Even Confucianism cannot stand on its own without its partners. New Testament scholar K. Yeo would go even further to suggest Christianity may preserve Chinese identity itself, writing, Might there be the day when the Chinese have no affinity for, not to mention appreciation of, the Confucianist ideals of virtue? And in so doing, Christianity may well serve to preserve Chinese culture in an era of modernization and globalization Yang The Yin-Yang Dance of Confucianism and Daoism This section explores further the essence of Chinese religious belief, specifically the dialectic relationship between Confucianism and Daoism.
Consequently, Chinese scholars discarded many tenets of Indian Buddhism and pragmatically incorporated what they thought useful into Daoist beliefs. While Confucianism and Daoism share the same belief in Dao, the Way the world goes, and the complementary forces of yin and yang in Chinese religion, they approach it from differing perspectives.
In fact, it has been said that Confucianism and Daoism are in themselves the yang and yin of Chinese religion respectively, enabling Chinese to find balance in Dao. In removing one pole, the Hegelian dialectic to find synthesis in Chinese religion left Confucianism with no partner. The religious understanding of Chinese Christians was consequently hampered as they inherited the traditions of Confucianism, but not the traditions of Daoism. Yin must have its yang in order to be in the proper path of Dao. Robert Neville uses the analogy of a ship sailing against the wind.
The force of the wind and water can easily snap a tree. But the inherent strength of the tree, made into the mast and planks of the ship, can withstand the force of the wind and water. In fact,. Hence, the goal of Chinese religionists is to be subtle enough to spot the openings for spontaneous intervention, for changing directions by bringing the Dao of straight wood sliding through water to bear upon the Dao of the wind on the sails.
The patterns of process give the Dao a kind of rhythm, a beat. If one knows the beat of the Dao, its repetitions of yin-yang harmony, one knows where the openings are to intervene. An adept of the Dao knows the subtle ways to adapt the Dao to his or her purposes Daoists and Confucianists seek the same goal, but Daoists focus on cooperating with the natural order while Confucianists look at the role and work of man within the natural order.
As such, Daoism and Confucianism complement each other in various aspects. Three of these contrasts, ecology and anthropology, action and inaction, and external and internal, are briefly discussed here as examples of the relationship. The first difference between Daoism and Confucianism is that the former focuses on the ecological factors while the latter focuses on the anthropological factors. Daoists focus on the changes in nature and the subtle shifts in nature like changing breezes, the change of seasons, and the interplay between the elements such as water breaking down rocks.
In contrast, Confucianists focus on human efforts to manipulate Dao through rituals. This leads to a second difference in which Daoists take a quietist approach to life whereas Confucianists take an active approach to life. In other words, Daoists seek to flow with the Dao while Confucianists seek to manipulate the Dao. In contrast, Daoists strive for wu-wei, inaction. If one is in harmony with Dao, one need not to do anything at all. Third, Confucianism emphasizes a rigid, external framework whereas Daoism emphasizes an internal flexibility.
For Daoists, the key is harmonization with nature. For Chinese, the goal is not to achieve one pole or another, not yin or yang and, consequently, not Confucianism or Daoism. The goal is to balance the interplay between not opposing, but complementary forces. In a Hegelian dialect, Confucianism and Daoism work to synthesize a map to guide Chinese along the path of Dao.
Rather than opposition between the two, there is polarity in unity, like two sides of one coin — harmonized unity of opposites… in the Chinese view of things, nothing can ever be wholly one polarity as opposed to its complementary opposite… Quite contrary to most western thought it is not the triumph of good over evil, of light over darkness, of the divine over the demonic that is the Chinese goal, but the perfect balance between yin and yang polarities that enables the self to transcend them in activity. Evil is but temporary disharmony just as night is the temporary suspension of day.
Fowler and Fowler 52 With this understanding of the relationship between Confucianism with Daoism, it is easy to understand how Ricci unintentionally created a hobbled Christianity for the Chinese in choosing Confucianism over Daoism.
From his dualistic, Western perspective, Ricci saw dichotomy, not dialectic. He thought he could decouple one from the other. Consequently, the identification of Christianity with Confucianism while castigating the contributions of Daoism has resulted for many Chinese Christians in a humanistic, works-righteous, and legalistic understanding of faith at the expense of spirituality, sanctification and grace. What can be done to restore wholeness and balance to Chinese Christianity? Unlike Ricci who would look for a rational solution, John Wesley would look for prevenient grace.
And Wesley would find such grace. While caution must be taken to affirm the personality of Christ in contrast to the impersonal force of Dao and differentiate the nature of Christ as unique from Creation, if one can achieve this without syncretism, the reinterpretation of Dao as Christ provides a more holistic means of contextualizing Christianity for the Chinese. And the restored contextual understanding of Daoist spirituality would correct the material, humanistic image of Christianity that is viewed through a Confucianist lens.
A Wesleyan Waltz for Chinese Christian Spirituality In this third section, this paper argues that by is nature, Wesleyan theology, compared with other Western theologies, is ideally suited for helping Chinese Christians re-vision their faith with their indigenous cultural spirituality. Other forms of that tradition, however, for instance those following from John Wesley, have emphasized a mutual interpenetration of both divine grace and joint human responsibility, and that in continuity from the innermost parts of converting the heart to the most external of loving political actions.
