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They have been carefully selected and contracted by us, are bound to our instructions and are regularly controlled. That excludes the study of prosody, which is instead included in the interdisciplinary field of paralinguistics Dahl, , p. The latter is affirmed by the various academic or professional affiliations other than linguistics represented in the contributions, such as media communication and aesthetics, marketing psychology and consumer behaviour as well as acoustic engineering and production design. More significantly, the contributions are generally characterized by a high level of fragmentation and discontinuity.
Most notably, German-language studies, which represent a significant portion of research in voice branding as in sound branding in general , are virtually never noticed by not-native German-speaking researchers. This applies, for instance, to the systematic theorization by Lehmann , and the smaller-scale accounts of theoretical and case perspectives by Bronner , all having gone completely unnoticed in the literature reviews by Dahl and Peck and Childers , whose studies concentrate exclusively on experimental investigations in the field of marketing psychology and consumer behaviour.
Not even English-language surveys Westermann, are quoted or discussed. It seems all the more relevant to bring together the different research traditions into one presentation. In addition to the German theoretical and overview studies and the North-American reviews mentioned above, there are a number of empirical studies conducted by industrial professionals in cooperation with university scholars Dytz et al. In one of the most extensive studies, Anzenbacher et al.
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Among those sounds that include the human voice, the authors found speech far more common than singing, whistling, whispering, screaming and humming, especially in the case of a retail business p. Rodero et al. Based on a textual examination of the importance of pitch, timbre, gender and regional accent, the authors show an unused potential of sound branding in radio. It has, for instance, been demonstrated that the usage of lower-pitched voice leads to more favourable brand attitudes Chattopadhyay et al.
In this context, however, it might be instructive and interesting to dig further into experimental work in that subfield and note, for inspiration, that whereas the use of non-standard English leads to higher attention and memory, standard English leads to higher credibility and brand preference Lalwani et al.
As regards non-verbal extrinsic sound-brand connections, contributions are very few.
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A reason for this might be that it is not self-evident that logos i. However, logos can have an auditory equivalent in the form of a sonic or audio logo — here distinguished from musical logos i. Moreover, sound can be implied as a synesthetic accompaniment to visuals. From the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic sound-brand connection it follows that the former can be considered from the perspective of generic sounds — that is, sounds that are characteristic of or relating to a class of products and not to any one product in particular.
In this regard, an important matter concerns how cars and carbonated drinks have generic sounds in the form of, e. From a sound branding perspective, however, the issue is whether consumers can differentiate between and associate specific meanings to the sounds of different cars and different bottled soft drinks. Two sound-branding strategies could be devised to meet this challenge. Although the two strategies are not mutually exclusive, they operate at different stages. The former will necessarily operate at the level of the design and production of the object.
This strategy operates almost exclusively at the level of promotion and advertising. Although consumers might be unable to specify the brand origin of any one fizzing bottle-opening sound — they sound practically the same across the generic category — consumers might associate the sound with Coca-Cola and not, say, Pepsi due to the numerous commercials over the years consistently highlighting that particular sound when promoting Coca-Cola Bronner, , p.
However, the sound also qualifies as an index Danesi, , p. Furthermore, the sound can be characterized as a symbol, since its conventional, commercially mediated association with various themes and lifestyles may connote change, happiness, a spark of life and an instant transformation to exquisite places Rodero et al.
The symbolic mode requires considerable promotional and cultural processes of learning towards an agreed convention. Consequently, attempts to annex generic sounds in brands can, if not done correctly e. The sound of an object is relatively confined and, hence, precise in pointing at and representing its qualities e. Thus, the indexical mode arguably presents a particularly significant and accessible potential in the context of sound branding. Following from the question of the development versus annexation of generic sounds, the paper now addresses two important implications of mediation.
First, the mediation of sounds begs the question of whether some media are more suitable for specific kinds of sound branding than are other types. At first sight, it is, of course, relevant to observe that some media are inherently auditory e. In auditory media, non-musical sound branding will tend to rely on verbal or prior visual affirmation. In addition to the potentials of verbal address to represent or mimic, for example, specific persons, demographics and professions Tagg, , p. The example of the potentially symbolic effect of the bottle-opening sound of Coca-Cola illustrates in turn how a sound may, in rare circumstances, prevail as a brand due to prior visual associations, even if it is not accompanied by verbal affirmation.
Notwithstanding the emotional potential of verbal address, verbal affirmation is not necessarily needed in audiovisual media, as various types of visual associations can be arranged and the minds of the consumers can potentially activate the sound of the brand based on the visuals alone which would illustrate a case of synaesthesia, as discussed previously.
