U.S. States and State Capitals Quiz Book: Interactive Quiz Book Series


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Bottle Flip 3D. Flipping Fun in your Home. Dan Russell-Pinson. These are not real folders but special names that can be used in a path. For example,. Your programs can create new folders directories with the os. That is, os. The result of os. Since os. Whenever your programs need to work with files, folders, or file paths, you can refer to the short examples in this section.

The full documentation for the os. Most of the examples that follow in this section will require the os module, so remember to import it at the beginning of any script you write and any time you restart IDLE. Calling os.

Automate the Boring Stuff with Python

This is an easy way to convert a relative path into an absolute one. If start is not provided, the current working directory is used as the start path. Still, try to follow along using folders that exist on your computer. Enter the following calls to os. The base name follows the last slash in a path and is the same as the filename. The dir name is everything before the last slash.

Also, note that os. For that, use the split string method and split on the string in os. Recall from earlier that the os. For example, enter the following into the interactive shell:. It will work on any operating system if you pass it os. Once you have ways of handling file paths, you can then start gathering information about specific files and folders.


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Note that this function is in the os module, not os. If I want to find the total size of all the files in this directory, I can use os. Notice how when I call os. The integer that os. Many Python functions will crash with an error if you supply them with a path that does not exist. It looks like I forgot to plug in my flash drive. The functions covered in the next few sections will apply to plaintext files.

Plaintext files contain only basic text characters and do not include font, size, or color information. Text files with the. Your programs can easily read the contents of plaintext files and treat them as an ordinary string value. Binary files are all other file types, such as word processing documents, PDFs, images, spreadsheets, and executable programs.

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The Windows calc. Since every different type of binary file must be handled in its own way, this book will not go into reading and writing raw binary files directly. Fortunately, many modules make working with binary files easier—you will explore one of them, the shelve module, later in this chapter. Call the open function to return a File object.

Call the read or write method on the File object. Close the file by calling the close method on the File object. To open a file with the open function, you pass it a string path indicating the file you want to open; it can be either an absolute or relative path. The open function returns a File object. Try it by creating a text file named hello. Type Hello world! Read mode is the default mode for files you open in Python. The call to open returns a File object. In the previous example, you stored the File object in the variable helloFile.

Now, whenever you want to read from or write to the file, you can do so by calling methods on the File object in helloFile. Now that you have a File object, you can start reading from it. Alternatively, you can use the readlines method to get a list of string values from the file, one string for each line of text.

Chapter 8 – Reading and Writing Files

For example, create a file named sonnet When, in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes, I all alone beweep my outcast state, And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries, And look upon myself and curse my fate, Make sure to separate the four lines with line breaks. Then enter the following into the interactive shell:. A list of strings is often easier to work with than a single large string value. Pass 'w' as the second argument to open to open the file in write mode. Append mode, on the other hand, will append text to the end of the existing file. You can think of this as appending to a list in a variable, rather than overwriting the variable altogether.

Pass 'a' as the second argument to open to open the file in append mode. If the filename passed to open does not exist, both write and append mode will create a new, blank file. After reading or writing a file, call the close method before opening the file again.

Bacon is not a vegetable. First, we open bacon. Calling write on the opened file and passing write the string argument 'Hello world! Then we close the file. To add text to the existing contents of the file instead of replacing the string we just wrote, we open the file in append mode. We write 'Bacon is not a vegetable. Finally, to print the file contents to the screen, we open the file in its default read mode, call read , store the resulting File object in content , close the file, and print content. Note that the write method does not automatically add a newline character to the end of the string like the print function does.

You will have to add this character yourself. You can save variables in your Python programs to binary shelf files using the shelve module. This way, your program can restore data to variables from the hard drive. The shelve module will let you add Save and Open features to your program. For example, if you ran a program and entered some configuration settings, you could save those settings to a shelf file and then have the program load them the next time it is run.

Call shelve. You can make changes to the shelf value as if it were a dictionary. Here, our shelf value is stored in shelfFile. Then we call close on shelfFile. After running the previous code on Windows, you will see three new files in the current working directory: mydata. On OS X, only a single mydata. These binary files contain the data you stored in your shelf. The format of these binary files is not important; you only need to know what the shelve module does, not how it does it. Also note that while folder names and filenames are not case sensitive on Windows and OS X, they are case sensitive on Linux.

If you want your programs to work on all operating systems, you will have to write your Python scripts to handle both cases. Fortunately, this is simple to do with the os. If you pass it the string values of individual file and folder names in your path, os. Enter the following into the interactive shell:. Notice that the backslashes are doubled because each backslash needs to be escaped by another backslash character. The os. These strings will be passed to several of the file-related functions introduced in this chapter.