In one sense everything is simply the manifestation of divine creative and re-creative grace working from individual hearts to the perfection of society; in a completely compatible sense everything in that continuum is registered in terms of human response and action. Four aspects of Wesleyan theology, prevenient grace, pragmatic approach, polar dialecticisms, and a process for renewal will be discussed. These aspects were chosen because they are not only essential elements of Wesleyan theology, but as well of Chinese spirituality.
On the other hand, prevenient grace can be used to re-interpret the understanding of Dao itself. This occurs when indigenous Christians have a cognitive faith in Christ, but continue with their cultural practices that are in contradiction or in syncretistic relationship with Christianity. Confucian Christians may appear faithful by following rituals and carrying out good works, but may inwardly remain stagnant, not realizing the need for continued transformation and thus being unable to contextualize their faith in their environment.
As such, When Christians from the West encounter people of other cultures, both Christians and non-Christians, contextual issues invariably surface. The central question asks how the holistic nature of the gospel can be relevant to particular cultural contexts without filtering it through Western or primal world views. To this end, contextualization attempts to tell the truth of the gospel by making it culturally relevant without having it become culturally relative. This is made possible because Wesleyan theology understands that God through prevenient grace is working through all cultures and as such indigenous culture holds a certain value and can be retained as long as it is consistent with scripture.
He would understand that indigenous cultures, even indigenous religions, are part of the process of revelation. Additionally, the Wesleyan understanding of prevenient grace in itself serves not merely as the door for contextualization, but may very well serve as its pathway when contextualized in the concept of Dao.
For example, the complementary Daoist perspective helps Chinese Christians to recognize the sovereignty of Christ in the world. Such an understanding is very similar to the description of Christ in Colossians — He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. But once clarified, Dao re-defined through a Christologic lens provides a powerful contextual means of grace for Chinese Christians. Fowler and Fowler For Chinese, one strives to be aligned and within the Dao in order to experience the fullness and harmony of life. The Wesleyan understanding of prevenient grace well reflects this understanding of Dao.
Unlike other Western theologians who understood grace as static and predominantly as pardon or unmerited forgiveness, following Eastern traditions, Wesley understood grace as dynamic and with the power to heal. Hence, as Dao is the force that enables humans to live life to the fullest, the Wesleyan understanding of prevenient grace through the biblical Dao expands and brings balance to the spiritual understanding of Chinese beyond the static, humanistic nature of Confucian Christianity.
But in the Chinese context, there is an added means of grace. It is merely part of a progressive revelation of identity. Pragmatic Integration Wesleyan theology can help Chinese Christians avoid split-level Christianity with its emphasis on pragmatic integration. It can serve as a corrective to the more ritualized and rigid caricature of Confucian-formulated Christianity, which tends to encourage rather than discourage split-level Christianity. Chinese religious belief has always been pragmatic in nature Fowler and Fowler It rests not in creeds or confessions, but in what works.
Religion must be something. Consequently, Chinese religion relies heavily on divination and on the procuring of luck to enable success in life. It is also the reason why Chinese religion is not distinct in nature, but an amalgamation of Chinese folk religion, Daoism, and Buddhism that is framed by Confucianism.
It is how Chinese can be Buddhist, Daoist, and Confucian all at the same time. None are true to form, but each are mongrels of interpenetrating beliefs and ideas. The Wesleyan understanding of religion provides a suitable companion for Chinese spirituality. It too emphasizes the practical and the pragmatic - and as the next subsection discusses, is able to integrate polarized ideas into a single system. It is why E. Wesley would most likely have the same impact in the Chinese context. Wesleyan theology provides a Christian model for contextualizing a Chinese worldview.
The Chinese world view seeks harmony, even with opposing forces. The Chinese world view recognizes that all parties have their proper place. Additionally, there is an understanding that each party is interconnected with others and defined by others. For example, consider the critical forces of yin and yang. They appear to be opposing forces. But as discussed previously, they are not dichotomous nor in competition. Rather, they work together to balance and even define the other. The Fowlers write, Yin and yang are complementary essences or forces. Just as we cannot understand darkness without light or vice versa, and just as we need the variances of dark, light and shadow to see well, so yin and yang cannot exist without each other.
So in being mutually dependent, yin and yang, like all opposites in Chinese thought, are complementary rather than oppositional. One example that Wesleyan theology aids Chinese Christians is in the understanding of evil. As discussed earlier, the Daoist understanding of evil is that it is a result of disharmony and defined by relationship. For Confucian-influenced Christians with a dualistic Western theology, this presents problems because such a world view is seen as a battle of two opposing forces with the eventual destruction.
Opposing forces are not as seen as part of a whole. But Wesleyan theology, being more relational, offers an alternate view that is more in harmony with the Chinese world view. We may now attain both higher degrees of holiness and higher degrees of glory than it would have been possible for us to attain if Adam had not sinned. For if Adam had not sinned, the Son of God had not died. Consequently that amazing instance of the love of God to man had never existed which has in all ages excited the highest joy, and love and gratitude from his children. But there would have been no place for love to God the Redeemer: this could have had no being.
