The wTpre genome is the most complete parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia genome available to date. We used comparative genomics across 16 Wolbachia strains, representing five supergroups, to identify a core Wolbachia genome of sets of orthologous genes. Only 14 of these sets are unique to Wolbachia when compared to other bacteria from the Rickettsiales. We show that the B supergroup of Wolbachia, of which wTpre is a member, contains a significantly higher number of ankyrin repeat-containing genes than other supergroups. The wTpre strain represents a conversion from cytoplasmic incompatibility to a parthenogenesis-inducing lifestyle, and is required for reproduction in the Trichogramma host it infects.
We hypothesize that the large number of coding frame truncations has accompanied the change in reproductive mode of the wTpre strain. We present the genome sequence from a parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia strain wTpre infecting the minute parasitoid wasp Trichogramma pretiosum The wTpre genome is the most complete parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia genome available to date. Gramene Comparative plant genomics resources. Its strength derives from the application of a phylogenetic framework fo Mycobacterial species as case-study of comparative genome analysis.
The genus Mycobacterium represents more than species including important pathogens of human and cause major public health problems and illnesses. Further, with more than genome sequences from this genus, comparative genome analysis can provide new insights for better understanding the evolutionary events of these species and improving drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics tools for controlling Mycobacterial diseases.
In this present study we aim to outline a comparative genome analysis of fourteen Mycobacterial genomes : M. Pasteur P2, M. KMS, M. MCS, M. The BLAST matrix of these genomes has been figured to give a lot of information about the similarity between species in a simple scheme.
As a result of multiple genome analysis, the pan and core genome have been defined for twelve Mycobacterial species. We have also introduced the genome atlas of the reference strain M. And for examining the phylogenetic relationships among these bacteria , a phylogenic tree has been constructed from 16S rRNA gene for tuberculosis and non tuberculosis Mycobacteria to understand the evolutionary events of these species. Prokaryotes modified stably on the genome are of great importance for production of fine and commodity chemicals.
Traditional methods for genome engineering have long suffered from imprecision and low efficiencies, making construction of suitable high-producer strains laborious. These new tools have made and will likely continue to make a big impact on the bioengineering strategies that transform the chemical industry. Genome sequencing of bacteria : sequencing, de novo assembly and rapid analysis using open source tools. De novo genome sequencing of previously uncharacterized microorganisms has the potential to open up new frontiers in microbial genomics by providing insight into both functional capabilities and biodiversity.
Until recently, Roche pyrosequencing was the NGS method of choice for de novo assembly because it generates hundreds of thousands of long reads genomes. The array of tools for processing NGS data are increasingly free and open source and are often adopted for both their high quality and role in promoting academic freedom. The error rate of pyrosequencing the Alcanivorax borkumensis genome was such that thousands of insertions and deletions were artificially introduced into the finished genome.
Reads from regions with errors had low quality, low coverage, or were missing. No assembler was able to perform de novo assembly comparable to reference mapping. Automated annotation tools performed similarly on reference mapped and de novo draft genomes , and annotated most CDSs in the de novo assembled draft genomes.
Free and open source software FOSS tools for assembly and annotation of NGS data are being developed rapidly to provide accurate results with less computational effort. Usability is not high priority and these tools currently do not allow the data to be processed without manual intervention.
A notable gap in pyrosequencing technology is the quality of base pair calling and conflicting base pairs between single reads at the same nucleotide position. Regardless, using draft whole genomes. Comparative genomic analysis by microbial COGs self-attraction rate. Whole genome analysis provides new perspectives to determine phylogenetic relationships among microorganisms. The availability of whole nucleotide sequences allows different levels of comparison among genomes by several approaches.
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In this work, self-attraction rates were considered for each cluster of orthologous groups of proteins COGs class in order to analyse gene aggregation levels in physical maps. Phylogenetic relationships among microorganisms were obtained by comparing self-attraction coefficients. Eighteen-dimensional vectors were computed for a set of completely sequenced microbial genomes 19 archea, bacteria. The components of the vector represent the aggregation rate of the genes belonging to each of 18 COGs classes.
Genes involved in nonessential functions or related to environmental conditions showed the highest aggregation rates. On the contrary genes involved in basic cellular tasks showed a more uniform distribution along the genome , except for translation genes. Self-attraction clustering approach allowed classification of Proteobacteria, Bacilli and other species belonging to Firmicutes. Rearrangement and Lateral Gene Transfer events may influence divergences from classical taxonomy. Each set of COG classes' aggregation values represents an intrinsic property of the microbial genome.
This novel approach provides a new point of view for whole genome analysis and bacterial characterization. Primordial-like enzymes from bacteria with reduced genomes. The first cells probably possessed rudimentary metabolic networks, built using a handful of multifunctional enzymes. The promiscuous activities of modern enzymes are often assumed to be relics of this primordial era; however, by definition these activities are no longer physiological.
There are many fewer examples of enzymes using a single active site to catalyze multiple physiologically-relevant reactions. Now we have discovered that several bacteria with reduced genomes lack alr, but contain metC encoding CBL. We characterized the CBL enzymes from three of these: Pelagibacter ubique, the Wolbachia endosymbiont of Drosophila melanogaster wMel and Thermotoga maritima.
However, we also show that CBL activity is no longer required in these bacteria. Instead, the wMel and T. They are not highly active, but they are clearly sufficient. Given the abundance of the microorganisms using them, we suggest that much of the planet's biochemistry is carried out by enzymes that are quite different from the highly-active exemplars usually found in textbooks.
Instead, primordial-like enzymes may be an essential part of the adaptive strategy associated with streamlining. Multilocus sequence typing of total- genome -sequenced bacteria. Accurate strain identification is essential for anyone working with bacteria. For many species, multilocus sequence typing MLST is considered the "gold standard" of typing, but it is traditionally performed in an expensive and time-consuming manner. As the costs of whole- genome sequencing WGS continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available to scientists and routine diagnostic laboratories.
