I have no doubt Professor Dowden will readily admit this. Will he also admit that the following statements of his, taken from a brief outline of his paper which the Lojidon Chronicle gave at the time, do not conform to this rule, and differ from this treatment? Whoever heard a real student of Goethe point to the volume of his work as a proof of his excellence as a great poet?
Victor Cherbuliez once remarked of Goethe that he was the only poet who was at the same time a great philosopher. Goethe himself refused to be ranked among the professional philoso- phers, but he was unquestionably a true philosopher in the more original sense of the word. He was a thinker of extraor- dinary power, depth and lucidity, and as a thinker he searched into whatever came into his reach and promised results for his intelligence.
That he wrote down what occupied his mind — though what is preserved is probably not more than a mere fraction of the work he did in his life — is at least no reason why he should not be valued as a thinker and a poet; and to say that quality counts for more than quantity is to affirm that we must blame him for that portion of his mental activity which could not be all given to poetic production. In his long life Goethe made some mistakes ; some portions of his writings interest at present only those who make a specialty of Goethe-study, and who thus find matter of interest in every line he ever wrote; his 'scientific' labors have no longer their former intrinsic value, and none of them were perhaps needed to help the progress of science ; his thoughts on art, though still valuable and often of intense correctness, have long been incorporated in special treatises, or, possibly, have been distanced by later writers, and some portions of what we find in his collected works are only of secondary importance, or, let us admit the possibility, of no importance at all.
But what of that? Surely there is no reason to belittle Goethe on account of this evidence of a restless activity. The serious student finds even in these hors Tceuvre of genius much that he has reason to value highly, but he would never think of establishing the fame of the great poet on labors that have little or no connec- tion with poetry. The same is true of Petrarch whose sonnets form but a very small portion of his poetical activity, but are his only title to greatness as a poet. If Shakespeare had lived as long as Goethe, is it unreasonable 30 Goethe.
And further: ''''Goethe's most miportant writmgs are frag- vientary or ill-organised. Is a novel like the Wahlverwandt- schaften fragmentary? In what sense is Wilhelm Meister's Lehrjahre more fragmentary than, for instance, Hamlet?
Hamlet is killed off by the poet — the drama comes to a forced and unnatural end by a process of stabbing and killing, apparently a concession to the bad taste of the public. Wilhelm Meister ends his apprenticeship in a way that is surely as satisactory as any other possible solution. Is Faust fragmentary? Faust is the standing wonder of the age — it has been called a ' worldly Bible ' — it is read with ever new enthusiasm by succeeding generations, by young and old, by the ordinary reader and by the most learned critic.
It has been made the subject of the deepest study, it has received the closest attention, the most genuine admiration of noted men in all the civilized nations. All these students, critics, readers, admirers of the wonderful work may be said to form a court of inquiry, and the judgment of the overwhelming majority of this court is so unanimous and so favorable that even Pro- fessor Dowden might hesitate to set up his own private opinion against it. Is Faicst ill-organized? Who will be the judge? There is such a thing as sublimity of purpose which fails in some respects in the execution.
You may pick flaws in Faust as you may in Hamlet or the Divine Comedy. It is possible to go even further without injuring the unique glory of Faust. We may admit that the second part of the poem is not popular reading ; that it does not appeal to the feelings and the intelligence of the aver- age man or woman, nay, that it is frigid, unsympathetic and, simply considered as poetry, vastly inferior to the first part.
Charles A. The lecturer might hurl his shaft, provided with these two barbs, at some of the best known masterpieces in literature. But this fragment is never- theless a whole, for the poet's intention was to sing only of the "wrath of Achilles. Must we call it fragmentary because it does not tell us of the zvhole life of the poet? In that case any poem would be fragmentary that singles out, say a part of a day, for instance the morning, because it does not include noon and evening. Most novels, even those of such masters as Walter Scott, Dickens, Bulwer, would have to be classed as fragmentary, because they, as a rule, tell us only what happens to their hero up to the date of his wedding day.
There is here a misconception in the mind of the lecturer which he would be ready enough to censure in one of his pupils who should be guilty of confounding the idea of unity in a composi- tion with the idea of completeness. We demand the former, but regard the latter merely as a matter of convenience and indi- vidual preference. The foregoing remarks may suffice to show the nature of the extraordinary utterances of a scholar who assumes the role of a critic of Goethe ; and nothing further is, possibly, called for. But the character of the meeting, and the wide publicity the lecture has received, seem to call for a more extended reply.
Professor Dowden makes the attempt of accounting for the imperfect work of the poet thus : " His career as an artist, like his life as a man, was neither single nor homogeneous ; it was, indeed, a succession of excursions and retreats. Then the romantic historical tragedy of Shakespeare and the sentimentalism of Rousseau and Ossian captured his imagination ; Goetz and Werther were resonant echoes of voices borne to him on the wind rather than original utterances of his owny We might pause here and ask the question : What would the lecturer say if such a charge were laid against the youthful Shakespeare?
Does he not know where Shakespeare drew his inspiration? Does he know what use he made of the work of others? Nay — is he so ignorant as not to know, or so forgetful as not to remember this commonplace of literary history : that one author learns from the other ; that every former great mind necessarily influences every later one? At any rate, will he limit this sort of treatment to Goethe, or extend it to all the other great poets of the ancient and the modern world? It is true that in Goetz the influence of Shakespeare's utter disregard of the unity of time and place is felt, but as each scene is characteristic and in the truest sense original by itself, the question of arrangement of the proper sequence of the scenes, for the purpose of presentation on the stage, is one quite distinct from the original poetry of the piece.
The lecturer seems not to have had the slightest doubt that what he said must recommend itself to the Goethe Society, and yet he must have known that the members of this society laid some claim to having looked at Goethe's works with their own eyes, and used, in reading them, their own judgment. The society was further treated to an examination of the late ' nerveless' eclecticism of the poet's decline. He experimented endlessly toward the creation of a new German literature.
I believe that he has been long since very sorry to have given expression to these statements which for aimlessness, lack of point and irrelevancy cannot be easily matched. It, surely, is hardly necessary to inform any student of Goethe that, so far from consciously making experiments for the crea- tion of a new literature, he was distinguished among all his fellows and rivals for his unwearied endeavor to give an outward and artistic form to the realities he met in his life.
I noticed in one of our magazines an article in which Professor Sloan praises the i erorations of Bismarck's great speeches, now recognized by the most competent German literary men as masterpieces of litera- ture. But Bismarck never wrote a peroration, and all his preparation consisted in a thorough mastery of the facts which he intended to present. That his genius was great enough to give a terse and proper expression to these facts procured him a prominent rank in the literature of his people.