Hence, more than integrating polarities, both Wesley and the Chinese worldview share a systemic understanding that all parties are interconnected and influence each other. Consider as well the example of the relationship between spiritual and physical health. Unlike theologies derived from Western dualism, both Wesley and the Chinese see them as part of the same system. When one aspect is sick, the entire being is sick.
As such, it is important to maintain a healthful balance so that body and spirit are healthy. Chinese place great emphasis in maintaining good health. Herbal remedies are available for any and every ailment. Tai-chi is practiced by millions every morning. And holistic treatments such as acupuncture serve to keep the forces in the body in proper balance so the spirit is unencumbered.
We wait until we get ill before we help our bodies. It was with this understanding that he published his Primitive Physick. For the Chinese Christians, this would be but a confirmation of their indigenous cultural world view. Wesleyan theology provides Chinese Christians with a framework for holistic living that their indigenous cultural heritage necessitates, mitigating the dangers of dualism and split-level Christianity. A Process for Renewal Unlike the more juridical Christian theologies and the conservative nature of Confucianism, both Daoist spirituality and Wesleyan theology share an emphasis in movement and progression.
Both understand that life is not merely to maintain the status quo, but life is an ongoing process of growth and perfecting. Hence, a Wesleyan theology would enable Chinese Christians to move beyond their Confucian-dominated perspective to embrace a more fluid and flexible approach toward harmony in a changing global society. Within Dao, human beings are to participate in its ebbs and flows. The human being is not estranged from nature or from a reality that is so ultimate that he or she is worthlessly lost.
Reality is experienced in the patterns and harmonies of nature and life. And the more Confucians. In similar fashion, this was exactly what Wesley was trying to correct in the Anglican church. He preached, We are inwardly renewed by the power of God. And as we are more and more dead to sin, we are more and more alive to God.
On analogy with natural life, he diagnosed stalled spiritual growth as a sign of potentially fatal disease. His pastoral letters frequently admonish correspondents that they cannot stand still in their Christian walk, they must either press forward or they will regress. Hence, in a Wesleyan theology, Chinese Christians would find a corrective to the Confucian influence by recognizing the connectedness of the inward with the outward and the need to transform the inward nature to transform the outward character.
The Christian life would not be defined as juridical justification and its maintenance through external ritual and good works, but defined as a continuous transformation of the inner self that must be manifested in outward actions. The revelation of the connection of the inward and outward self and the need for continuous sanctification would serve to help with the introductory examples of upbringing and church conflicts. It restores Chinese spirituality to a more holistic, progressive movement perspective. In the case of child rearing, Chinese Christian parents would realize the need for inner cultivation as well as outward development.
Eastern and Western methods of parenting are not in. Rather, they are complementary, emphasizing different aspects. Through Wesleyan theology, Chinese Christian parents would realize that the Lamb of God and the Tiger need to work together. Reel4 Dancing in the Chinese and Global Contexts Through each of the previous sections, the literary dance has introduced you, the reader, to various parties in the missiological waltz of Christianity with Chinese culture. The paper has presented the understanding that Chinese spirituality is a dance of yin and yang following the steps of Dao.
It has also argued that in identifying Christianity with Confucianism at the expense of Daoism, Chinese Christian spirituality was hobbled such that the Christian life centered on a static understanding of justification, ritual, and external works-righteousness that has resulted in split-level Christianity. And Wesleyan theology has been introduced as a means of grace to restore Chinese spirituality so that it may dance in balanced fashion.
But what does Wesleyan theology really do for Chinese Christianity? This section argues that Wesleyan theology is a mediating means of grace for the renewal. Finally, this section concludes, arguing that if Wesleyan theology can do this in the Chinese context, then Wesleyan theology may be equally useful in the wider global context. The Chinese dance … First, Wesleyan theology serves not only to restore a balanced and holistic perspective to Chinese Christian spirituality; it can also serve as a means of grace for renewal.
Snyder argues in his model of renewal that two dialectic elements, the institutional and the charismatic, must be present. As argued earlier, the Chinese church was built primarily on the Confucian viewpoint, which is primarily the institutional viewpoint; but without the charismatic viewpoint that was inherent in Chinese culture through Daoism, so there were limited means by which renewal could occur.
Hence, in the restoration of the charismatic viewpoint through Wesleyan theology, a means of grace for renewal could now be re-introduced to the Chinese church. Second, as a result of this renewal, Wesleyan theology provides the means of grace in the formation of a balanced and holistic understanding of selfidentity for Chinese Christians in a multicultural environment. Wesleyan theology, due to its holistic and practical nature, is more aligned with indigenous Chinese spirituality and may well serve to mitigate the influence of Western dualism and the potential for split-level Christianity.
As such, Wesleyan theology serves as a wellsuited pathway for the contextual integration of Christianity and indigenous culture. This paper closes by arguing that the challenge the Chinese church faces today is a challenge the global Church faces — how to bring unity in diversity. Conflicts arise because when individuals of two different cultures, even if both are Chinese, clash, how can one find agreement if both feel their way is right?