Currently, the cost is below that of traditional MLST. The new challenges will be how to extract the relevant information from the large amount of data so as to allow for comparison over time and between laboratories. Ideally, this information should also allow for comparison to historical data. As input, the method uses short sequence reads from four sequencing platforms or preassembled genomes.
The sequence type is then determined by the combination of alleles identified. The method was tested on preassembled genomes from isolates covering 56 MLST schemes, on short sequence reads from isolates covering 10 schemes, and on a small test set of short sequence reads from 29 isolates for which the sequence type had been determined by traditional methods. The method presented here enables investigators to determine the sequence types of their isolates on the basis of WGS data.
This method is publicly available at www. Comparative genomics of multidrug resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii. Acinetobacter baumannii is a species of nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria commonly found in water and soil. This organism was susceptible to most antibiotics in the s. It has now become a major cause of hospital-acquired infections worldwide due to its remarkable propensity to rapidly acquire resistance determinants to a wide range of antibacterial agents. Here we use a comparative genomic approach to identify the complete repertoire of resistance genes exhibited by the multidrug-resistant A.
At the homologous location, the SDF strain exhibits a 20 kb- genomic island flanked by transposases but devoid of resistance markers. Such a switching genomic structure might be a hotspot that could explain the rapid acquisition of resistance markers under antimicrobial pressure.
Sequence similarity and phylogenetic analyses confirm that most of the resistance genes found in the A. This study also resulted in the discovery of 19 new putative resistance genes. Whole- genome sequencing appears to be a fast and efficient approach to the exhaustive identification of resistance genes in epidemic infectious agents of clinical significance. Sequencing and comparing whole mitochondrial genomes ofanimals. Comparing complete animal mitochondrial genome sequences is becoming increasingly common for phylogenetic reconstruction and as a model for genome evolution.
Not only are they much more informative than shorter sequences of individual genes for inferring evolutionary relatedness, but these data also provide sets of genome -level characters, such as the relative arrangements of genes, that can be especially powerful. We describe here the protocols commonly used for physically isolating mtDNA, for amplifying these by PCR or RCA, for cloning,sequencing, assembly, validation, and gene annotation, and for comparing both sequences and gene arrangements.
Gramene comparative plant genomics resources. Its strength derives from the application of a phylogenetic framework for genome comparison and the use of ontologies to integrate structural and functional annotation data. Whole- genome alignments complemented by phylogenetic gene family trees help infer syntenic and orthologous relationships. Genetic variation data, sequences and genome mappings available for 10 species, including Arabidopsis, rice and maize, help infer putative variant effects on genes and transcripts. The pathways section also hosts 10 species-specific metabolic pathways databases developed in-house or by our collaborators using Pathway Tools software, which facilitates searches for pathway, reaction and metabolite annotations, and allows analyses of user-defined expression datasets.
Recently, we released a Plant Reactome portal featuring curated rice pathways. This portal will be expanded for Arabidopsis, maize and other plant species.
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We continue to provide genetic and QTL maps and marker datasets developed by crop researchers. The project provides a unique community platform to support scientific research in plant genomics including studies in evolution, genetics, plant breeding, molecular biology, biochemistry and systems biology. Comparative and demographic analysis of orangutan genomes. Locke, Devin P. The orangutan species, Pongo abelii Sumatran and Pongo pygmaeus Bornean , are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereby providing an informative perspective on hominid evolution.
Here we present a Sumatran orangutan draft genome assembly and short read sequence data from five Sumatran and five Bornean orangutan genomes. Our analyses reveal that, compared to other primates, the orangutan genome has many unique features. Structural evolution of the orangutan genome has proceeded much more slowly than other great apes, evidenced by fewer rearrangements, less segmental duplication, a lower rate of gene family turnover and surprisingly quiescent Alu repeats, which have played a major role in restructuring other primate genomes.
We also describe the first primate polymorphic neocentromere, found in both Pongo species, emphasizing the gradual evolution of orangutan genome structure. Orangutans have extremely low energy usage for a eutherian mammal1, far lower than their hominid relatives. Adding their genome to the repertoire of sequenced primates illuminates new signals of positive selection in several pathways including glycolipid metabolism.
From the population perspective, both Pongo species are deeply diverse; however, Sumatran individuals possess greater diversity than their Bornean counterparts, and more species-specific variation. Despite a smaller modern census population size, the Sumatran effective population size Ne expanded exponentially relative to the ancestral Ne after the split, while Bornean Ne declined over the same period.
Overall, the resources and analyses presented here offer new opportunities. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts. Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. Isolation and whole genome analysis of endospore-forming bacteria from heroin. Infections caused by endospore-forming bacteria have been associated with severe illness and death among persons who inject drugs.
Analysis of the bacteria residing in heroin has thus been biased towards species that affect human health. Similarly, exploration of the bacterial diversity of seized street market heroin correlated with the skin microflora of recreational heroin users insofar as different Staphylococus spp. In this work 82 samples of non-street market "wholesale" heroin originating from the German Federal Criminal Police Office's heroin analysis program seized during the period between and were analyzed for contaminating bacteria. Without contact with the end user and with only little contaminations introduced by final processing, adulteration and cutting this heroin likely harbors original microbiota from the drug's original source or trafficking route.
We found this drug to be only sparsely populated with retrievable heterotrophic, aerobic bacteria. All isolates were endospore-forming, Gram-positive Bacilli. Completely absent were non-endospore-formers or Gram-negatives. The three most predominant species were Bacillus clausii, Bacillus para licheniformis, and Terribacillus saccharophilus. Whole genome sequencing of these 68 isolates was performed using Illumina technology.