In this respect he did only what Goethe had done before him, and the error of Professor Sloan is therefore as great as the error of Professor Dowden. Our interest in all that Goethe has written is so great, because we have the strongest reason to believe that he never wrote without having a definite experience in his mind, some fact or occurrence of greater or less importance which necessarily and naturally led to the verbal statement.
We must add, of course, that he used such experience as a poet. He could not help expressing the truth as he saw it, and what more original literature can there be than the product of such activity? Let us take an example. Goethe felt an irresistible desire to visit Italy. He starts suddenly for that country, and no sooner arrived, his attention is taken up by a variety of subjects. He applies himself to the practice of painting and sculpture, to the study of Vitru- vius and Palladio, i.
At the same time he is haunted by the problem of the morphology of the plant, and fascinated by the subject and its study ; everywhere he is on the lookout for impressions, and nowhere is he satisfied with anything at second hand. While doing all this he was, in a sense, experi- menting, but the more proper term would be : he zv as gathering experience.
He means this as praise, because Germans, unlike so many writers of the French and other nationalities, do not write for literary effect, but in order to express exactly and individually whatever engages their attention. In other words, there is no attempt at posing with the rep- resentative German authors. Many of the remarks which Professor D. One of the reasons why Moliere ranks as a truly great poet is that he, unlike so many of his countrymen, never poses.
I might stop here and leave the subject to the judgment of the reader whose studies have no doubt enabled him to see at once the shallowness of this arraignment of a great poet. But there are a few points in this arraignment which deserve special attention, because they express, to some extent, an undisputed fact.
The one is that Goethe wrote some of his poems in imitation, though but rarely in conscious imitation, of Greek, Latin or French authors ; that he translated some of Voltaire's works, and that he found no great tradition in his own country to urge him on. It would be difficult to prove that the fame of a poet, or his real originality, suffers on account of having occasionally imitated another author, especially one who has long been dead.
Whether that poet be Martial or Catullus, Propertius or Voltaire, can make but little difference. Much of the best Latin literature is an imitation of the Greek ; the Greek authors themselves used earlier models, and it may be truly said that every succeeding phase of literature is in some degree influenced by some preceding phase.
Thiis English literature grew by imitating Italian and French models. Shakespeare fertilized German literature, and Lessing, Herder, Schiller, Goethe and other German authors have in their turn left their mark on the literature of England, France and other countries. It is not at all true that a literary tradition in the country of the poet is needed to urge him on. He will be urged on by his own genius, by the example of the literatures of other nations, by his contemj oraries, in fact by the entire magnificent bequest of past ages. To call all the works of a poet ' tentative,' because some of them are not as perfect or as important as others, or to deny superiority to any, because some fall below the highest standard, is to play with words, or, at best, a most unfortunate attempt to enlighten the public on a subject in regard to which the speaker himself is sorely in need of light.
Chafles A. Are the authors that preceded Shakespeare of more importance than L,essing and Wieland? Was the influence of Herder of less consequence than that of the whole lot of tragedy writers whose pieces were swept into oblivion by Shakespeare? What tradition operated in the case of Shake- speare that was not active also in the case of Goethe? Might we not much more justly say that in this respect Goethe had unquestionably an advantage over the British poet?
Had Goethe experimented for a new literature, it would have been easy for him to write twice as many dramas as he did — to produce an epic with all the paraphernalia of gods and goddesses, or of angels and archangels, and to imitate any successful composition under the sky. But he did his work in a very different spirit. This inward force that made him write was independent of caprice and wilfulness. The subject took hold of his mind, stayed there a while and was finally detached in a poetic form.
How is it possible to speak of a writer of such spontaneity and naturalness as an experiinenter f This characteristic feature in Goethe appeared early and is so persistent throughout his poetical career that it has been noticed by every fairly careful reader. It is just as evident in his prose writings as it is in his poetry.
In all these compositions, from the concrete, matter-of-fact descriptions of the ' Campaign ' to the philosophical elevation of the Urzvorte we find the direct, individual and 38 Goethe. The idea of experimenting is utterly incompatible with such a process of composition. To speak of imitations of Martial, etc. A poet who reaches the age which Goethe did might have imitated every poet that ever wrote without incurring the risk of being judged by his imitations. Did Goethe imitate Euripides in his Iphigenia? Did he, as Professor Dowden says, falsify the Greek Iphigenia? He imitated the Greek poet as to the general outline of the drama — and he was original in every essential feature of his own drama.
He would have to follow a prototype literally in order to escape the charge oi falsification. Difficile est satiram non scribere. I have felt compelled to use the great name of Shakespeare in order to point out the illogical character of the ' Case against Goethe,' because there is no other poet of modern, and perhaps of ancient times also, who compares with Goethe in the power and universality of genius pure and simple.
But it has never occurred to me to compare the two great poets in other respects. In Shakespeare's great dramas the passionate element prevails, hence they are eminently fit to fix the attention and to engage the sympathy of the spectators, both high and low, edu- cated and uneducated. At the same time we find that the most pathetic tragedy ever written is nevertheless the work of Goethe, i.
It is even more popular outside of Eng- land than any of the great tragedies of Shakespeare, but Goethe composed it, so to speak, by a happy accident tradition and personal experience joined , and he approached its interest, without quite equaling it, only in Egmont. The circumstance deserves to be particularly considered as long as such utterances as we find in the ' Case against Goethe ' can be prominently displayed before a Goethe Society.
The delicate fancy, the graceful sentiment and the easy flow of animated, infinitely varied and suggestive language in Shakespeare's comedies and other dramas have justly elicited the admiration and praise of the best critics. The theatrical work of Shakespeare impresses us as the basis of Shakespeare's fame, and as something that, taken as a whole, has never been equaled. We overlook blemishes and faults and judge from the general and overwhelming impression. With Goethe the case is different.
In their own way such dramas as Tasso. Shake- speare approaches the style of Goethe's dramas in his Hamlet. But Goethe's character as a poet and a thinker is not completely and solely revealed in his dramas as Shakespeare's is in his, and as was nearly the case 40 Goethe. Perhaps, as some maintain, his genius was epic or lyric rather than dramatic ; at any rate, the proof of his unrivaled and undisputed superiority as a poet is found in his lyrics rather than in his dramas, and even in the latter the lyric passages are distinguished by such a glow of feeling and beauty of form and coloring that we are often carried away by them, instead of feeling the impulse of the dramatic action.
It would nevertheless be a great mistake to deny that Goethe ranks among the very greatest masters of personal characterization. His creations of characters have never been surpassed and but rarely equaled. And what infinite variety there is in them! What delicacy of shading! What felicity in often revealing a whole character by a single trait!