This is the challenge both the Chinese and the global church face. William Shenk writes,. This conflict over conversion and identity centers on the relationship between the universal that which is not conditioned by any culture and the particular that which is unique to a culture or religion.
For with every age, Walls writes, … God accepts us as we are… He does not take us as isolated, self-governing units, because we are not. Every Christian has dual nationality, and has loyalty to the faith family which links him to those in interest groups opposed to that which he belongs by nature. Indeed, Timothy Tennent agrees, writing. With the dramatic rise of Christians from the Majority World church, many of whom do not trace their history to the Reformation, there is a need to discover a deeper ecumenism that can unite all true Christians.
Wesley anticipated the future multicultural diversity of the church and the common experience of rebirth from above that unites all Christians of every age. Tennent Unlike some other theological systems, a Wesleyan approach provides a means of grace by which to integrate the dialectic of the global and the local. By helping indigenous Christians accept their identity as both Christian and indigenous, conflict may be mitigated.
In the Chinese context, Yang writes, Chinese identity has been a cultural unity. Therefore, Chinese converts to Christianity could claim their Chinese identity by preserving their nonreligious Chinese cultural heritage, rejecting traditionally religious elements of the culture, and sometimes reinterpreting the meaning of certain cultural traditions. For these Chinese, Christian conversion becomes an integral part of the general identity reconstruction of Chineseness. And to be Christian is to retain portions of locality.
In conclusion, Wesleyan theology may be the most appropriate approach both to integrate Christianity with indigenous cultures, but as well to help Christians in different cultures develop their particular identities and roles in the broader global world. Tao and Dao have the same meaning, but have different spellings due to two different Romanization systems the older Wade-Giles British and newer PinYin mainland Chinese. They are used interchangeably throughout the paper though the preference will be Dao. Bridging the Gap: Evangelism, Development and Shalom.
Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother. New York: Penguin Press. Corduan, Wilfred E. Gallagher, Robert L. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. Hempton, David Hiebert, Paul G. Asian Review 13 Spring : 79 — Kohn, Livia The Human Condition. Lancaster, Sarah H. Maddox and Jason E. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. Liu, Yu. Ott, Craig and Netland, Harold A. Maddox, Randy L. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press. New York: Cambridge University Press. Muck, Terry and Adeney, Frances S. Neville, Robert Cummings ed. The New Catholicity. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, pp. Snyder, Howard A. Tamney, Joseph B. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Whiteman and Gerald H. Anderson, World Mission in the Wesleyan Spirit. Walls, Andrew F. The Missionary Movement in Christian History. Whiteman Darrell L. Yang, Fenggang Eugene, OR: Cascade Books. Abstract One particularly disputed topic within the field of Old Testament theology is the subject of creation, specifically the theological and ethical import of the creation materials. The present study conducts a survey of positions on the theme of creation in significant works of Old Testament Theology excluding works that utilize a narrative or book-based approach from the seminal volumes of Eichrodt and Von Rad to the present day.
It is the intention of the present study to identify the various zones of general agreement and disagreement within the subcategories present in different discussions of creation in Old Testament Theology, in order to clearly isolate the areas that require further research. Fuller is a Ph. His research interests include Pentateuch, Book of the Twelve, textual traditions, philosophical hermeneutics, and the use of theoretical linguistics in biblical research.
Introduction Biblical theology provides the necessary link between exegesis and systematic theology. Foundations: Eichrodt and von Rad Background and Methodologies If two works of Old Testament theology had to be identified as the archetypes for the discipline, it undoubtedly would be those of Walter Eichrodt and Gerhard von Rad.
His second volume works through the prophets before a concluding section discussion integration with the NT. Only the last two of these sections interact significantly with the textual evidence. The remainder of this chapter covers the words for the individual components of human nature. Von Rad notes that the OT opposed the Canaanite nature religions not with teaching on creation but instead references to election. In Psalms , 48, and 33, redemption and creation are side by side, but with the former as the climax. He also identifies this pattern of creation serving soteriology in Psalm He then briefly observes the much more prominent place of creation and absence of redemption in the wisdom literature.
For him the central component of the OT was the sameness of God; he favors the Priestly account that the name of YHWH was first revealed to Moses in Exodus 3 and thus considers this the beginning of authentic revelation. Likewise, in his short treatment of the place of creation in the wisdom corpus he chooses to dwell on the continuity rather than discontinuity between the wisdom and priestly corpuses.
The surprising exception to this trend is the volume of John Rogerson A Theology of the Old Testament, , as he explicitly works from the category of communication in the modern world, in terms of both social relations and divine-human communication. It teaches that creation is for humanity. Qoheleth calls us to purge trivial concepts of the divine and strip away fantasies.
Chaoskampf in Recent Studies Three more recent works exhibit comparable approaches towards creation, if differing in length. First, their organizing principles will be noted. He ends by applying this same principle to Isaiah 51; it is a cry for deliverance from the God who fights evil. Conclusions So what major patterns emerge when all this material has been surveyed? The first significant take-away is that issues of dating and authorship still matter, even when one is more interested in studying the theological import of the texts than their precise meaning in context.
