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Trump has given Merkel a new lease of life William Cook. Most Popular Read Read. The end is nigh: the rise of middle-class apocalypticism Mark Palmer. Why was a disabled grandad sacked by Asda for sharing a Billy Connolly clip? See also: Qutbism and Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq. Main article: Six-Day War. Main article: History of fundamentalist Islam in Iran. Further information: Grand Mosque seizure. Main article: Taliban. Under control of the Taliban, Al-Qaeda , and Allies.
Main article: Islamic extremism in the 20th-century Egypt. The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Hizb ut-Tahrir. Main article: Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Further information: Islamic revival and Islam and modernity.
See also: International propagation of conservative Sunni Islam.
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Main article: Criticism of Islamism. Main category: Islamist groups. In Emad El-Din Shahin ed. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 1 February Islamism is one of many sociopolitical concepts continuously contested in scholarly literature. It is a neologism debated in both Muslim and non-Muslim public and academic contexts. In other words, Islamists are those who believe that Islam has an important role to play in organizing a Muslim-majority society and who seek to implement this belief.
Esposito, ed. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Term used to describe an Islamic political or social activist. In John L. Esposito ed. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Subscription required help.
In the Muslim world, insiders use the term as a positive reference. In the academic sphere, although it is still debated, the term designates a more complex phenomenon. Edited by Richard C. Martin, — New York: Macmillan, Eikmeier From Parameters , Spring , pp. International Crisis Group.
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PBS Frontline. Retrieved 13 May From Parameters , Spring , pp. Qutbism: An Ideology of Islamic-Fascism. Declaring someone takfir provided a legal loophole around the prohibition of killing another Muslim and in fact made it a religious obligation to execute the apostate. The obvious use of this concept was to declare secular rulers, officials or organizations, or any Muslims that opposed the Islamist agenda a takfir thereby justifying assassinations and attacks against them.
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Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman, who was later convicted in the World Trade Center attack, invoked Qutb's takfirist writings during his trial for the assassination of President Anwar Sadat. June 13, Retrieved 26 February Middle East Policy. Middle East Quarterly. X 2 : 65— French academics have put the term into academic circulation as 'jihadist-Salafism. Retrieved December 4, Retrieved 24 October The Economist.
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Reports have spoken of figures ranging from 10 to 15 million dollars per month, but it is possible that Hezbollah has received larger sums. It is only in recent years after that Iran has decreased its aid. Archived from the original on 20 April New York: Knopf, , pp. Greenwood Publishing Group.
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Islamic regimes, whenever they abuse human rights. If Washington is interested in promoting a liberal and tolerant version of popular Islam in the Middle East, it must respond to the conditions that make people turn to sectarian religious identities as a last refuge. Washington should initiate direct dialogue with Muslim intellectuals. This would reveal a great deal to policymakers about actual Islamist beliefs and intentions and would be more reliable than third-party accounts.
Washington should also encourage Middle Eastern access to serious not only popular and commercial U. This could be done through the Fulbright Commission, U.
Islamists and U.S. Policy - Institute for Policy Studies
Information Agency, and the cultural offices at U. Islamists in places such as Jordan, Turkey, Yemen, and Egypt have participated in parliaments and coalition governments and have shown a great deal of moderation and tolerance. Washington should support and encourage those Islamist currents that seek nonviolent political involvement.
This short-sighted policy of supporting whomever claims to oppose Islamism is destructive to U. Washington should be willing to work with all governments, gauging the depth of its relationship on shared values of democracy, tolerance, and economic and political justice.
Muslims as a bulwark against Islamic fundamentalism.
Muslims have both the experience of living as a minority in a secular democracy and the knowledge of Islamic theology and history with which to argue for a more tolerant version of Islam. The pluralistic American experience could help inform a theology of moderation in the Islamic world. To prevent the alienation of U.
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Muslims from mainstream U. Muslims and Arab-Americans and in bringing the perpetrators of hate crimes to justice. In particular, during times of tension between the U.
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