From Werther to Faust, from Gretchen to Iphigenie — what a wealth of delineation! What fidelity of painting! In the interest of fairness one might be tempted to ask : "How did a scholar like Professor Dowden arrive at his state- ments and conclusions? It is not probable that he expressed views without previous examination; what, then, was the nature of this examination?
He found Goethe much admired by men to whom he could not deny the capacity of profound critical insight, and he was forced to admit that the great man was an original thinker of great force, an excellent judge of human nature, and unquestionably a poet and finished writer. He found the poet had written a beautiful idyl in the style of an epic, and as the critids authorities zuere not knozan to have done so. Professor Dowden surely knows that the iambic lines which we call blank verse and which were used by Shakespeare were imitated from the French and Italians ; that he borrowed the form of his sonnets from the Italians, and that, if we may say that Goethe occasionally imitated some one in the matter of form, we are forced to say the same of Shakespeare and every other poet.
And right here our critic gets entangled. In conclusion one general remark, A truth that underlies nearly all the shallow criticism of this sort remains to be stated, though it is a truism rather than a new statement. Goethe spent the greater part of his life in a small town, at a petty court and amid surroundings that would not allow the expansion of great tragic force, even if this had been the poet's specialty. When we compare, in respect to their fate and the conditions of their lives, poets like Shakespeare, Racine, Corneille and Moliere with Goethe, we notice at once that the former sought and found the centre of their poetic activity in the capital of their country, and in close proximity to the court, while Goethe lived in a country which was yet far from having attained that unity which made a common capital and a single prominent court possible.
There was no public for tragedy in a small place like Weimar, the stimulus to write tragedy was therefore wanting, and the same was true of the higher comedy. Germany had not yet recovered from the terrible fate brought upon her by foreigners as a consequence of the great reformation. The glory of Luther's mighty work his people paid for, in the thirty years' war, by the most terrible ruin that ever befell a great nation. Subsequently, divided into hundreds of little states, Germany fell an easy prey, at the beginning of this century, to the most skillful general of the age who had sole control of the immense resources, not only of France, but of a large number of allied German and Italian states.
The national regeneration, though it was only a partial one, which caused and followed the expulsion of the French in 1 , found Goethe too old a man to be stimulated by it. His Charles A. Schiller, who was ten years younger and endowed with a different temper, was far more under the influence of the events of his time, especially the French revo- lution ; his tendency was more readily fixed, because he lacked the wide range of the older poet and was less likely to be diverted from the line of work which gave him at once such brilliant promise of success.
Schiller had suffered oppression, hence his fiery outburst of suppressed feeling in the Robbers. Goethe had more or less enjoyed life — he had been rather fortunate in all he had undertaken, hence his temper remained genial ; it never became revolutionary ; and while he very well saw that with the success of the French revolution, after the cannonade of Valmy, a new era of history had begun cf. Cam- pagne in Frankreich he judged rightly that the fanatical fury of the French did not suit the Germans. His life became con- templative, because no great misfortune stirred his indignation ; his poetry epic and lyric rather than dramatic, because the con- flicts in which he was involved were of an inward, personal nature, and he stood aloof from the greater political life that goes on in a great state and throbs at a great capital.
Hence the absence of violent contrasts in his dramas, of passion un- controlled, and wickedness pure and simple. His Mephistopheles even is not a devil of such incarnate wickedness as Shakespeare's lago. There is not a ray of humanity in lago, but Goethe's Mephistopheles is at least humorous at times, and he never tries to appear better than he is. Is lago, therefore, a more artistic figure than Mephistopheles? I doubt that greatly, but he is undoubtedly a more dramatic one. Goethe was imbued with the modern view of natural history which sees in the world an infinite series of transitions, and nowhere an abrupt contrast.
He did not believe in com- pletely bad men as Shakespeare did, and, therefore, he did not paint such. In this we cannot help finding his undoubted superiority over Shakespeare and almost all other poets of the 44 Goethe. But he knew that men can be very weak when tempted, and he painted such men with the irresistible truthful- ness of genius. This is already clearly visible in his Werther and his Goetz. The striking originality of these two works can be denied only by a doctrinaire of the worst type — and by Professor Dowden, let us add, when he is not quite himself.
No more original works ever flowed from the pen of a great poet than Iphigenie auf Tatiris. But in all of these we meet with not a single character that is thoroughly bad or so moved by passion, or by a wicked purpose, as to excite our indignation. They satisfy the demands of the highest intelligence, and it is true that the highest intelligence, any more than the best taste, is not found with the multitude.
It is, however, also true, and deserves to be noted as a proof of the marvelous power of the poet's genius, that, though devoid of the popular elements of intense passion and ferocious hatred, some of his works have had 2. No play on the stage is more successful, even in a popular sense, than Faust ; few equal Egmont in 'effectiveness — one must have seen the play well acted to appreciate this — ; while Hermann und Dorothea has always been dear to the whole German people, and has been praised by other nations wherever it has become known.
Tasso and iphigenie as dramas are great and perfect works of art, but they appeal to the cultured few rather than the masses ; and the same may be said of the two great novels. Whether or not Goethe might have produced more dramas of a type to attract the masses, if he had been placed in a city like London in the stirring age of Elizabeth, or in Paris at the court of a luxurious and glory-loving king like Louis XIV. If Professor Dowden, or any one else, should answer it in the negative, I should feel that no particular injustice were done to Goethe.
Goethe would not be Charles A. Professor Dowden may be justified in his assumption of such a knowledge, but that it is an assumption and nothmg else will scarcely be doubted by any one who will take the pains to study the works of Goethe. Chicago, III. In the libraty of the University of Gottingen, under the cipher Cod. The ballad had been composed by a Gottingen student and seems to have enjoyed much popularity among the townspeople.
A further search revealed the fact that there existed also a printed copy of the poem upon a sheet of coarse unsized paper, and, further, that the manuscript was only a copy of the printed text made evidently by some one who desired to obtain the words and was unable to purchase a printed copy, the edition having been most likely very limited. This I judge to be the case as the title of the piece clearly states, that it was printed at the request of many good friends by a local printer and presumably, therefore, had a very limited circulation. Be that, however, as it may, the MS. As alluring as it is to imagine that the song was written shortly after the events it describes and sung by the happy burghers in gratitude for their deliverance, the length of time which elapsed before it was printed in renders this im- probable.
It is more likely that its student author was not a contemporary of Piccolomini but that he lived a century later and being perhaps a native of Gottingen, had become interested in this episode of the town's history and so worked it up into ballad form. This is, however, only a theory and it is possible that further search might reveal additional evidence which would definitely settle the date of composition.
The manuscript was purchased for the Gottingen library by Professor Roessler in together with various other manuscripts and original documents. The ballad does not appear in Ditfurth's collection of Historische Volkslieder and, as far as I have been able to discover, has never been reprinted. Before giving the text of the poem, it will perhaps be well to describe in brief the events which it commemorates.