Therefore, assumptions about dating and source divisions still exercise a strong influence on the theological conclusions being drawn. Another issue concerns the precise boundaries of the textual materials considered relevant to the theology of creation. For example, Kessler includes. While it may be easy for some to dismiss the treatment of Rogerson as being overly driven by a certain set of biases, this certainly raises the question of implicit biases in more descriptive approaches.
The decision to not address how a theology of creation may relate to societal change is itself a political one. Despite the recent convergence in the groupings of texts, there is further room for creative reflection on how these various aspects of creation relate to each other. End Notes 1 For a helpful survey of the basic historical contours of biblical theology, its current models, and its relationship with the other theological disciplines, see Andreas J.
Elmer A. Baker; Philadelphia: Westminster Press, — , — Leo G. This strong anti-Semitism, which is still not totally absent from Christian interpretation of the Hebrew Bible, has been a major stumbling block to Jewish engagement of a theology of the Tanakh and as a consequence to dialogue.
This introduced an element of tension into his work. However, he proceeded to incorporate into his work as a necessity the very History of Religion approach against which he had defined his Old Testament Theology. However, this structure did not come from the categories of Christian dogmatics or other abstract conceptions; for Eichrodt Israelite religious thought began with their immediate experience of the Law and Cult. For a representative survey of critiques of the limitations of this approach, see Norman K. Laurin ed. Stalker; New York: Harper and Row, — , Von Rad, Old Testament Theology, This history was organized around the principle that God always dealt with Israel as a unit He believed that Israel had developed short, confessional summaries of their saving-history most notably Deut —9 , the events of which they continuously re-told and adapted for future generations.
When one encounters this information in a source that is over three-quarters of a century old, it is an instructive reminder of how easily some knowledge is either lost or neglected by certain communities. Anderson ed. Green; Louisville: John Knox, , Childs, Biblical Theology. He Finally, the wisdom corpus Job 28, Proverbs 8, Ben Sira 24 makes it clear that the world was established in wisdom, but there is no easy path for humans to understand it — John W. Brueggemann, Theology of the Old Testament, This is a long-term interpretive judgment, rooted perhaps in history and personal inclination as well as in more informed critical judgment.
Probably not. As in many churchly attempts to pronounce on social matters, there is no consideration of the practical politics involved.
Orton; Leiderdorp, Netherlands: Deo, , 2—4. Stolz , and the conflict between God and the chaotic flood is primarily the expression of his superiority over other powers that threaten his creation Podella He specifically suggests that the Psalter could be a starting place for sifting through the rest of the OT. Consequently he emphasizes both the private and the public responsibility inherent in such a social practice.
Marshall; New York: Continuum, , Instead of leaving the pop music scene that had made him famous, he chose instead to stay in pop music and introduce Pentecostal Christian songs into his secular albums and concerts. This is a continuation of a long history of creative contextualization by Pentecostal musicians in sharp contrast to mainline Protestants who still primarily rely on translations of English hymns and music in a world where music is an integral part of the culture.
Godoy de Danielson is a M. She is a native of El Salvador, where she grew up and worked as an English-as-a-Second-Language teacher in the public schools. Her father worked in radio, and so she developed an interest in Latin American popular music and its role in Hispanic culture. He has been involved with missions in China, Honduras, and El Salvador.
He received a Ph. He is also the editor of The Asbury Journal. The same tune, paired with words very closely translated from the English. This is true even after one hundred years of active missionary work. Given the cultural importance of music within Latin America, as well as the plethora of different musical styles, it is perplexing that there are so few hymns written by Spanish speakers within the Latin American context. This paper explores this issue of contextualized music in Latin America through the work of Juan Luis Guerra, a Dominican singer-songwriter who is well known for his pop music, especially the development of the bachata and merengue styles, music sung in the dance halls and clubs of the Caribbean.
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About , Guerra experienced a miraculous healing and conversion to Pentecostalism. However, unlike other pop stars who have converted and then subsequently left the pop music scene to either preach or sing only Christian music, Guerra remained in the world of pop music and began introducing original Pentecostal songs on his secular albums.
Some of these songs became very popular outside of Christian circles. This paper will demonstrate that his contextualized songs fit well within the traditional theology of the four-fold Gospel of traditional Pentecostalism, although his music has yet to be adopted within churches in Latin America. It means continuing to sing songs imported from the young English-speaking world with vague lyrics derived from a foreign context, lacking in theological or biblical content consistent with the diverse needs of the different communities of Latin America.
His conclusions are summarized in this table: Bevans Model. He ultimately argues for a synthetic. The two freest forms he suggests those most likely to be used in Latin America : the anthropological and transcendental models, he immediately labels as having potential problems. His concern strikes us more as being a way to solidify Lutheran ecclesiastical control over potential contextualization, in the same way that he worries Global South Christians might be too free in their approach to music, as if that is a negative thing! It connects theology and culture in a way that makes theology relevant to ordinary people.
We see a better understanding of the anthropological model as being original music and lyrics drawn from the communal cultural experience or understanding of scripture. This understanding helps make better sense of the Pentecostal coritos which will be discussed later, and which make a better example. This idea emphasizes that it is impossible to sing the song of the Lord if we are not fully connected to our land, to our context.
