the powerful forces he and his kin had summoned during their seances. The seances came to an abrupt halt for several reasons. First, according to Jung, Helly had fallen in love with him, and it became clear to him that she was faking many of the manifestations of her trances in order to keep him interested in her.
In nineteenth-century concepts such as a "vital force," he began to see a more biologically based starting point for his own thinking about spirituality. She accused Jung and his mother of. After a period of depression, Helly left Basel to learn dressmaking in Montpellier, France, and then in Paris. Although Jung spent time with Helly in Paris in , he would never completely patch up his relationships with the Preiswerks and later wrote derisively of them.
Helly died of tuberculosis a few days before her thirtieth birthday, in November Although Jung later claimed that in the last few months of her illness her mind slowly disintegrated, regressing her to the level of a two-year-old, the Preiswerks denied this. According to her niece Stephanie Zumstein-Preiswerk, "she died of a broken heart"  -a heart that Carl Jung broke, as we shall see, in more ways than one. Some things seem abundantly clear. Jung took these spiritualist experiments so seriously that the ideas from them held sway over him longer than most of the instruction he received in medical school.
Unquestionably, he felt that through Helly's mediumistic trances he was receiving knowledge from an intelligent source beyond Helly herself.
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Whenever they appeared, Jung acknowledged the various personalities that emerged during Helly's performances as real and always attempted to engage them in dialogue. At least for a time, Jung regarded some of these experiences as authentic contact with discarnate entities. But Jung's very personal approach to Helly's personifications or splinter personalities -- or spirits -- later characterized his conception of the unconscious human mind. Whereas Freud approached the products of the unconscious mind as hieroglyphs to be deciphered, Jung always regarded them as the starting point for a dialogue.
For Jung the unconscious would always be a source of higher knowledge beyond the confines of time and three-dimensional space, and one could establish a personal relationship with the voices and images of one's unconscious, one's inner Land of the Dead. But long before the First World War, when Jung again led others into the Land of the Dead, he endured several years of scientific doubt and relative skepticism about the reality of spirits. During these first years of Jung's psychiatric career, a career cruelly built on the sacrifice of Helly's social reputation, the spirits were transformed.
Jung renamed them. His books were not available for a long time, and "indianistic" reenactors were closely monitored by the security forces. Some of the communist classics, such as Karl Marx ' friend and sponsor Friedrich Engels , had used Native American tribal structures as examples for theories on family, private property, and the state. In West Germany May's heritage was less problematic; both the books and the festivals were soon copied and reprinted. Cultural critics tended to depict Indians positively to criticize Western society while conflicts of and with actual Native Americans over issues such as fur hunting, slavery , forest fire triggering, non-sustainable practices such as buffalo jumps , seal clubbing and whaling were neglected.
The positive image, however, also influenced the self-image of actual Indians. Native American hobbyism in Germany , also called Indian Hobbyism , or Indianism , is the performance and attempt at historical reenactment of the American Indian culture of the early contact period, rather than the way contemporary Indigenous peoples of the Americas live. This is done by non- Natives as a hobby and pastime, such as for a weekend retreat, hobbyist pow wow , or summer camp.
According to the history laid out in H. Glenn Penny's Kindred By Choice ,  many Germans identify their roots as tribes that lived independently of one another that were colonized by Romans and forced to become Christians. Because of this distant tribal background and history of colonization, and in fact all ancient Europeans lived tribally at some point in their history, many of these Germans identify with Native Americans more than European nations in contemporary times.
These Germans are also interested in depiction of Native Americans in art and anthropology. Penny also details how Germans often denounced the violence inflicted upon Native peoples by the United States government. Another factor in the popularity of Hobbyism in Germany can be attributed to the many Wild West shows that toured throughout Germany and featured real Native Americans in stereotypical "cowboy and Indian" performances.
German Hobbyism is generally believed to have been largely popularized by the dime-store novelist Karl May , whose fictional Apache warrior character, Winnetou , and his German blood-brother, Old Shatterhand , adventure throughout the Wild West. In one of the many novels, Winnetou is murdered and Old Shatterhand avenges him and ultimately becomes an Apache chief.
The Winnetou novels were first published in the s. Katrin Sieg's Ethnic Drag discusses the differences between West German Hobbyism and East German Hobbyism, saying that while West Germany could continue to openly participate in the hobby, East Germans had to go underground for fear of being targeted as rebels. This translated to a difference in opinion between East and West in how they interacted with real Native Americans; East German hobbyist clubs often interacted with Native Americans and supported them in their issues financially. On the other hand, West Germans often avoided contact with real Native Americans, which Sieg surmises is because they feared being told they are not truly Native American.
These patterns continue to be true today. Dakota academic Philip Deloria theorizes in his book Playing Indian that there are two types of Hobbyism—people Hobbyism and item Hobbyism. The East German interest in having hobbyists start engaging with living Native Americans may be partially attributable to the fact that the East German government began to recognize the propaganda value; criticism of the historical treatment of American Indians could be used as an example of why East Germans citizens should criticize US policies in general.