It was toward the close of the thirty years' war when the imperial forces laid siege to the town of Gottingen. The Arch- duke marched with his entire army to Einbeck, a [small town about twenty miles north of Gottingen, which he captured in a few days. Taking up his headquarters at Northeim, about twelve miles from Gottingen, he sent a summary demand to this latter place to surrender.
This the magistrates refused to do, pleading as an excuse their duty and oath to their sovereign the Duke of Braunschweig-Liineburg. Thereupon Archduke Leopold, with the Bavarian general Octavio Piccolomini and the imperial army, made his appearance before the town. This was on October 21 of the year In all probability Pic- colomini was the actual leader of the forces as in the ballad he plays the principal role. In the surrounding villages they threw up breastworks and dug trenches.
The inhabitants of the town courageously made two sorties, in both of which they were successful, capturing among others a lieutenant-colonel, a captain and a lieutenant. The besiegers replied by a pro- longed bombardment of the town, lasting from between eight and nine in the evening to two o'clock in the morning. In spite of the fact that large fire-balls weighing about one hundred and fifty pounds were thrown into the town, but comparatively little damage was done, especially by fire, owing to the vigilance of the citizens.
During the bombardment, says the historian, there was visible between eleven and twelve o'clock, as a special token of the grace of God, directly over the town, a clearly defined rainbow adorned with the appropriate colors. After vainly attempting to take the town, in the night of the sixth of November, the imperial army abandoned the siege and stole silently away.
So much for the historical account of the siege. Without stopping long to inquire into the veracity of the historian or as to the probability of such an extraordinary phenomenon as a rainbow at midnight, it might be said in passing that such an occurrence is not impossible. Provided only that the moon was Daniel B. Nah sihner eigenen Meldie. Asze hei nun boven EUigehiisen kam, Da deen dei Kayserschen gegen ohm stahn, Sei wohren halich vermiihten, Sei deen tau Boveden ower marcheren, Sei wollen den Rosen upfraten.
Oberste Rose sprack sine Saldaten an, Jii Brunswikker daut nah Gottingen gahn, Un daut jock tapper wehren, Un wenn dei Kayserschen achter jock kohmen, Will eck meek bahle iimkahren. Asze recht dei Scharmiitzel soil ergahn, Un nun ein Kahrl bihn annern stahn, Da deen dei Kayserschen uhtrihten; Sei leipen uht der ersten in dei annern Schantze, Dat Gewelir deen sei wegschmihten. Sin Harte woll ohm tau bracken. Hei siilwenst wohrt gefangen nohmen, Dat dorfft hei neimand klagen. Asze hei dei Schantze un weer flickt, Un naher nah der Stadt herriickt, Woll hei nich langer teufen.
Hei brochte achte Stiicke an der Thahl, Dei sollen Gottingen bedreufen. Asze hei nun sau gewaltig schoht. Dat hett meek leider Wunder. Isz denn nun hier kein mann bekand, Dei osk brocht in ein anner L,and, Wie mochten hie werden erschlagen, Un wenn dei Schweden achter osk kohmen, Konne wie dat nich verdragen. Sau geht denn hen den Brick den Brack, Vor Gottingen konne wie nich blieven. Dei Papen hadden nich gerne vernohmen, Dat sey nich wohrn in Gottingen kohmen.
Hei wol ohn vorn Biszschop verklagen. In physiognomy and in nature the upper classes and peasants during the Middle Ages and down almost to the eighteenth century were practically identical. This humor is especially instanced in one passage of our poem which, however, because of its broadness is offensive to modern ears.
Still it is entirely free from cynicism and illustrates only the naive standpoint of a man who is accustomed to call a spade a spade. The opening stanzas are as follows : Diic Krequi, hor, wat wultu dohn? Wultu verwarfl'n dat grote Lohn, En got Frantzose bliefen? So mostu hen na Trier gahn De Diitschen dar weg driefen.
Ach setestu biem Griitte-Pott, Et mochte dick wol baten. The similarity of this song to the other is too obvious to be overlooked and one is at once tempted to consider one as an imitation of the other. If we assume that the Gottingen poem was written but a short time before the date of its printing, the poem on the battle of Treves might very well have served as a model for the former.
The similarity, however, is confined mainly to the opening stanza and this leads us to consider a second possibility, namely, that each poem arose independently of the other but in imitation of an older poem whose popularity and circulation were such as to cause it to be taken as the model for many poems of like nature.
The author of the poem on the battle of Treves puts us on the right track by remarking under the title of the poem: "To singen na der Wiese: Henneke Knecht wat wultu dohn," etc. This ballad of Henneke Knecht is a capitally humorous account of a young farmer's lad, who runs away to sea in the belief that the life of a sailor must be infinitely superior to the dull drudgery of the farm.
No sooner, however, does he begin to feel the discomforts of that woeful malady seasickness than he wishes himself once more home. It is, as Bohme says, a good example of the failure to observe the advice of the old proverb: "Schuster bleib bei deinem Leisten. Baring, who was the first to rescue it from oblivion, speaks of it as follows: "Es ist das Henneke Knechts-Lied vor Jahren so bekannt gewesen, dass es Daniel B. A comparison of the three ballads shows that the author of the one on the battle of Treves followed the Henneke Knecht closely in the first two stanzas and then, inspired by his own theme, struck out on independent lines and does not seem to have glanced at or thought of the model again.
The result is a poem of decided merit, perfectly original with the exception of the opening stanzas. The unknown Gottingen student, who described the siege of the town, evidently considered his muse too feeble to attempt an independent flight, or else felt that the very similarity of his poem to the original might guarantee its popularity, and followed the older poem so slavishly that almost every stanza bears evidence of copying.
The He7ineke Knecht begins as follows : Henneke Knecht, wat wult du don wult du verdeinen dat ole Ion over sommer bi mek bliven? Ik geve dek en par nier schoh, den plog kanst du wol driven. It will be noticed that each stanza consists of five lines, the first two rhyming with each other, then the third and fifth rhyming, while the fourth is in all cases unrhymed.
With the 56 A Low Germati Ballad. The first half of the second stanza is similarly identical. In Henneke KnecJit it runs : Henneke sprak sek en trotzich wort ' ' Ik wil nenen buren deinen vort solk arbeit wil ek haten. This our author has retained as follows : Picclemin sprak en hastig Wohrt Eck will den Kayser deinen fohrt Den Brunswikker lielpen hahten.