Part of truly doing the work of contextual theology is integrating it with our context and storing it in our minds and hearts through the rhythms and music of our native soil. Pentecostalism and Music in Latin America Early Pentecostal musicians were not afraid to take their new-found faith and express it with the cultural context of their native musical forms. It brightened the previously dark view- held by Protestant missionaries- of popular culture that saw this as hopelessly enmeshed in intractable pathologies of alcoholism and unbridled machismo.
Pentecostals returned popular musical culture to the sacred place of ritual, performance, and spectacle. They forged a new sonic universe that replaced the earlier popular Catholic visual world of saints, candles, gilded altars, and paintings- stimuli that had been erased by iconoclastic Protestantism- with intense sonic and sensory stimulation. Against mainline missionary censure, Pentecostals reintroduced a measure of the carnivalesque laughter, weeping, body movement, profane instruments, feasts, etc.
Despite this effort, Pentecostal creativity combined with the simplicity and repetitive nature of the corito still made inroads. Writing original music and lyrics to express both his personal experience Transcendental Model but also the communal experience of theology Anthropological Model. He is a singer, songwriter, and producer who has sold over 30 million records and won 18 Latin Grammy awards, 2 Grammy awards and 2 Latin Billboard Music awards MusicBrainz, Nd. He is known for writing music in the popular dance styles of merengue, salsa, and bachata. His music is distinctively AfroLatin and is some of the best-known music from the Dominican Republic.
With his group 4. Most of my band plays with me at the church. This album has as its theme my love for Jesus Christ. I accepted Jesus about 10 years ago. I had no center. I felt anxiety frequently and was taking medication to help with that. A friend told me about Jesus and that the peace I was looking for in other places could not equal his peace. I wanted that, so I opened my heart to him and began to feel very full with the love of Christ.
Life is much easier for me this way, and a lot of good things have come from it. All of my performances now are for the glory of God. When I hear beautiful music, I think of him. Jesus is the creator of everything, so he must be a great musician. Think of all the talent he has given to men like Beethoven or Pat Metheny. Small, Nd. Not even with all the awards could I be tranquil in any place.
I suffer from anxiety attacks that are horrifying, horrifying. Only someone that has gone through that knows what I am talking about. From the Bible study to his conversion, not much time passed. In he was already committed to God and became a fundamental part of a church, Mas que Vencedores More Than Conquerors , where he became the director of worship and praise. During that time, Juan Luis took a recess from concerts. Although he never managed to get completely away from it. Thus was born one of his greatest hits: Las Avispas The Wasps. Upon his conversion in the late s, Juan Luis Guerra made one surprising decision.
Usually in Latin America if a secular person becomes religious, they tend to leave their fame and position to go into ministry or the more limited realm of Christian music. Juan Luis Guerra took a different path, however, and began to include religious songs on his secular albums. It was only in that he released an album of only religious material called Para Ti For You , which contained eleven songs incorporating religious lyrics blended with his traditional music and rhythms.
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This blending of secular and religious music was so successful that one of the songs from this religious album, Las Avispas The Wasps , actually won for best single in both the Gospel-Pop and Tropical-Merengue categories in the Billboard Music Awards. Despite this success, Juan Luis Guerra refused to leave the secular music scene and went back to producing secular albums, which usually contained one religious song on each album. To the Sound of the King. In Guerra also released Coleccion Cristiana The Christian Collection , a collection of his Christian material including a number of new songs.
You are the one who stays and never goes, a solitary spotlight in my show. You are the one who plays the violin in my Caribbean Blues. The concept of the Fourfold Gospel began with A. In this work, Simpson outlines four major aspects of Christian doctrine related to the person of Jesus Christ: Christ as savior, Christ as sanctifier, Christ as healer, and Christ as coming Lord. This holiness teaching entered into Pentecostal circles, especially with Aimee Semple McPherson and the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel, and has become a major framework for understanding the message of the Christian Gospel in clear and concise doctrinal positions.
Songs that are more poetic and harder to classify as Christian songs, such as Caribbean Blues, and Something Good have been excluded from this list, and some songs which are more difficult to categorize, such as Son Al Rey and Mi Padre Me Ama which could classify as worship songs and Soldado, which has a clear Trinitarian beginning, have been classified by the theme which seems to be most dominant although that could be open to interpretation.
This leaves 21 songs that are clearly Christian in theme between and This theme comes out in his own testimony, which he writes about in a very poetic fashion in the song Testimonio My Testimony. He also refers to his own love of music by equating his experience of God with a symphony. He no longer needs music in the same way, since he has experienced.
Now God has become his center. Likewise in the song he rejects human wisdom, poetry, money, and even human love as replacements for God, as well as drugs and even music itself. No necesito violines Pizzicatos en el pecho. I do not need violins Pizzicatos in the chest. You are my entire concert, The most beautiful symphony.