Moreover, audiovisual media seem to differ in terms of the existence and suitability of sound in general. Based on the available scholarly studies that include large samples of web ads Jensen and Helles, ; Tsang, , the general impression is that web ads — including both embedded web ads and linked websites Janoschka, — do not often include sound. There are several possible reasons for this lack of sound. Internet users compared to, e. Second, mediation raises the issue of how mediated sound corresponds to unmediated sound during a lived experience.
To be sure, the mediation of sounds in advertising entails the second level of sound production, i. What is important, however, from a reception and brand-building perspective is not only to what extent the sound brand prevails in an auditory foreground. For example, if a brand uses a distinct car engine sound and there is background noise city noises, other cars etc. It is also important, to what extent consumers can appreciate the sound produced during a lived experience as similar to, if not identical with, the sound encountered during the mediated experience of advertising.
For example, as stated by Fiore and Kelly :. While items like music DVDs and computers are easier to sell online because the presented product is very close to the actual one purchased and technical specifications can be easily communicated in a textual format, many others such as fresh foods and fabrics, bought largely according to sensory qualities, present serious difficulties for online retailers and shoppers alike p.
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Some degree of discrepancy between the two types of sound distribution is unavoidable from a physical, textual perspective i. For example, different settings e. As an example from the visual domain of advertising, one might think of the often-reported discrepancy between the actual appearance of a still popular it seems type of burger compared with its promotional representation Consumer Reports, ; Frisk, The potential for misleading or deceptive advertising has been found to exist when advertisers use cues to imply that a product possesses certain features that, in reality, it does not.
At any rate, although the definitions and typologies of misleading and deceptive advertising are numerous, they focus on visual and verbal i. It is thus unclear whether — and, if so, to what extent — misleading or deceptive advertising manifests and are responded to in the context of non-musical sound branding.
The paper has demonstrated that sound branding includes more than mere music. A typology of non-musical sound branding has been proposed encompassing four main types of non-musical sound branding, and significant contributions within each of the four types have been identified. The paper suggests that the typology can serve as a framework for the production, analysis and research of non-musical sound branding.
Although it is well beyond the scope of this paper to systematically e. It should be added that although this paper focused on the effects of non-musical sound, silence — as produced by surrounding sounds — can also result in significant effects Olsen, , , This finding indicates that the production of sound branding should not only consider the question of what kind of sound should be activated but also whether sounds are advisable at all in the given setting — a consideration mostly relevant to extrinsic sound-brand connection and mediations of intrinsic sound-brand connection.
This paper has specified a number of research areas that seem underdeveloped at the present time. First, a lacuna has been identified regarding research in the field of non-musical atmospherics in commercial environments. Second, there has not been found any contribution that focuses specifically and exclusively on non-musical sonic logos.
Third, and perhaps most significantly, there appear to be only a few comparative brand-strategy studies focusing on generic sounds, such as empirical examinations or testing of potential differences between constructed and annexing generic object sounds, or differences between perceptions of mediated and unmediated brand sounds. For the latter, it is striking that the vast majority of research is based on recorded sound stimuli prepared for experimental purposes and mediated electronically through headphones Fenko et al.
Thus, the significance of setting is rarely recognized, which seems unfortunate for the examination of potential problems of sound discrepancies. However, further research is needed to qualify if, how, and what type and scale of discrepancies have actual effects on consumers.
As already indicated, the paper suggests that the presented typology and overview of the existing contributions can serve as a backdrop against which this and additional future research initiatives within the field of non-musical sound branding can be inspired and considered. Table I. Possible combinations of kinds of non-musical sound and their connection to brand objects.
Practical implications. Downloads: The fulltext of this document has been downloaded times since Intrinsic sound-brand con Extrinsic sound-brand con Potentials and pitfalls o Conclusion References Corresponding Author. Research approach. Sounds and their connection to brand objects. Intrinsic sound-brand connection. Extrinsic sound-brand connection. Potentials and pitfalls of non-musical sound branding — generic sounds and mediation. Alexander, B. Allan, D. Altinsoy, M. Alves, C. Lopes, P. Anzenbacher, C. Argo, J. Atwood, A. Belschner, T.
Bispham, J. Bodden, M. Bolshakova, N. Boush, D. Bradshaw, A. Bronner, K. Eds , Audio-Branding. Bruner, G. Carnevale, M. Carron, M. Carvalho, F. Chandler, D. Chattopadhyay, A. Cohen, D. Cook, N. Costley, C. Dahl, D. Danesi, M. Dytz, P.
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