Sequence data sets were assembled and annotated using an automated bioinformatics pipeline. All rights. The creation and comparison of minimal genomes will help better define the most fundamental mechanisms supporting life. Mesoplasma florum is a near-minimal, fast-growing, nonpathogenic bacterium potentially amenable to genome reduction efforts. In a comparative genomic study of 13 M. We next evaluated different genome reduction scenarios for M. Our results suggest that of the M. Conversely, 57 putatively essential M.
This suggests differences in minimal genome compositions, even for these evolutionarily closely related bacteria. Despite these milestone achievements, several questions remain to be answered. For example, is the composition of minimal genomes virtually identical in phylogenetically related species?
On the basis of comparative genomics and transposon mutagenesis, we investigated this question by using an alternative model, Mesoplasma florum, that is also amenable to genome reduction efforts. Our results suggest that the creation of additional minimal. Whole- genome sequencing for comparative genomics and de novo genome assembly. Next-generation sequencing technologies for whole- genome sequencing of mycobacteria are rapidly becoming an attractive alternative to more traditional sequencing methods.
In particular this technology is proving useful for genome -wide identification of mutations in mycobacteria comparative genomics as well as for de novo assembly of whole genomes. Next-generation sequencing however generates a vast quantity of data that can only be transformed into a usable and comprehensible form using bioinformatics.
Here we describe the methodology one would use to prepare libraries for whole- genome sequencing, and the basic bioinformatics to identify mutations in a genome following Illumina HiSeq or MiSeq sequencing, as well as de novo genome assembly following sequencing using Pacific Biosciences PacBio. Comparative genomics of the Bifidobacterium breve taxon. Bifidobacteria are commonly found as part of the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract GIT of a broad range of hosts, where their presence is positively correlated with the host's health status.
In this study, we assessed the genomes of thirteen representatives of Bifidobacterium breve, which is not only a frequently encountered component of the adult and infant human gut microbiota, but can also be isolated from human milk and vagina. In silico analysis of genome sequences from thirteen B. These latter genes specify the biosynthetic machinery for sortase-dependent pili and exopolysaccharide production, as well as genes that provide protection against invasion of foreign DNA i. Gene-trait matching analysis showed clear correlations between known metabolic capabilities and characterized genes, and it also allowed the identification of a gene cluster involved in the utilization of the alcohol-sugar sorbitol.
Genome analysis of thirteen representatives of the B. For this reason our analyses suggest that this number of B. Comparative genomics also facilitated the genetic explanation for differential carbon source utilization phenotypes previously observed in different strains of B. The DNA samples are differentially labeled and hybridized to an immobilized substrate. Comparative genome analysis of Basidiomycete fungi. Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota basidiomycetes , make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy.
This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprotrophs including the majority of wood decaying and ectomycorrhizal species. To better understand the genetic diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycetes including 6 newly sequenced genomes. These genomes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those 22percent found in only one organism. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes in Agaricomycotina suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay.
Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of wood decay genes, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has typical ligninolytic class II fungal peroxidases PODs. This prediction is supported by growth assays in which both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.
Our well-resolved yeast phylogeny shows that some traits, such as methylotrophy, are restricted to single clades, whereas others, such as l-rhamnose utilization, have patchy phylogenetic distributions. Gene clusters, with variable organization and distribution, encode many pathways of interest. Genomics can predict some biochemical traits precisely, but the genomic basis of others, such as xylose utilization, remains unresolved.
Our data also provide insight into early evolution of ascomycetes. These data and analyses will facilitate the engineering of efficient biosynthetic and degradative pathways and gateways for genomic manipulation. Correct classification of genes into gene families is important for understanding gene function and evolution.
Although gene families of many species have been resolved both computationally and experimentally with high accuracy, gene family classification in most newly sequenced genomes has not been done with the same high standard. This project has been designed to develop a strategy to effectively and accurately classify gene families across genomes. We first examine and compare the performance of computer programs developed for automated gene family classification.
However, their performance is highly sensitive to parameter setting, i. To circumvent the problem of parameterization, we have developed a comparative strategy for gene family classification. This strategy takes advantage of existing curated gene families of reference species to find suitable parameters for classifying genes in related genomes. We conclude that fully automated programs can establish biologically accurate gene families if parameterized accordingly.
Comparative gene family classification finds optimal parameters automatically, thus allowing rapid insights into gene families of newly sequenced species. Bengelsdorf, Frank R. Synthesis gas syngas fermentation by anaerobic acetogenic bacteria employing the Wood—Ljungdahl pathway is a bioprocess for production of biofuels and biocommodities. The major fermentation products of the most relevant biocatalytic strains Clostridium ljungdahlii, C. A comparative metabolic and genomic analysis using the mentioned biocatalysts might offer targets for metabolic engineering and thus improve the production of compounds apart from ethanol.
Autotrophic growth and product formation of the four wild type WT strains were compared in uncontrolled batch experiments. The genomes of C. Growth and product spectra acetate, ethanol, 2,3-butanediol of C. In contrast, C. Additionally, recombinant C. Respective recombinant strains produced 2-propanol rather than acetone, due to the presence of a NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase that converts acetone to 2.
Comparative genomics and evolution of eukaryotic phospholipidbiosynthesis. Phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes produce diverse molecular structures and are often present in multiple forms encoded by different genes. This work utilizes comparative genomics and phylogenetics for exploring the distribution, structure and evolution of phospholipid biosynthetic genes and pathways in 26 eukaryotic genomes. Although the basic structure of the pathways was formed early in eukaryotic evolution, the emerging picture indicates that individual enzyme families followed unique evolutionary courses.
For example, choline and ethanolamine kinases and cytidylyltransferases emerged in ancestral eukaryotes, whereas, multiple forms of the corresponding phosphatidyltransferases evolved mainly in a lineage specific manner. Also, base-exchange phosphatidylserine synthases are widespread and ancestral enzymes. The multiplicity of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes has been largely generated by gene expansion in a lineage specific manner. Thus, these observations suggest that phospholipid biosynthesis has been an actively evolving system.