Testimonio is a very personal song, written in a highly poetic style, so that God and Jesus are not mentioned directly, but only implied. This may be because it was his first attempt at a religious song and also because it would appear on a secular album. You do not leave me or forsake me, And cover me, Lord, with your wings, Your mercy is forever, I rise, Jesus, and proclaim your name. Nothing will separate me from you, Lord, Nothing will separate me, if I fall, you will raise me up, God. Nothing will separate me from you, Lord, You have loved me and it is your love, Wider and deeper than the sea.
What is interesting is that Christ as Savior is probably the most difficult element of the Fourfold Gospel. But it is not because of its lack of importance in his theology. He clearly sees the themes of love and salvation in his own personal faith story, but he also sees salvation in a more holistic way, so you see elements of salvation in his worship music and music on sanctification as well. Christ as Sanctifier The theme of sanctification comes out most clearly in the previously mentioned song, Mi Jesus My Jesus. In this song the verses refer to the role of Jesus Christ as savior and redeemer, but the majority of the song really focuses on the chorus, which emphasizes the power of Jesus to transform people and then shifts to the role of the Holy Spirit as a fire that makes everything feel new.
This may be referencing Matthew , Luke , or Acts Clearly the idea of sanctification, of being made holy, is attributed to the Holy Spirit, within the normal teaching of the Pentecostal tradition. It is more assumed that this is done through the power of the Holy Spirit, but this protecting aspect of sanctification might be an important insight into Latin American Pentecostal theology. Healing is an important theme in the religious music of Juan Luis Guerra in part because of a healing he experienced in his own life.
Que rico. He pulled me out of the depression and now I Dance on one foot And now my little waist does not hurt, ay! How delicious. And in a later verse he continues with his personal testimony of healing. Gracias a Jesucristo yo fui sanado de un gran dolor Para El no hay nada imposible todo lo puede que gran doctor que doctor!
Thanks to Jesus Christ I was healed of great pain For Him there is nothing impossible at all That great doctor what a doctor! In a more focused and serious song, Cancion de Sanidad Song of Healing , Juan Luis Guerra communicates his theology of healing, building off of Matthew when Jesus heals the woman with the chronic bleeding.
In this song, healing comes in the name of Jesus, but through the power of the Holy Spirit. He refers over and over again to the idea that nothing is impossible for God, and he refers to Christ multiplying the bread and fish and bringing Lazarus back to life. There are no problems or diseases for you, for you There is no divorce or drug on the street, no for you, for you There is no cancer, no AIDS, no illness for you, for you and no, no, no, no there is no storm of calamity for you can do everything, aha.
For Juan Luis Guerra, healing is clearly part of the ongoing work of God through Christ, and his own experience supports this conclusion, which he then theologizes for people in terms of modern illnesses such as cancer and AIDS. Manuela, prepare your suitcase. Manuela No visa is required if you go with him.
Building on the common view of many of the poor in the Caribbean and Latin America in general, that somehow immigrating to the United States would be a panacea for all their problems. Heaven, unlike the United States does not require a visa. This is a good example of contextualization within the current culture of Latin America, yet building off a specific biblical theology, and not just personal experience.
He might be building of Mark , Luke , or Acts This song clearly builds on the revelation of John in Revelation , and Revelation In this apocalyptic vision, Jesus is shown as returning on a white horse to rule the nations and bring judgment and justice. In the blink of an eye Like a Jazz trumpet solo No one will know the hour or day As a thief on a cold night. Guerra clearly builds on Mark , 1 Corinthians , and 1 Thessalonians for his theology of the coming Christ.
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Along with his worship songs, Juan Luis Guerra presents a very balanced Pentecostal Christology in his music, and at the same time he contextualizes the music for his secular audience. Music can be written with original lyrics and music within the cultural context of the writer, expressing his or her understanding of Christian theology in a way that makes sense to the larger community of that culture.
Both early Pentecostal coritos and the contextualized Christian music of Juan Luis Guerra deserve a place in any categorizing of contextualized music. Musical Interpretation Direct translation from one language to another with an identical or near identical meaning and identical tune. Song written in the original language from a local perspective focused on a local view of theology and utilizing traditional folk music, tunes, or rhythms.
Original music and lyrics focused on the particular spiritual experience of the author. Such music becomes more Anthropological as others more commonly have a similar shared experience in the local community. Any music or lyrics that seek to preserve an older or foreign theological viewpoint in opposition to the local culture, even if the lyrics are translated into the local language.
Any blend of music and lyrics that are a composite of two or more of the other models. Conclusion Contextual theology has become an important part of missions and the church in our globalized world, yet music in the mainline Latin American church remains primarily defined by translated words and music from the English-speaking North. Pentecostalism took a very different path with influences from the African-American church, greater freedom in translating lyrics, and the use of indigenous musical forms. It demonstrates in.
The rapid growth of Pentecostalism and the Charismatic Movement within Roman Catholicism speaks in part to the dynamic use of contextualized music. Music in Latin America is one of the defining cultural traits by which people do not just understand, but feel their identity. Tango in Argentina, salsa in Cuba, cumbia in Colombia, and ranchera in Mexico are just some of the many examples of how music helps define nationality and identity.