Even the word hastig which he substituted for trotzich occurs in the next stanza of H. The first line of the fourth stanza of H. Similarly the beginning of the fourth stanza : Asze liei nun boven Elligehusen kam Da deen dei Kayserschen gegen ohm stahn seems to have been modeled on the sixth stanza of The eip:hth stanza of H.
This we find reproduced almost word for word in stanza ten of our poem : Dei Oberst-Iyeutent von der Kaserschen Armee Dei stund asze ein verjahgdes Rehe, Kein Wohrt kon hei mar sprehken Hei leip seek hen, hei leip seek hahr Sin Harte woll ohm tau bracken. For the thirteenth stanza our author borrows the rhyme Sakk: Drakk from the eighth of H. The remainder of the poem is freer from imitation of the older one. Only in two places is a similarity to be found. The twelfth stanza of H. This we find reproduced in the nineteenth stanza of our poem : Isz denn nu hier kein mann bekand Dei osk brbcht in ein anner land The opening line of the concluding stanza is likewise copied from H.
With reference to the dialect, the two poems are quite inde- pendent. This is, of course, to be expected as the form of so popular a ballad as H. Most probably he had learnt it orally and in the forms of his native dialect. The dialect of our poem is as well as I can make out that of Gottingen. The vowel of the pret.
Old ai appears in H. The diphthong 70 appears in H. In both poems, however, verdiene? Original e before r appears in Gottingen as a : harte Herz as usual in Plattdeutsch ; in H. This would seem to point to a dialect bordering on the Midland German as does also the retention of the old qu in the preterite of koninien. Jellinghaus, Zur Einteihuig der niederdeutschen Miindartcn. An exception to this is found in the pret. This agrees with Jellinek's description of the dialect p.
The rhyme with schbt may have influenced the spelling of grbt. In the case of Lohn. The Gottingen poem is not entirely free from High German forms. In many cases these are proper names or technical terms, such as Oberste. In one or two cases, however. High German forms occur where no good reason exists. The name of the deity also occurs in High German form : Gott. This is, however, to be expected as the Low German had yielded before this time to the High German as the language of the Church.
University oif Pbnnsyi,vania. The play gained great popularity from the very start, so that it made conquest of the stage throughout Germany and Austria-Hungary in an astonishingly short time. I have before me the thirty- fourth edition S. Fischer, Berlin , published in , when the play was hardly one year old. Woerner in her excellent little book on Gerhart Hauptmann. It is indeed the mysterious maiden from the strange land of romanticism, the Mignon of the end of the nineteenth century, who offers the treasures of symbolism, fairy tale and wilful fancy to our work-a-day world.
This is the only one of Hauptmann's plays entirely in metrical form ; the metres employed are the tragic iambic verse of five stresses ; the heroic couplet ; Knittelvers, and irregular lyrical metres. It has five acts, and following the example of Ibsen no divi- sion into scenes within the acts. In the subsequent narrative of the action of the play I shall take the liberty of forming somewhat arbitrary groups of events according to dramatic con- sanguinity, if that term may be permitted, instead of the tradi- tional and merely formal division according to the entries and exits of the characters.
In Act I we are at once introduced into the atmosphere which pervades the whole play, that of mountain and forest, meadow and fountain, and the mysteries of its teeming life in the guise of the creations of the fairy tale. There is a little gold-haired elf, Rautendelein Red Annie , mischievous, careless, eager for life, concerned only about the sunshine and the joys of her present existence ; there is Nickelmann, the watersprite, who inhabits a fountain, ugly, old, froglike, whose " Brekekekex, quorax, quorax " reminds us of Aristophanes' Frogs.
He wants the lovely Rautendelein for his wife, but is scorned by her. Next appears the Waldschrat, the traditional satyr, the goatlike wanton of the woods, representing the baser side of animal existence, sensual, vulgar, fond of any kind of mischief regard- less of the consequences. The second scene begins with Heinrich, severely injured, dragging himself upon the mountain.
He is still a young man, surely not beyond the thirties, a bell founder by profes- sion. We learn his story from his conversation with the other persons of the scene, Rautendelein and Wittichen, the old woman of the forest, who is the only one speaking a dialect — the dialect of the Silesian mountains, Hauptmann's native place — and is full of homely wisdom and woodcraft. Support USB recording. Technical glossary. Innovative technology explained simply. As a result, colour transitions and gradations are much more differentiated and thus finer, and the picture takes a major step forwards in terms of natural colour rendering.
Automatic aspect ratio recognition Allows the picture to be shown in its correct format, filling the screen and yet fitting as many elements as possible into the frame — for both TV broadcasts and external image sources. CEC Consumer Electronics Control makes it possible to control the television and any connected AV devices with a single remote control.
Additional control signals are transmitted over the HDMI connection along with image and sound information. Process for calculating intermediate images. This provides a smooth display of cinema films. Dynamic noise reduction Filter for moving and static pictures to eliminate picture interference. EPG allows you to see and restructure the TV schedule in advance and facilitates the programming of recordings. This makes it possible to make digital recordings up to hours in HDTV quality high-resolution or up to hours in SDTV quality standard resolution.
Digital interface for connecting external AV sources. HDR High Dynamic Range refers to a new standard that lays the technical foundations for greatly improved contrast and, therefore,for capturing and reproducing differences between light and dark in a scene. This greatly improves the picture quality, making it much more realistic. However, there are many German sentences in which a verb form is the last word in the sentence. Unfortunately, while German is perhaps the easiest "foreign" language for an English speaker to learn, meanings of words that are spelled similarly are not always identical.
These " false friends " can be confusing for the beginner. Further, German is a more structured language than English, with a more complex grammar, and it will become apparent as you learn German that you will also learn more about English language structure than you might ever recall from your high school English classes. For a quick listing of similarities and differences between English and German, read the Introduction to Level I.
In learning to read or speak any language with which you have minimal acquaintance that is, are not a native speaker of , the two aspects to be mastered are vocabulary and grammar. Acquiring vocabulary is a "simple" matter of memorization. For the language s we learn as children, this process is so transparent that we have trouble conceiving of the importance of having a large vocabulary. By the age of conscious recognition of our communicating with others through speech, we have already learned the meaning of thousands of words. Even words we have trouble defining, we readily understand their use in conversation.
This process can be "reactivated," as it were, by immersion in a second language: a method of learning a new language by moving to a place where that language is spoken and having to get around and live without use of one's native tongue. The student of German language, if not residing in a German-speaking environment, must put forth substantial effort to learning words, including their meaning, their pronunciation and their usage in common sentences. Be sure to "learn"—commit to memory—all of the vocabulary words in each lesson as they are presented.
Early lessons have simple sentences because it is assumed that the student's vocabulary is limited. But throughout the text, more complex discourses often as photo captions are included to introduce the student to regular German in use. It may be helpful to translate these using a German-English dictionary access to one is a must; see Appendix 5 for on-line options.