Finally, comparative genomic analysis indicates the existence of novel phosphatidyltransferases and provides a candidate for the uncharacterized eukaryotic phosphatidylglycerol phosphate phosphatase. Comparative genome map of human and cattle. Chromosomal homologies between individual human chromosomes and the bovine karyotype have been established by using a new approach termed Zoo-FISH.
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Labeled DNA libraries from flow-sorted human chromosomes were used as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization on cattle chromosomes. All human DNA libraries, except the Y chromosome library, hybridized to one or more cattle chromosomes, identifying and delineating 50 segments of homology, most of them corresponding to the regions of homology as identified by the previous mapping of individual conserved loci. It allows study of karyotypic evolution and opens new avenues for genomic analysis by facilitating the extrapolation of results from the human genome initiative. Here, we report the whole- genome sequences and annotation of 11 endophytic bacteria from poison ivy Toxicodendron radicans vine tissue.
Five bacteria belong to the genus Pseudomonas, and six single members from other genera were found present in interior vine tissue of poison ivy. Tran, Phuong N. Comparative genomics of parasitic silkworm microsporidia reveal an association between genome expansion and host adaptation. Compared to other known Nosema parasites, N. To gain some insights into the underlying genetic mechanism of pathological ability and host range expansion in this parasite, a comparative genomic approach is conducted.
The genome of two Nosema parasites, N. Results Our comparative genomics analysis show that the N. To our knowledge, duplicated genes derived not only from small-scale events e. Our relative dating analysis further indicated that these duplication events have arisen recently over very short evolutionary time. Furthermore, several duplicated genes involving in the cytotoxic metabolic pathway were found to undergo positive selection, suggestive of the role of duplicated genes on the adaptive evolution of pathogenic ability.
Conclusions Genome expansion is rarely considered as the evolutionary outcome acting on those highly reduced and compact parasitic microsporidian genomes. This study, for the first time, demonstrates that the parasitic genomes can expand, instead of shrink, through several common molecular mechanisms. Comparing genomes with rearrangements and segmental duplications. Large-scale evolutionary events such as genomic rearrange. A basic computational problem is to infer these events in the evolutionary history for given modern genomes , a task for which many algorithms have been proposed under various constraints.
Algorithms that can handle both rearrangements and content-modifying events such as duplications and losses remain few and limited in their applicability. We study the comparison of two genomes under a model including general rearrangements through double-cut-and-join and segmental duplications. We formulate the comparison as an optimization problem and describe an exact algorithm to solve it by using an integer linear program. We also devise a sufficient condition and an efficient algorithm to identify optimal substructures, which can simplify the problem while preserving optimality. Using the optimal substructures with the integer linear program ILP formulation yields a practical and exact algorithm to solve the problem.
We then apply our algorithm to assign in-paralogs and orthologs a necessary step in handling duplications and compare its performance with that of the state-of-the-art method MSOAR, using both simulations and real data. On simulated datasets, our method outperforms MSOAR by a significant margin, and on five well-annotated species, MSOAR achieves high accuracy, yet our method performs slightly better on each of the 10 pairwise comparisons. Discovery of novel plant interaction determinants from the genomes of root nodule bacteria.
In this study, we sequenced the genomes of RNB from diverse hosts and biogeographical regions, and undertook a global exploration of all available RNB genera with the aim of identifying novel genetic determinants of symbiotic association and plant growth promotion. A total of protein families were delineated, including known factors for nodulation and nitrogen fixation, and candidates with previously unexplored functions, for which a role in host-interaction, -regulation, biocontrol, and more, could be posited.
Lastly, these analyses expand our knowledge of the RNB purview and provide novel targets for strain improvement in the ultimate quest to enhance plant productivity and agricultural sustainability. Maansson, Maria; Vynne, Nikolaj G. Strategies that can prioritize the most prolific microbial strains and novel compounds are of great interest. Here, we present an integrated approach to evaluate the biosynthetic richness in bacteria and mine the associated chemical diversity. Thirteen strains closely related to Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea isolated from all over the Earth were analyzed using an untargeted metabolomics strategy, and metabolomic profiles were correlated with whole- genome sequences of the strains.
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The list of chemical features was reduced to 50 discriminating features using a genetic algorithm and support vector machines. Most of the discriminating features were related to antibacterial compounds, including the thiomarinols that were reported from P. By comparative genomics , we identified the biosynthetic cluster responsible for the production of the antibiotic indolmycin, which could not be predicted with standard methods. In conclusion, we present an efficient, integrative strategy for elucidating the chemical richness of a given set of bacteria and link the chemistry to biosynthetic genes.
We demonstrate the usefulness of this combined approach in a group of marine Gram-negative bacteria closely related to Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea, which is a. Patterns and architecture of genomic islands in marine bacteria. Background Genomic Islands GIs have key roles since they modulate the structure and size of bacterial genomes displaying a diverse set of laterally transferred genes. The first essay investigates one of the workhorse models of resource economics, the Hotelling model of an inter-temporally optimizing resource extracting firm.
The Hotelling model provides a convincing theory of fundamental concepts like resource scarcity, but very few empirical validations of the model have been conducted. This essay attempts to empirically validate the Hotelling model by first expanding it to include exploration activity and market power and then using a newly constructed data set for the uranium mining industry to test whether a major resource extracting mining firm in the industry is following the theory's predictions.
The results show that the theory is rejected in all considered settings. The second and third essays investigate the difference in market outcomes under spot-market based trade as compared to long-term contract based trade in oligopolistic markets with investments. The second essay investigates analytically the difference in market outcomes in an electricity market setting, showing that investments and consumer welfare may be higher under spot-market based trade than under long-term contracts.
The third essay proposes techniques to solve large-scale models of this kind, empirically, by exploring the practicability of this approach in an application to the international metallurgical coal market. The final essay investigates the influence of policy uncertainty on investment decisions. With France debating the role of nuclear technology, this essay analyses how policy uncertainty regarding nuclear power in France may feature in the French and European power sector. Applying a stochastic model for the European power system, the analysis shows that the costs of uncertainty in this particular application are rather low compared to the overall costs of a nuclear phase-out.