Any filenames or paths that do not begin with the root folder are assumed to be under the current working directory. You can get the current working directory as a string value with the os. Python will display an error if you try to change to a directory that does not exist. An absolute path , which always begins with the root folder.

There are also the dot. These are not real folders but special names that can be used in a path. For example,.

Your programs can create new folders directories with the os. That is, os. The result of os. Since os. Whenever your programs need to work with files, folders, or file paths, you can refer to the short examples in this section. The full documentation for the os. Most of the examples that follow in this section will require the os module, so remember to import it at the beginning of any script you write and any time you restart IDLE.

Calling os. This is an easy way to convert a relative path into an absolute one. If start is not provided, the current working directory is used as the start path. Still, try to follow along using folders that exist on your computer. Enter the following calls to os. The base name follows the last slash in a path and is the same as the filename.

The dir name is everything before the last slash. Also, note that os. For that, use the split string method and split on the string in os. Recall from earlier that the os. For example, enter the following into the interactive shell:. It will work on any operating system if you pass it os. Once you have ways of handling file paths, you can then start gathering information about specific files and folders. Note that this function is in the os module, not os. If I want to find the total size of all the files in this directory, I can use os.

Notice how when I call os. The integer that os. Many Python functions will crash with an error if you supply them with a path that does not exist. It looks like I forgot to plug in my flash drive. The functions covered in the next few sections will apply to plaintext files. Plaintext files contain only basic text characters and do not include font, size, or color information.

Text files with the. Your programs can easily read the contents of plaintext files and treat them as an ordinary string value. Binary files are all other file types, such as word processing documents, PDFs, images, spreadsheets, and executable programs. The Windows calc. Since every different type of binary file must be handled in its own way, this book will not go into reading and writing raw binary files directly. Fortunately, many modules make working with binary files easier—you will explore one of them, the shelve module, later in this chapter. Call the open function to return a File object.

Call the read or write method on the File object. Close the file by calling the close method on the File object. To open a file with the open function, you pass it a string path indicating the file you want to open; it can be either an absolute or relative path. The open function returns a File object. Try it by creating a text file named hello. Type Hello world! Read mode is the default mode for files you open in Python. The call to open returns a File object. In the previous example, you stored the File object in the variable helloFile.

Now, whenever you want to read from or write to the file, you can do so by calling methods on the File object in helloFile. Now that you have a File object, you can start reading from it. Alternatively, you can use the readlines method to get a list of string values from the file, one string for each line of text. For example, create a file named sonnet When, in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes, I all alone beweep my outcast state, And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries, And look upon myself and curse my fate, Make sure to separate the four lines with line breaks.

Then enter the following into the interactive shell:. A list of strings is often easier to work with than a single large string value. Pass 'w' as the second argument to open to open the file in write mode. Append mode, on the other hand, will append text to the end of the existing file.

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You can think of this as appending to a list in a variable, rather than overwriting the variable altogether. Pass 'a' as the second argument to open to open the file in append mode. If the filename passed to open does not exist, both write and append mode will create a new, blank file. After reading or writing a file, call the close method before opening the file again.

Can you name the US states?

Bacon is not a vegetable. First, we open bacon. Calling write on the opened file and passing write the string argument 'Hello world! Then we close the file. To add text to the existing contents of the file instead of replacing the string we just wrote, we open the file in append mode. We write 'Bacon is not a vegetable. Finally, to print the file contents to the screen, we open the file in its default read mode, call read , store the resulting File object in content , close the file, and print content.

Note that the write method does not automatically add a newline character to the end of the string like the print function does.

U.S. States and State Capitals Quiz Book: Interactive Quiz Book Series U.S. States and State Capitals Quiz Book: Interactive Quiz Book Series
U.S. States and State Capitals Quiz Book: Interactive Quiz Book Series U.S. States and State Capitals Quiz Book: Interactive Quiz Book Series
U.S. States and State Capitals Quiz Book: Interactive Quiz Book Series U.S. States and State Capitals Quiz Book: Interactive Quiz Book Series
U.S. States and State Capitals Quiz Book: Interactive Quiz Book Series U.S. States and State Capitals Quiz Book: Interactive Quiz Book Series
U.S. States and State Capitals Quiz Book: Interactive Quiz Book Series U.S. States and State Capitals Quiz Book: Interactive Quiz Book Series
U.S. States and State Capitals Quiz Book: Interactive Quiz Book Series U.S. States and State Capitals Quiz Book: Interactive Quiz Book Series
U.S. States and State Capitals Quiz Book: Interactive Quiz Book Series U.S. States and State Capitals Quiz Book: Interactive Quiz Book Series

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