Other sources of German, such as newspapers, magazines, web sites, etc. The German Wikipedia provides an ever expanding source of German language articles that can be used for this purpose. Further, a German version of the Wikibooks project—a library of textbooks in German—is available at German Wikibooks. German grammar is more complex than, but sufficiently similar to, English that "reading" German is possible with minimal vocabulary in the sense that the student should generally recognize the parts of a sentence.
With a good dictionary or an online translator, an English speaker can usually translate a German sentence close to correctly.
However, to accurately speak and understand German, you must learn how each word functions in a sentence. There are eight basic grammatical functions: case , gender , number , tense , person , mood , voice , and comparison. How words "signal" these functions is an important aspect of learning a new language. English speakers should know all of these functions and the signals used in English, but it is often the situation that you know perfectly well how to speak English, without understanding much about word-functions and signals.
For this reason, this textbook incorporates considerable detail on grammar, including both English and German grammar. The reference book English at Wikibooks may be consulted for additional help. When we say German is more complex than English, what we really mean is that the signals used in German are different from and more numerous than those used by English.
A guide to the pronunciation of German is provided. You should become familiar with this page early on, and refer to it often. Nothing can replace learning a language from a native speaker, but the text is liberally sprinkled with audio files providing the student with valuable input from hearing spoken German. Analyze the spoken words carefully. The pronunciation guide can only closely, not exactly, convey how German words should be pronounced. And of course, German like English has a number of dialects distinguished by differences in pronunciation.
Help in the pronunciation of individual words can be found by accessing the sound files of either of the online dictionaries, links to which are given in the German websites appendix. This textbook is intended as a beginning course in the German language for English speakers.
Early lessons emphasize conversational subjects and gradually introduce German grammatical concepts and rules. In addition, sound files accompany appropriate parts of each lesson. Although the basic lessons Grundlegende Lektionen are presented at about the US high school level, beginners including those attempting to learn German outside of a course structure are expected to work through several basic lessons up to an indicated point, when review is suggested along with additional study.
The basic way lessons go to other lessons is very simple and direct:. Each level of the text is designed to constitute a course of study in the German language. For any level selected, each lesson should be read thoroughly and mastered before moving on. Substantial text in German is included and the student should read all of it, not once, but multiple times. Most of this text must be translated by the student using his or her acquired vocabulary and the vocabulary presented at the bottom of each lesson.
As the German text is read preferably out loud , the student must succeed in gaining an understanding of the meaning of each sentence, and of the role each word plays in establishing that meaning. To the beginner, there will seem to be many words in a German sentence that are out of place or even redundant or unnecessary. These add subtleties to the language that will make sense eventually. But it is important to experience these subtleties from the very beginning. Level I is aimed at junior high and high school students. However, it can also be used by others just beginning to learn to speak or read German.
The goal of Level I German is to introduce the basics of the German language without overwhelming students. Therefore, the vocabulary is formatted for translating from English which the students know into German. Although Level II is aimed at students and people who are a bit proficient after Level I, still, English translation will be used, so as to ease the learning. It helps because, at times while learning a new language, even with basic understanding, the words are above normal understanding level, and thus require a "sub" assistance.
German and English are quite close to each other, and are called language sisters or, more formally, cognate languages. Both belong to the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. Here are some major similarities:. However, German is still one of the easiest languages for English speakers to learn.click here
The differences will be tackled over the course of the lessons. The lessons are meant to be taken in order. You should read and review the German dialogs as often as possible. Many of the dialogs come with audio recordings by native speakers. These recordings are invaluable to learn the German pronunciation. If there is a recording, you can do several kinds of exercises:. On the contents page, you will see filled-in boxes next to each lesson.
The number of boxes corresponds to the completeness of the lesson as follows:. This lesson deals with basic conversation topics such as saying hello and goodbye and asking people how they are feeling. This lesson features audio recordings by native speakers to help you with the pronunciation. Read and listen to the following dialogue between two students: Franz and Greta. You don't have to understand anything! You should rather try to find out how each word is pronounced.
Now try to understand the dialogue with the help of the following list of vocabulary. A complete translation is given in the answers to the next problems. The others, of course, would be useful to know if you are traveling to regions where they are used. As you can see, the different German-speaking regions often have their own ways of saying hello and goodbye.
However, you will not be required to know any of these less common phrases for any problems or tests. The more formal phrases are guten Morgen , guten Tag , and auf Wiedersehen. The others are somewhat neutral on the formal-informal scale. In German, Herr and Frau are used instead of Mr. Schwarz — Herr Schwarz. Frau is used for married and unmarried women. Literally, der Herr means the gentleman and die Frau means the woman.
If you use these words without a last name after them, you have to use an article before them; e. This is actually just like in English. Note also that the German translation of the man is der Mann and the lady should be translated to die Dame. Thus, without last names you would rather use these pairs:. The test consists of three parts: pronunciation, vocabulary, and translation. As always, you should write down your answers before you check them.
Writing the German words is in fact a great way to practice the spelling of German words. The vocabulary and translation problems are all from English to German because this is what you have to learn if you want to communicate in German. Once you are able to translate an English word to the corresponding German word, it won't be any problem to translate the German word back to English.
Literally, Freizeit means free time , i. In this dialogue, Franz and Greta are familiarizing each other with their sports activities. All three verbs that you were introduced to in Lesson 2 are irregular in some way; however, most verbs are regular verbs. Unfortunately, there are more endings in German. The following two tables show the endings for the two regular verbs spielen to play and machen to do; to make :.
As you see, the endings are the same for corresponding forms of spielen and machen. In fact, they are the same for all regular verbs. Thus, you can always just remove the -en from the infinitive of a regular German verb to form the stem e. Here is a table with these endings:. Note that in English one plays sport, while in German one does sport.
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You can also use the question words from Lesson 3 to form more combinations:. Both German and English have compound sentences; the applications of these are enormous. They can be used in lists and also in compound sentences. For example,. The new word, also — auch is very important. The one grammar rule about auch is that it always comes after the verb.
Schauen , schreiben and schwimmen are all regular verbs; i. To conjugate them, you first remove the -en from the infinitive to form the stem i. Here is an example:. Arbeiten is an irregular verb; however, it has a simple change. Whenever the ending starts with a consonant, an -e- is added before it. For example, du arbeit e st not du arbeitst. Lesen is also an irregular verb. For the second and third person singular the form is liest , i.
Sehen is the last irregular verb. There are two common verb forms in English that just don't exist in German: the ing-form or: present progressive ; e. The simple rule is: these constructions don't exist in German. Thus, you should translate I am playing to ich spiele. Similarly, I do play is also translated to ich spiele. Anything else ich mache spielen or ich bin spielen is either not possible in German or has a different meaning. The phrase I do not play should be translated to ich spiele nicht literally: I play not since nicht not comes usually after the verb.