May's novels featuring Winnetou and Old Shatterhand have been adapted into both theatrical and film productions in German-speaking countries. It is believed that film adaptations of Karl May's characters in the s may have saved the West German film industry. German Hobbyism continues today in the form of festivals, museums, pow wows, theater, and clubs. Hobbyists that organize through the means of a club host pow wows and teach each other and communities about Native American culture.
The topic of German Hobbyism has become more recently documented by mainstream news sources New York Times , the Huffington Post , and independent filmmakers such as Howie Summers, who created a short documentary titled Indianer that explores German Hobbyists and their fascinations. He described the participants as wearing as many "breastplates, bear claw necklaces, feathers and bone jewelry as they seemed able to physically support," and that the attendees also wore Native American costumes in addition to the hobbyist dancers.
The main criticism of German Hobbyism by Native American journalists and academics argues on the basis of cultural appropriation and misrepresentation of Native American cultures and identities. Deloria dubs it "playing Indian," which he defines as the adoption or portrayal of being Native by Anglo-American individuals.
These actions are often motivated by hobby and sometimes financial gain. Further, Deloria writes that these individuals and groups who play Indian build a collectivity in their performance of otherness, which in turn defines their own identity through the distinction of playing the national " other. Katrin Sieg applies the thoughts and ideas of Deloria to the performance studies field in Germany. Her book Ethnic Drag discusses the ways in which Germans have historically dressed up as "othered" peoples, which includes Jews , Native Americans, and Turks.
While the portrayals of Jews and Turks were largely negative stereotypes, the portrayal of Native Americans differed in that they were seen as heroic and noble. The first Native American women's theater troupe known as Spiderwoman Theater traveled to Germany and Europe in order to perform a satire of the European and particularly German fascination with Native Americans.
According to Spiderwoman Theater, it was an act of resistance meant to reclaim their identity as real Native Americans. Red Haircrow has written articles from Berlin , where he resides, regarding the controversial aspects of Hobbyism from the perspective of a real Native American. Haircrow has traveled to pow wows and reported to Indian Country Today Media Network about his experience as a Native American at an event in which Germans performed Native American identity. He reported the premiere of the blockbuster remake The Lone Ranger , in which Hobbyists were hired to perform as Native Americans in Berlin.
The scalps were not returned to the Ojibwe nation as requested, but they were removed from display. Haircrow also notes that not every Native American has a negative view of the German fascination with their culture. Comanche Laura Kerchee, who was stationed in Germany with the U. Air Force , told him that "she was impressed with how enthralled the Germans there were by Native Americans. They realize that this is an opportunity to promote understanding and education and a way to market Native culture to a highly sympathetic audience. In the United States, there is a widespread discomfort within Native communities about the misuses of Native American identity and culture.
This can be seen in recent examples of the Redskins Indian mascot controversy, the backlash against artists, such as Gwen Stefani and Lana Del Rey , who have donned feather war bonnets , and the campaigns to educate the public about wearing Native American costumes for Halloween and themed parties, such as My Culture Is Not a Costume. This same sentiment was expressed by Haircrow's son, who claimed that "they are stealing from others, but don't want to admit it. That's why they didn't want us there, because they know we know what they are doing is wrong.
The actor responds that he does not believe they would be offended. This person shares his discomfort with seeing a burial dance take place in the Bad Segeberg performance, and calls it grotesque and claims that it perpetuates a stereotypical image of the Native American. Journalist James Hagengruber discussed German hobbyists in an article for Salon's website, describing the occasional clashes between the German fantasists and actual Native Americans. Visiting Native American dancers were shocked when German hobbyists protested their use of microphones and details of their costumes to which they counter-protested.
A hobbyist profiled in the article defended the German tendency to focus on Indian culture before , instead of engaging with issues that affect contemporary tribes, comparing it to studying "the [ancient] Romans. Journalist Noemi Lopinto in her article for UTNE reports that an Ojibwe man named David Redbird Baker found the performance of sacred ceremonies in Germany to be offensive: "They take the social and religious ceremonies and change them beyond recognition. The specific image of Indians originated earlier than May's writings.
Already in the 18th century a specific German view on the fate of Native Americans can be found in various travel reports and scientific excursions. In —18, the poet Adelbert von Chamisso took part in a tour around the world led by Otto von Kotzebue and met native people in Latin and Northern America.
Christian Gottlieb Prieber, a lawyer and political utopian from Zittau , emigrated to North America in and lived with the Cherokee in Tennessee. Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied , a nobleman and scientist, traveled from to to Brazil and from to to North America, accompanied by the Swiss painter Karl Bodmer. Tess of the D'Urbervilles.
Life's Little Ironies. Jude the Obscure. The Well-Beloved. The Dynasts. Time's Laughing Stock. A Changed Man. Satires of Circumstances. Moments of Vision. Late Lyrics and Earlier. Human Shows, Far Phantasies. Winter Words. Pocket edition, 28 volumes, 8vo. All but six volumes with a signature to the paste down. Original gilt decorated maroon cloth, the majority of the spines sunned otherwise a very good set. Originalradierungen von Willi Geiger.