Video essay. Camera movement has a profound influence on the way films look and the way films are experienced by spectators. In this visual essay Jakob Isak Nielsen proposes six major functions of camera movement in narrative cinema. Individual camera movements may serve more of these functions at the same time School book : the present want to persist in this offering to the future. Full Text Available The schoolbook has assumed since a long time, a main role in the Portuguese education system, often despising other tools, what to say, different knowledge and its acquisition.
Through this article and following previous empirical research, either in doctoral seat, either by the production of textbooks, one anti-dogmatic view on the use of the schoolbook arises, producing a picture that should remain between certainties and uncertainties. Reflect on textbook, on its construction and production, on its use will be the same as trying to understand the legitimacy of the other, giving it a very special place in the entire educational context, not on which teaches or transmits, but which promotes and releases necessary for the emulation of creativity condition.
This, it is decided by the link to the reality of the students, but, immediately, the abuser nature of the textbook as a single book and the only book in the classroom, to prevent as reality construction, complex and articulated. Throughout this analysis, it seems that the schoolbook has difficulty opening holes for clearance to the good pleasure of the scientific spirit, whatever subject is.
How to reference this article Costa, F. Manual escolar: que o presente quer persistir em oferecer ao futuro. Constitution A Bicentennial Collection of Essays. Constitutional essays which formed the basis of public assemblies throughout three states are compiled in this book.
The first three essays consider the U. Michael L. Benedict proposes that the question of ultimate sovereignty has been answered differently by…. Many changes have been made in the field of Neuroanatomy teaching and assessment. One important way to know the changes in other country is by analyzing the Neuroanatomy text books and we can compare their reflections in our curriculum by analyzing the assessment system. To analyze the 'Preface's of contemporary Neuroanatomy text books , qualitatively, for noting the approaches taken and means applied in dealing with Neuroanatomy in the text books.
The 'Preface's of ten contemporary text books dealing with Neuroanatomy, published since , was analyzed. Among them, the two that are most commonly recommended to the medical postgraduates in Bangladesh were selected for analyzing their presentation of text and illustrations. The observations were organized into specific 'theme's. Twelve 'theme's were identified from the analyses of the 'Preface's of ten contemporary Neuroanatomy text books. These include special emphasis in the books on incorporation of new information, on practical application of Neuroanatomical facts.
Addition and improvement regarding illustrations are also highlighted. By incorporating the findings of the present study with the present -day ideas and trends in Neuroanatomy in the developed world as evident from the available literature, suggestions could be formulated on improving the methods of teaching and assessment of Neuroanatomy in Bangladesh.
Mathematical statistics essays on history and methodology. This book presents a detailed description of the development of statistical theory. In the mid twentieth century, the development of mathematical statistics underwent an enduring change, due to the advent of more refined mathematical tools. New concepts like sufficiency, superefficiency, adaptivity etc. The rapidly developing asymptotic theory provided approximate answers to questions for which non-asymptotic theory had found no satisfying solutions.
In four engaging essays , this book presents a detailed description of how the use of mathematical methods stimulated Paul Baillon presents the book "Differential manifolds: a basic approach for experimental physicists" 25 March. Tuesday 25 March at 4 p. Differential manifold is the framework of particle physics and astrophysics nowadays. It is important for all research physicists to be accustomed to it, and even experimental physicists should be able to manipulate equations and expressions in this framework. This book gives a comprehensive description of the basics of differential manifold with a full proof of elements.
A large part of the book is devoted to the basic mathematical concepts, which are all necessary for the development of the differential manifold. This book is self-consistent; it starts from first principles. The mathematical framework is the set theory with its axioms and its formal logic. No special knowledge is needed. Coffee will be served from 3. Essays on electricity markets. The report covers several topics of electricity markets: The first essay , 'Selected Topics on Early Electricity Market Design in Norway' studies market design issues in establishing the market-based Norwegian electricity market.
Essays focus on issues of network congestion: 'Capacity Charges: A Price Adjustment Process for Managing Congestion in Electricity Transmission Networks' presents the capacity charge approach for managing transmission constraints in electricity networks. The book concludes on a polemic confrontation with the Anglo-Austrian art historian E. Gombrich, which is flawed but offers plenty of grist for further thinking. In the discussion on the degree to which media, and books in particular, do affect children's attitudes and socialization, it has been underlined that media take effect in the development of specific attitudinal patterns and behavioural dispositions in those cases where the recipient has not already formed a "completed" opinion of the topic at hand.
This in particular is true in children of primary school age, and above all relates to their view of the disabled person. Six selected children's books were reviewed critically, based on a catalogue of criteria permitting coverage of as wide as spectrum as possible of "physical disability" and allied subjects. Summarizing, it is noted that the books reviewed do give children the opportunity, and partly in an excellent manner, of gaining insights into the situation of disabled persons. The potential for didactical treatment in primary classrooms is pointed out. This article lists 30 titles, published between September and November with reviews published in , which the "School Library Journal's" "SLJ's" Adult Books for High School Students Committee decided to recognize as the best for high school readers.
The list includes realistic and historical novels as well as some genre-blending…. Rethinking the Argumentative Essay. This article investigates the construction of the argumentative essay as it is commonly presented in academic writing textbooks and classrooms for English language learners. The author first examines the traditional three-stage structure thesis-argument-conclusion and then problematizes it within a genre-based approach to academic writing. The author concludes that numerous syntax problems in these books , although not recognized as something that should have to be specially singled out on a meta-level, are not neglected or left out, but are implicitly present in the context of treating non-syntax topics.