This may sound like Early Modern English in a play by Shakespeare, and this is no coincidence since German and English are both West Germanic languages. In German, there are several ways to express likes and dislikes; this is just one of them. You can also add other verbs for other activities, e. To express preference, you can use lieber instead of gern. For example, I prefer to play basketball. To express favorite activities, you can use am liebsten meaning most of all instead of lieber or gern.
For example, Most of all, I like to play chess. To express dislikes, you can use nicht gern instead of gern , for example I don't like to swim. Numbers are among the most important and most useful words: we need them to talk about time, amounts, money, etc. Even if you are "just" a tourist, you often cannot avoid numbers. Learning numbers can be a bit of a pain; thus, here is some advice: whenever you have time, count something in German; e.
Notice the pattern: -teen translates to -zehn , and -ty to -zig. There is one big problem with the numbers: in German the unit position comes before the tens and is connected by und and. One exception is eins which becomes ein- in 21, 31, 41, etc. German is not the only language with this "reverse" order of numbers: Danish another Germanic language and Arabic do it the same way. To go straight to the lesson test, go here. The test will have four parts to it: Grammar 79 points , Translating 95 points , Reading Comprehension 20 points , Vocabulary 20 points , and Previous Topics 10 points in that order.
The Grammar section will test your ability to know the verbs from this lesson and its various versions, to know articles - the genders of them and the correct usage of them, and correct word order. The Translating section is worth the most points, and it too has three sections. You must know the translations for sentences and phrases going from English to German, and be able to take a German dialogue and translate it back into English. Also you must know the translation from Numbers to German. The third section, Reading Comprehension, is Comprehension Questions you must know how to read the conversion and after reading you will be asked question on the previous conversion.
The fourth section is a vocabulary section. You get 20 English words on the left and 20 German words on the right, and be asked to match them. To study for that, check out the flashcards related to this lesson at FlashcardExchange. The last section, Previous Topics, is a quick review on Lesson 1 to get ready for this section, just look at some past notes or go to Lesson 1 and study. That is the whole test. Take it! As you know from the introduction , in German, there are four cases.
Three are used often. The first, Nominative Case , you learned in Lesson 1. It covers the subject , and the predicate noun in "He is noun. The second, the Accusative Case , you will learn now. It covers the direct object and the object of several prepositions. The third, the Dative Case will be taught later on. It covers the indirect object and the object of many other prepositions. The object of a sentence will be in accusative case.
In, "You hurt me. However related words, such as possessives and the kein- words that you will learn later this lesson, will end in eine for plurals. Therefore above, der Hamburger goes to den Hamburger and ein Hamburger goes to einen Hamburger when the hamburger is the direct object, such as in "Er hat einen Hamburger. If you are getting confused, it's fine. This topic is one of the hardest for English speakers to grasp. Here are some solutions:. To find out the case of something, first find the verb. The verb rules the sentence. Everything revolves around it.
Next you find the subject of the sentence. The subject is always in the Nominative Case , so it takes on the der, die, das, die, or ein, eine, ein. Now you look back at the verb. If it is a being verb am, are, is, etc. An easy way to figure this out is to write an equation. If it can't be replaced by an equals sign, refer to the next paragraph. The predicate noun is also always in the Nominative Case , so the same rules apply to it.
If the verb of the sentence is an action verb playing, throwing, making, eating , find what the subject is doing the verb to. For example, if the verb is "makes" macht , you look for what is being made. That is the direct object. The direct object is always in the Accusative Case , so it takes on the den, die, das, die, or einen, eine, ein. The indefinite articles, when you just look at their endings, select e, -, e for nominative case, and en, e, -, e for accusative. Remember, between nominative and accusative, the only third-person change is in the masculine form.
The pronouns experience a much bigger change than the articles. This is also true in English, as the articles a, an, the do not change ever, but I goes to me , we goes to us , etc. Not everything is the same, though. While me is mich and us is uns , the second and third persons undergo different changes. In third person, as in the articles, the only change is in masculine singular.
Following the "der goes to den" rule, er goes to ihn when in the accusative case. The second person in English never changes. In German, du goes to dich and ihr goes to euch. Sie , the formal version of either, stays the same. Remember, Sie 2nd person formal and sie 3rd person plural only differ in their meanings and the fact that the former is capitalized and the latter is not. This stays true throughout German grammar. Note: This is just a quick lesson in English grammar applied into German.
If you already know all about antecedents in English, skip the first paragraph. When using a pronoun, you have to know what it is for it to work. There are some rare exceptions, such as in mysteries or drama, but otherwise this is always true. Sometimes in dialogue this is taken care of by pointing or making some other gesture, but most of the time, the pronoun modifies something already mentioned.
In German this is very useful. You can't simply say 'it' any more. Many food words are masculine and feminine, and when you turn them into pronouns, they turn into 'he', 'she', 'him', and 'her', not always 'it'. For example, the sentence "The cheeseburger tastes good. It's very crunchy.
He's very crunchy. Why is it "he"? This is where the antecedent comes in. Because there are foods that are masculine and feminine in German, you can't assume the 'es'. You have to look back at the previous sentence, at the antecedent, der Cheeseburger. Of these five verbs, only trinken and bekommen are regular. Essen is irregular that's what the "I" means.
Do you remember from the last lesson 'lesen' and 'sehen'? Well essen experiences the same change, except that it changes to 'i', not 'ie'. Also, it acts the same as 'lesen' in the du-form: You don't have three s's in a row. Isst sounds and looks a lot like ist. The minute difference happens to be in the way you pronounce the s. When you mean eats it is sometimes an overstressed hissing i.
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In normal life Germans, too, can only tell which verb is meant from knowing the context. The last two verbs marked M are modals. They will be discussed in the next section. In the introduction , you learned that German has no helping verbs. Instead, they have modals , words that basically do the same thing.
Modals are conjugated very differently from normal verbs. Most modals experience a vowel change from singular to plural, and the rest is the same. Here is the complete conjugation:. However, will can also mean an intent or a document showing what one wants to happen. So it is not so different from 'to want' as possibly originally presumed. This is very important. When you need to use another verb with a modal such as expressing you would like or want to perform an action , the sentence's word order is somewhat different than it would be in English.
In English, you would state the subject pronoun such as "I" , an English equivalent to the modal verb such as "want" , the action you want to perform such as "to eat" and then what the action will be performed on such as "hamburger" , making the sentence "I want to eat a hamburger. In German, instead of saying, "I'm hungry. Here are the German translations of the corresponding nouns:. Like in English, these two words do not have a plural form. When using them, you don't need to worry about the 'der'; you can just say, "Ich habe Hunger" to say "I am hungry" and "Ich habe keinen Hunger" for "I am not hungry.