Obeliskdruck Mit 1 rad. Titelvignette und 11 rad.
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Erste dieser illustrierten Ausgabe. Initialen monogrammiert. PYLE, Howard illustrator. Howard Pyle's Book of Pirates. Original black cloth-backed buff boards lettered in black with a large onlaid pictorial label to upper cover, pictorial endpapers; pp. The wrapper has a little chipping to head of spine otherwise is near fine. First edition, first issue with the copyright code "D-V". Rarely found with the dust wrapper. Mai in New York , deutscher Schriftsteller. Der Kalender ist bereits im Druck.
Original wraps. The 1st edition of this seminal --and fragile-- title in early French film criticism, with wonderful Art Deco typography and design thruout. Clean and Near Fine in its printed wrappers. And in a crisp, Near Fine example of the original glassine dustjacket, with one tiny chip along the spine crown. Visually gripping, with remarkable illustrations --and design work-- thruout. Written between May 20, and September 11, , the letters chart the progress of both the couple's love affair and Puccini's final opera, Turandot, which he never completed.
Puccini died on November 29, , less than three months after the final letter in this collection was written. With much revealing commentary regarding both the composer's personal and musical activities and offering new insight into his relationship with Ms. Dated Torre del Lago, May 20, 21, p. On stationery with "Torre del Lago Toscana" embossed at head. Puccini laments his inability to be near Ader; he cannot go to her without causing a great scandal. He works all day. Only his thoughts of her give him comfort; he kisses her portrait and writes music - presumably his opera, Turandot.
Letter 22 pp. Dated Torre de Lago, Sunday, May 22, 21, midnight. Puccini speaks of seeing Ader in nearby Viareggio, then Milan, but absolutely cannot leave. She should never doubt that, if he could, he would "fly" to her. He tells her not to grieve for him. He is not badly off in his own home, but does not have the freedom he would like. He will write to her if he finds that he must go to Berlin in the autumn. Fine director. I am working a lot on Turandot.
I read that Busoni's [Turandot] was given in Berlin. I am very pleased with my work. It is you, and my love for you, that encourages me to do well. We hope! I wish you good luck for [your performance as] Mimi on the 30th. You will be delicious! Dated Torre del Lago, June 6,  With autograph envelope postmarked Torre del Lago, June 7, 21 with Ader's name and Hamburg address. Puccini has not heard from Ader in two days, but that may be because of a postal strike. He misses her letters; his day is wasted if he does not hear from her.
He keeps her photographs in a book between other books near his work table so he can look at them whenever he wants. He especially likes the picture of her as Mimi, and another large one with a veil, which he has cut down to a smaller size. He kisses them many times.
He complains of how difficult Turandot is. The previous day was bad, and he couldn't do anything good. Today, things are going better. So is his life, with high and low moments, even with regard to his health. Perhaps he is working too hard; he hardly ever moves, unless it is in an automobile. He concludes with love. I kiss your beautiful and savory mouth!
Dated Munich, [ca. August 21, ], Midnight. On stationery with the name, Munich address, and emblem of the Regina-Palast-Hotel embossed at head. With several annotations and corrections in Puccini's hand. With autograph envelope postmarked Munich, August 2[1? Puccini has just telegraphed Ader; he thinks it best not to write, because the letter might be opened and cause trouble in the future.
He has had a tiresome day: tea at the home of the painter [Gerolamo] Cairati, his friend from Milan, and dinner at the usual Odeon Bar with [Riccardo] Sch[nabl] and Mrs. Frigierio, [? Now he is going to bed. He longs for her. She will be very busy now, preparing to go to Viareggio. He was wrong to tell her not to write, but now it is too late. He received her two telegrams that evening, and he will telegraph her again the following day, requesting an answer, so that he will have news of her each day. He expresses his love.
Sch[nabl] spoke a lot about Art ["Kunst"]! Fischer, H. Band 1 - 5. Orchard and Vineyard. Original red linen-backed marbled boards, printed paper labels to spine and front board, top edge gilt. Top of boards lightly toned, endpapers tanned, mild foxing to text block margins. Otherwise an excellent copy. First edition, first impression. A specially bound presentation copy inscribed by the author to her mother on the front free endpaper: "To the author of the author, from the author.
Couverture souple. Edouard Chimot. Antwerpen, Het Sienjaal, Genummerd , ex. To be produced at intervals of two or three months. Illustrated paper covers, design by Lewis extending length of page at right of typepage, stapled binding. Slight uneven browning to front cover, upper outer corners very slightly grazed, else very good copy. Includes works by: Wyndham Lewis; T. First Edition. Soft Cover. Very Good. Con una prefazioni di Max Dvorak. Vienna, Editori Richard Lany - Ed. Strache, Lose Blattsammlung in OHlwd. Im Stein monogrammiert.
Mit 10 Lichtdrucken. Mit dem deutschen Titeblblatt, das deutsche Vorwort liegt als Kopie bei. Titelei der Mappe auf Italienisch. Das Konzert.
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