Full Text Available This book is a study at the intersection of such academic disciplines as general history, history of state and law and source study. The subcect of R. However, the author is trying to take a fresh look at this state and refute the stereotype of the Golden Horde as a some kind of bunch of nomads who lived only by plundering neighboring sedentary peoples. He succeeds in this by studying such an important part of the Golden Horde history as its law and legal culture.
The book examines a number of questions on the history of state and law of the Golden Horde, which have not previously been the subject of a special study for example, possessions of the Golden Horde in other uluses, dualism of power in different states, relations between authorities and traders, etc..
On some other issues that have already been studied by experts, he proposes new interpretations in the framework of historical and legal approach for example, the causes of intestine strife in the Golden Horde in the midth century, yarliks of the Golden Horde khans granted to the Russian Chruch, relations of the Golden Horde rulers and Italian colonies in the Northern Black Sea region. The author examines to a great extent the themes of state and legal regulation of economic relations: status of merchants in the Golden Horde and post-Golden Horde states, role of economic sanctions in the resolution of political conflicts.
In other essays contained in the book , the author also emphasizes the role of the economic component of the political and legal relations. For example, R. Pochekaev convincingly shows that relations of the Golden Horde with other states of the Mongol Empire was based on the principle of mutual provision of possessions to the rulers of. Charles Darwins's evolution theory was surveyed and analyzed by Henri Bergson in his book "Evolution Creatrice" Bergson described the importance of "intuition" and "cognitive processes" during evolution.
The present essay describes the importance of entropy changes during evolution of species and development of cognition and intuition.
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The importance of Bergson's philosophy in modern sciences is globally explained. Essays in industrial organization and management strategy. This thesis contains five essays in the theory of industrial organization and management strategy. An introduction makes the main ideas accessible to non-specialists by presenting the essays as fictitious cases. The first essay investigates strategic disclosure of verifiable information.
The disclosed information concerns a hidden action, and the transmission of information takes place in a noisy environment. The second essay explores how search costs and informational asymmetries influence t Actual Problems of Kazakh History. Review of the Book by K. Full Text Available A collection of articles written by a well-known orientalist-historian K. Pishchulina and published in includes papers of different years, written on the basis of Persian and Turkic sources reflecting the most pressing issues related to Kazakh khanate.
The publishing of this work immediately became a major event in historical scholarship of Kazakhstan.
New Books in the Library - 2013
During the Soviet period, the history of this state, as well as of other states created by nomadic peoples, remained poorly understood. Many questions were debatable, since Marxism-Leninism, which was in forefront of science, could not adapt the formational class theory for a nomadic society and nomadic mode of production etc. However, some researchers, including K. Pishchulina, were already thinking about these issues. Particularly she studied the role of Turkestan cities as part of Kazakh khanate. According to her main findings, these cities performed a variety of functions being centers of handicraft production, agriculture and trade.
As for Turkestan city itself, it was capital and spiritual center of the state, and the management of settled-agricultural population was carried out by various officials. The author comes to a justified conclusion that monetary system needs to be studied further. Thus, in this collection the reader would find answers to a variety of questions related to the history of Kazakhstan and adjacent territories and its impact in modern times. Essays on medieval computational astronomy.
In Essays on Medieval Computational Astronomy the authors provide examples of original and intelligent approaches and solutions given by medieval astronomers to the problems of their discipline, mostly presented in the form of astronomical tables. Full Text Available With over 7, exhibitors from over countries and circa , visitors each year the Frankfurt Book Fair is a playground for political, economic, and cultural imaginings, including many domestic and foreign places.
This essay offers critical reflections upon metaphors for the translator, arguing that a shift of the base metaphor in comparative literature studies of translation from conflict to friction could redirect interdisciplinary translation studies. I propose that the friction metaphor leads toward an appropriate balance between complex detail and ordering reduction of data that allows us to describe the intensity and the challenges of translation without recreating the old-established realities we already know.
Book Review: Europe Renaissance. Full Text Available The texts of the present volume represent the result of a conference held at Dortmund University of Applied Sciences and Arts in With their contributions, researchers and students from different fields of investigation from several European countries invite the reader to focus on the perspective of European citizens to which less attention has been paid, compared to the institutional crisis of European Union.
In contrast to its increased political and economic power, the EU has not succeeded in incorporating an authority able to communicate to its citizens the feeling of belonging together and to struggle for a common goal. From to , the situation of the European Union has so clearly deteriorated that a well-known German expert in constitutional and public law Dieter Grimm comes to the result of an alarming democratic failure Dieter Grimm, , Europa ja — aber welches?
Eine politische Utopie, Bonn: Dietz. The Case for Quality Book Selection. This essay on library book selection critiques Nora Rawlinson's article on practices at the Baltimore County Public Library which appeared in Library Journal, November 15, , p. Essays in microeconomics. This dissertation consists of three essays in applied microeconomics. Each essay explores a different issue of economic interest. The essay in Chapter 2 describes an experiment designed to investigate if using assets with an intrinsic value that increases over time leads to persistent undervaluation in laboratory asset trading markets.
This question has not previously been investigated by researchers. Results from ten sessions are reported. Three used assets with an intrinsic value that decreased over time. The results from these sessions are consistent with the findings by prior researchers who frequently observed price bubbles in laboratory asset trading experiments. The remaining seven sessions used assets with an intrinsic value that increased over time. In all these sessions trading generally occurred at prices below the asset's intrinsic value. In Chapter 3, in an essay co-authored with Adrian Stoian, we study road running races.
Tournaments, where ordinal position determines rewards, are an important component of our economy. By studying sporting tournaments, we hope to shed light on the nature of other economically significant tournaments where data may be less readily available. We separately quantify the sorting and incentive effects of tournament prizes by employing a novel two-part model which we apply to a unique data set of road running race results.
We present a counterfactual example of how a hypothetical change in prizes would be predicted to change race participation and speed. In Chapter 4, in an essay co-authored with Jedidiah Brewer and Joseph Cullen, we examine the combined effects of the locations and the brands of retail gasoline outlets in Tucson, Arizona on market prices.