Somewhat archaic but still in use are the adjectives hungrig and durstig. In Lesson 1 , you learned how to talk formally, using phrases like "Guten Morgen! There are, however, a few words that are 'survival words' in Germany, specifically:. Twice you have been taught that the ending of the indefinite article for plurals would be eine for Nominative and Accusative cases , if there was an indefinite article for plurals.
Now that lesson applies. The k ein-words have the same endings as the ein-words, and they mean the opposite: no, not any, none. For example, "kein Cheeseburger" means "no cheeseburger". Notice the 'e' at the end of 'keine'. There are many restaurants you might find in Germany. Much like in English-speaking countries, you would more likely use the name of the restaurant than name what kind of restaurant. If you want to address the wish to eat a certain food, there are two ways:. There are few American restaurants, in Germany and they are mostly referred to as " American Diner", so it is not used like "zum Italiener".
You read at the beginning of this lesson that the Accusative Case covers the direct object and the objects of some prepositions. Here are those prepositions that always fall under Accusative Case. You learned um last lesson, and ohne earlier this lesson. Up until this point, you have only worried about the Accusative Case in third person. Here's an example:. In German as in English there are several ways of telling how food tastes. You can do this with 'gut' and 'schlecht' from Lesson 1 to say:.
But this is bland. Hopefully the food has more flavor than the description of it. You can use the following words to more colorfully describe how the cheeseburger tastes:. The first and second persons really shouldn't be used. No one is going to say, "You guys taste salty" or "I taste creamy.
You can use 'schmeckt' and 'schmecken' or 'ist' and 'sind' to state how the food tastes. Just use whichever one you would use in English and it'll usually be correct. Although the English meaning of schmecken is simply to taste , "Schmeckt der Cheeseburger? In other words, schmecken alone can mean to taste good. You could be talking about a cheeseburger that is not directly in front of you. It just isn't clear. Now, if you said, " This cheeseburger tastes good. It changes forms in different situations: different genders and different cases.
It can also mean 'these' when modifying a plural. Here are its forms:. As you can see, dieser is only appropriate for modifying masculine nouns in nominative case. But 'Cheeseburger', which is masculine, is the subject of the sentence, "Dieser Cheeseburger schmeckt gut. Jeder means 'every'. It acts exactly like 'dieser' in its endings, so it should be easy to remember.
Here are the different forms:. Notice the absence of the plural form. When you think about this, it's the same in English: no one says 'every books'. However, because the general subject has to be specified, welcher must be inflected before use: "Welcher Hamburger ist seine? You might want to say 'every day', 'this week', 'every morning', or 'which Tuesday night? But to do this, not only do you need to know the jeder-forms, but also the genders of the times and the cases. The second one is easy: Whenever you do something at a certain time, that time is put into Accusative Case.
Last lesson, you learned the gender of one time: der Tag. So now you know everything to say 'diesen Tag', 'jeden Tag', and 'welchen Tag? Here are the cases of all the times in Lesson 2 :. When extending to 'which Tuesday night? Likewise, you can say 'every June' the same as 'every month': 'jeden Juni'. Look at the second sentence of each of these German dialogues. What's missing? That's right, instead of "Der Cheeseburger schmeckt sehr gut. We're left with just the articles, only in this case, they aren't articles.
They're demonstrative pronouns. Demonstrative pronouns aren't scary. They're just the same as the normal pronouns, only they give more oomph to the sentence. They can be translated as either 'this' or 'that' "I'd like a cheeseburger. That tastes very good. These I like. Demonstrative pronouns are exactly the same as the definite articles well, there is one change in dative, but that will be covered in Lesson 7. If you are not sure of the gender meaning in context, the speaker doesn't know, not that you've forgotten that it's 'der Cheeseburger' , use 'das', like in "Was ist das?
One Euro is worth Cents. If you say "Ich habe vier Euros. Because the backsides of euro coins look different in each country, many people in Europe have started collecting foreign euro coins. In this case you can say "Ich habe irische Euros. There is not yet a rule whether or not the word "Cent" has a different plural form.
The majority of Germans are using the word "Cent" as a plural form, but when they don't it is simply "Cents". For "Cent" there are two pronunciations: you can either pronounce it as in English or you say "tzent". The latter version seems to be preferred by older people. You can also say, " Herr Ober , die Rechnung bitte! The term "der Ober" is the waiter, but this sounds very old fashioned and is hardly ever used today. To address the waiter you would probably say "Entschuldigen Sie, The test will be located here , but the test for this lesson is not yet completed.
In fact, almost all words with the ending -chen are neuter. In every Lesson from 7 - 15 there is going to be a featured German-Speaking city, which will be the theme of the lesson. For 7 - 8 it is Berlin. Also in each lesson there will be facts, so if you ever travel to a German-Speaking country, it'll be like you are a native!
That means that they are 6 hours ahead of E. If it's pm in New York City, it's pm or locally. Please note that Germany changes to and from daylight-saving time a few weeks before the U. In contrast to many other countries where waiters sometime 'live on the tips' in German-speaking countries service personnel always receive a regular wage usually per hour and the tip is always an extra for good service. Not to give a tip will probably give the waiter the impression that either service or product were not that good and you are too polite to admit this, but not tipping is not considered 'rude'.
Also, tipping is only expected when you get served, i. Only when having a large party, like celebrating your birthday in a restaurant, you do extra tipping. In many restaurants it is normal the tip is shared with the kitchen personnel. Paying with credit card or debit card makes tipping difficult, because there is no line on the bill to fill in the tip. Always tip when paying, don't leave money on the table.
There are two major shopping locations. It continues eastwards for about three hundred yards where you can visit KaDeWe , the biggest department store in Europe. Shops are generally open 9am-8pm Monday through Saturday. In the outskirts most shops close at 4pm on Saturdays. There is a lot to say about shopping, places to shop at, money and items to buy. In this lesson we will cover most of it. There are two big shopping locations in Berlin. Another shopping location is das KaDeWe, an upscale department store in Germany.
It has six floors, and Is also called "The department store of the west" Kaufhaus des Westens because it is the largest and most magnificent department store on continental Europe. Since we already have most of the general shopping phrases and vocabulary down, we are going to get into more detail in the next few sections. First is electronics: it might seem a little sparse, but electronics and much other stuff will be featured in Lesson If you look at the word order of this sentence, you will see that you've already learned everything you need to make these sentences, and you, yourself can customize these sentences if you want.
The bedding section is also quite bare, but that is because it will be discussed further in Lesson
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