For the church to fail to develop hymnodies rooted in the musical context of Latin America is a major problem for developing and expressing indigenous theologies. Juan Luis Guerra, from the Dominican Republic has been one of the few to take the defining rhythms of bachata and merengue from his island context and wed them to his Pentecostal theology in the public square. Rather than retreating to the Christian music scene, he remains missiologically and evangelistically open in his music, introducing key elements of the Pentecostal Fourfold Gospel in secular concerts and on his secular albums.
He provides a model for future contextualization in this and other parts of Latin America.
David Guzik :: Hechos 2 – El Espíritu Santo Es Derramado Sobre la Iglesia
As God redeems people, so God can redeem the music of discos and bars, and breathe the life and vitality of the Latin American culture back into it churches. Truly contextualized music will help the church reach out to people in the Public Square without expecting them to enter our buildings and worship services. Our music will call to them and communicate the life and beauty of our faith to their hearts and souls, as well as their minds. Models of Contextual Theology, rev. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis. Recorded Testimony on Juan Luis Guerra. Youtube Video. Rosa Del Pino, Andrea M. Small, Mark Nd.
Kelly J. Godoy de Danielson es una estudiante de M. El ha estado involucrado con misiones en China, Honduras, y El Salvador. El obtuvo un Ph. Con su grupo 4. La mayor parte de mi banda toca conmigo en la iglesia. Todas mis actuaciones ahora son para la gloria de Dios. Piensa en todo el talento que ha dado a hombres como Beethoven o Pat Metheny. Que recuerda a Proverbios Esto deja 21 canciones que son claramente Cristianas en tema entre y Cristo como Cristo como Salvador Santificador. Ahora Dios se ha convertido en su centro.
Esto puede referirse a Mateo , Lucas , o Hechos 2: 3. Prepara la maleta, Manuela. El cielo, a diferencia de los Estados Unidos no requiere una visa. This study thus will seek to offer several possible outlets for the emergence of a relational metric that can be used by BAM practitioners in a variety of different contexts. Specific avenues that will be explored include the business world, economic theory, the Christian canon, as well as church history.
His dissertation research focuses on Kingdomminded metrics so as to assess the outcome, performance, and effectiveness of Entrepreneurial Church Planting in terms of economic, social, and evangelistic goals. The second section of the paper deals with three different views of BAM. The third section lays out possible biblical, historical, and economic foundations for BAM. The paper concludes by suggesting appropriate metrics that are most useful for evaluating the effectiveness of BAM. Literature Review With the intention to develop a metric to measure the effectiveness of the Business as Mission model, it is important to consider what has been written about the goal of BAM, and what suggestions have been made for statistical analysis.
Kraft divides culture into six major sectors: social subsystem, political subsystem, economic subsystem,. Because every structure is connected and interdependent, Kraft suggests that each subsystem is interdependently integrated such that a transformation in one structure will impact another sector Kraft Instead of separating missions into the various categories of development, evangelism, discipleship, profit, and creation care, the BAM movement desires to utilize a holistic praxis of mission. In theory, BAM companies operate to maximize economic, social, environmental, and evangelistic outcomes.
Para algunos expertos, estos esfuerzos dirigidos por los inmigrantes parecen ser el futuro de las misiones. Son informales y altamente relacionales, operando fuera de las estructuras de misiones tradicionales. Pero si las misiones de inmigrantes son un vistazo al futuro, sus propias perspectivas se sienten inciertas. E n su totalidad, los inmigrantes forman la mayor fuerza de ayuda extranjera en los Estados Unidos.
Los inmigrantes cristianos pueden estar especialmente involucrados en ayudar a los pobres en el extranjero. Algunos la ayudaron a vender la comida: dentro de la iglesia, en la calle, a los vecinos, a los trabajadores locales. Los expertos en desarrollo internacional se han preocupado durante mucho tiempo sobre las formas de utilizar mejor las remesas para las comunidades pobres. Otros grupos de inmigrantes han tenido cambios similares. Como por ejemplo, Mario Salamanca. Los miembros crecieron juntos en el pueblo mexicano antes de venir uno por uno a los Estados Unidos.
Los primeros ocho fueron auto-publicados. Por su parte, quiere que las denominaciones encuentren nuevas formas de llevar los esfuerzos misioneros dirigidos por inmigrantes bajo su paraguas de misiones formales, lo que puede significar buscar llegar a un acuerdo cuando las estrategias de misiones tradicionales y de base difieren. En el caso de los menonitas, Krabill dijo que las iglesias de inmigrantes a menudo tienen diferentes enfoques para el establecimiento de la paz que las congregaciones antiguas. Pero en ese entonces la esposa de Mario, Kenelma, fue diagnosticada con leucemia aguda.
Y se ha extendido como el fuego entre las redes de la iglesia. Pero su iglesia tiene un problema de dependencia. Porque si alguien siente el dolor y los peligros de la dependencia, son los hombres y mujeres en sus bancas. To unlock this article for your friends, use any of the social share buttons on our site, or simply copy the link below.
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Cristianismo - Chavacano de Zamboanga Wikipedia - El Libre Enciclopedia
Los misioneros inmigrantes Read in English. Andy Olsen June 22, Image: Zachary Bako. Image: Alicia Vera.
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