We apply an innovative approach to model the impact of competing gas stations that avoids limiting analysis to predetermined nearby locations. We show that increased brand diversity is associated with higher prices and that gas stations affiliated with mass. Deliberations on the occasion of the publication of a new monograph the book of essays of arid medicine by Z. Zununov, I. Nurov, and S. Zununova ]. The authors analyze the monograph of the Uzbek scientists professor Z.
A wide range of issues id discussed related to weather and climate adaptation of the healthy subjects both indigenous and non-indigenous residents and the patients suffering from ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. Of special interest are the methods proposed for the correction of dysadaptive changes including the application of the natural balneotherapeutic factors existing in the arid zone hydrogen sulphide and iodine-bromine balneotherapy, climatic therapy, speleotherapy, and psammotherapy arenation.
An important definitive conclusion at which the authors arrive is the necessity of the experimental observations in agreement with the requirements of the medico-biological ethics. Modern society moves towards an electrifed energy system based on wind, solarand other renewable sources. Utilizing these sources effciently by heat pumps ishighly attractive and a significant potential for improving the energy system byextensive adaptation of heat pumping technology in all fields However, challenges are present for heat pump technology.
In particular for high temperature applications like industrial processes and to some extent district heating, heat pumps are not yet commercially available. In some countries the expansion already occurs, but other places the development Some obstacles relate to regulations and boundary conditions which may not be favorablefor heat pumps and electrification. But, the level of the technology willprobably also improve with regards to temperature limits, efficiency, capacity, and economy, and hence inherently become Essays on Strategic Communication.
These essays consider different settings in which a decision maker has to rely on another agent for information. In each essay , we analyze how much information the sender is able to credibly communicate to. One topic suggested to me was to write a comment onrecent developments leveraging on GG or that part that has not been published previously.
The remainder of thispaper other than the introduction and conclusion will consist of firstly a review of GG , secondly a reviewof UBOD , and thirdly a number of observations based on these contrasting works. Book Review: Book review. Modeling: Gateway to the unknown presents us with a broad ranging account not only of the kinds of models used in scientific inquiry but the different ways in which they are put to work in different contexts of investigation, specifically physics and psychology.
It does this in 16 chapters divided over six sections that deal with practical issues regarding knowledge acquisition and with modeling as it relates to traditional debates in philosophy of science such as realism, the nature of explanation and the role of experiment. The work brings together many ideas published in essays that appeared in other places. As a collection it covers a lot of ground and in doing so presents not just an account of modeling but a broader philosophy of science in the bargain, one that addresses many of the questions that plague not only the role of models but also the status of entities, theories, causes and inductive inference.
Essays on Industrial Organization and Political Economy. This thesis presents three essays on industrial organization and political economy. In the first essay , I show how the attributes of a managerial workforce affect firms' placement decisions and wage offers, and managers' quit decisions. Red books list everything endangered; green books revitalize the endangered.
WRITERS WHOSE NAMES START WITH B
That is exactly what Hinton and Hale set out to do when they brought together no less than-thirty three essays , divided into categories such as Language Policy, Language Planning, Maintenance and Revitalization of National Indigenous The life, work and times of Charles Turner Thackrah are sketched in an essay consisting of 45 pages; the balance of pages being a facsimile reprint of Originally published in London in and long out of print, this book gives a Essays on mergers and acquisitions.
Dance for two selected essays. The author of Einstein's Dreams now presents a collection of essays , written over the past 20 years, that displays his genius for bringing literary and scientific concerns into ringing harmony. Sometimes provocative, sometimes fanciful, always elegantly conceived and written, these meditations offer readers a fascinating look into the creative compulsions shared by the scientist and the artist.
Reading tour. Marie Favereau separately thanked the responsible editors of the publication, Ilnur Mirgaleev and Roman Hautala, for the great work in preparing the book for publication. In his presentation , the responsible editor and coordinator of the project, Ilnur Mirgaleev, spoke about the work on the project, on the problems and prospects of the Golden Horde researches. In particular, he noted that representatives of various research schools participated in the writing of this book setting a trend thereby for all national historiographies. In his opinion, this book is also important because it defines new priority directions for specialists in the most diverse areas of medieval history of the vast Eurasian space.
At the end of the conference, Luisa Bukharaeva talked about the poetry of the Golden Horde. Thomson Reuters to release Book Citation Index later this year. Thomson Reuters will launch its new Book Citation Index later this year. Projected to include 25, volumes from major publishers and university presses in science, social science, and the humanities, the Book Citation Index will cover scholarly books both series and nonseries that present original research or literature reviews. The current effort regarding the science section is focused on books published from to the present. Essays in behavioral strategy.
This dissertation is composed of three quantitative empirical essays. Using social psychology, psychology and economic theory, the first essay explores how fear of death, belief in afterlife, self-esteem and generation influence the way employees project themselves in the future of their working. Essays on partial retirement. The five essays in this dissertation address a range of topics in the micro-economic literature on partial retirement.
The focus is on the labor market behavior of older age groups. The essays examine the economic and non-economic determinants of partial retirement behavior, the effect of partial. The world class Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposits associated with the Sudbury Igneous Complex SIC are quite unique on earth in the sense that the energy source and origin were triggered by a large meteorite impact event.
This is the first complete reference book that focuses entirely on the SIC and covers the fields of economic geology, petrology, geochemistry and geophysics. The purpose of this book is to explore the linkage between sulfide and silicate magmas generated by the 1. The author, Peter Lightfoot, has been based in Sudbury for 25 years. As a top scientist on magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposits and a Chief Geologist with the Brownfield Exploration group at Vale Base Metals, Peter has been positioned to develop and assemble the ideas presented in this book , which are perfectly balanced between industry and academia.
This proceeding is second part of two books published for the meeting contains papers on nuclear chemistry, process technology, and radioactive waste management and environment. There are 62 papers indexed individually. In this essay , the authors present a case study that demonstrates how graphic novels can be utilized in the history classroom.
More specifically, they discuss the benefits and challenges of using comic books to teach undergraduates about war and violence. While much of their discussion focuses on the historical particularities of Uganda, their…. Banned Books ; B. The first half of this volume presents an introductory essay defining the First Amendment and the legal aspects of censorship, and offers an annotated list of books that have been banned at various times throughout history. The annotations, arranged according to the birth dates of the authors, include a chronological account of the censorship….
Electronic book — paperless book. Full Text Available The article presents the electronic book , which is accessible on the Internet, with particularities and drawbacks that the present and future users and librarians may encounter. It also presents devices such as scanners and hand-helds and software required for reading and designing electronic books , as well as the details we should pay attention to when buying and using the above mentioned devices.
Some of the most significant web pages dedicated to the selling and promoting of electronic books are also presented. In September , Slovenia also joined the international agreement on the protection of copyrights. It is expected that electronic books will gradually become part of the collection of all types of libraries.
Therefore, libraries will need appropriate technical equipment as well as trained personnel for the usage of this new medium. Book Reviews. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, An Anthology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Whitehead eds -Michel R. Doortmont, Philip D. Curtin, The rise and fall of the plantation complex: Essays in Atlantic history.
New York: Cambridge University Press, McDonald, Hilary McD. Beckles, A history of Barbados: From Amerindian settlement to nation-state. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Fraser, Hilary McD. Beckles, Natural rebels; A social history of enslaved black women in Barbados. Holt, The problem of freedom: Race, labor, and politics in Jamaica and Britain, Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, Emmer, A.
Meredith John, The plantation slaves of Trinidad, A mathematical and demographic inquiry. Leiden: E. Brill, Menard, Nigel Tattersfield, The forgotten trade: comprising the log of the Daniel and Henry of and accounts of the slave trade from the minor ports of England, London: Jonathan Cape, Garrigus, James E. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University. Three essays in risky behaviors. A PhD Dissertation, presented as part of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy from the NOVA - School of Business and Economics This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between risky behaviors and social environment, including the strategic construction of conversational networks to discuss HIV related issues, the impact of social stigma on risky behaviors, and how subjective expectations from parents can influence childhood obesity.
Essays on liberalized energy markets. This thesis consists of four essays that aim at contributing to the understanding of some of the new challenges associated by the liberalized energy markets. More specifically the essays consider investments in energy generation projects; international trade of Green Certificates, market power in a Green Certificate system, and finally the behaviour of public firms in liberalized markets. Essay 1 considers energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies.
A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost estimates of two different power plant types. Essay 2 presents an analytical equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning international markets for electricity and Green Certificates is formulated.
The percentage requirement is perceived as the policy instrument affecting the level of green electricity in end-use consumption. In none of the cases considered does an increase in the country's percentage requirement necessarily result in an increase in the generation of green electricity in that country, but it may have a positive effect on the trading partner's generation of green electricity. Further, under quite realistic assumptions, a country maximizes its generation of green electricity by setting the percentage requirement to zero.
In essay 3 an analytic equilibrium model for a simultaneously functioning electricity market and a market for Green Certificates is formulated. The major focus of the paper is the effect of market power in a Green Certificate system. One of the main results is that the certificate system faced with market power. One of the main results is that the certificate system faced with market power may. This book is a study at the intersection of such academic disciplines as general history, history of state and law and source study.
However, the author is trying to take a fresh look at this state and refute the stereotype of the Golden Horde as a Physics, Reactor Physics and Nuclear Instrumentation. This proceeding is part one from two books published for the meeting contains papers on Physics, Reactor Physics and Nuclear Instrumentation as results of research activities in National Atomic Energy Agency. There are 39 papers indexed individually. What roles can and should teachers' unions play in the deliberations, debates, and conflicts over school reform in a time when education sits at the center of so much of our economic, political, ideological, and cultural tensions?
Space, Time, Matter, and Form collects ten of David Bostock's essays on themes from Aristotle's Physics, four of them published here for the first time. The first five papers look at issues raised in the first two books of the Physics, centred on notions of matter and form, and the idea of substance as what persists through change. They also range over other of Aristotle's scientific works, such as his biology and psychology and the account of change in his De Generatione et Corruptione. The volume's remaining essays examine themes in later books of the Physics, including infinity, place, time.
Essays in Household Finance. This Ph. The first essay If individuals are inert or inattentive, it is difficult to establish whether changes in risk taking are caused by personal experiences or whether the change in risk taking Chiba: Institute of developing economies, , pp. Claessen, Douglas Oliver, Polynesia in early historic times. Honolulu: Bess Press, , pp. Zutphen: Walburg Pers, , pp. Anderson , pp. Kahin eds -Janny de Jong, L. With an introduction by. These essays provide richer set of writings on the philosophical, empirical and practical issues raised by a focus on character, and in particular its relationship to questions of opportunity.
Each one is an intellectual pemmican: sharp and to the point. Two scholars draw attention to the gendered nature of character formation Segal and Lexmond ;…. Essays in auction theory. Auction theory is a branch of game theory that considers human behavior in auction markets and the ensuing market outcomes. It is also successfully used as a tool to design real-life auctions. This thesis contains five essays addressing a variety of topics within the realm of auction theory.
Jan Rak and Michael J. Tannenbaum present the book "High-pT physics in the heavy ion era". Puri Page. Find all the books, read about the author, and more. See search results for this Neem book. This comprehensive review on neem is an excellent collation of observations and resea Neem 1st Edition by H. The print version of this textbook is ISBN: , Neem oil Neem oil is a vegetable oil pressed from the fruits and seeds of the neem Azadirachta indica , an evergreen tree which is endemic to the Indian subcontinent and has been introduced to many other areas in the tropics.
Neem : H.
Related Diana Tempest [Annotated with a new introduction] (Valancourt Classics)
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