We arrived in Dover, where my British emergency passport was taken from me. Many years later when I myself was an officer in the Immigration Service, I used to think back to that time and to the two British officers who I now know were Special Branch. My mother returned with my sister Gloria in , and later that year she was joined by my father. I could not settle, and in I joined the army serving in Germany and the Far East as a regular soldier in the Royal Artillery.
I left the army in , and in joined the Civil Service, finally entering the Immigration Service in , serving eight years as an Immigration Officer in Folkestone, then eight years as a Chief Immigration Officer at Terminal Two, and finally as an Inspector of Immigration at Terminal 3, Heathrow. I retired in In the Introduction to his book 'War In Italy — A Brutal Story', Richard Lamb states that 'In the north… the Germans imposed a regime of terror; arbitrary arrests were common, with wide-spread executions of innocent people.
However, living conditions were tolerable: there was enough food and inflation was kept down, while work was available in the industrial zones. In the southern part occupied by the Allies there was starvation, because the British and Americans could not spare enough shipping to feed the population adequately and production of home grown food was limited. Non-military transport was almost non-existent and the Germans who, I agree, 'imposed a regime of terror' cared little, so far as I could judge, about providing or ensuring that 'there was enough food' - on the contrary, German requisitions of livestock were quite common.
My hunger, and that of many like me, was real enough. As for the fate of another in this story. Giuseppe Bastianini, the Italian Ambassador who had taken an interest in my plastered broken arm in , became governor of Italian occupied Dalmatia. He then succeeded Ciano as Foreign Secretary. In July he voted for the Grandi motion which led to Mussolini's fall. In early he took to the mountains, a wanted man by Germans and Republican fascists. At the Verona trial of Ciano and others in , he was condemned to death in absentia but managed to cross the mountain border to safety in Switzerland.
In , having returned to Italy, he was arrested living incognito in Calabria and put on trial in Rome for his Fascist past, but absolved and acquitted. He died in Milan in In he was honoured, along with other Italian Fascist diplomats and military personnel, in the Israeli documentary 'Righteous Enemy', screened at the United Nations, for his part in saving over 40, Jews in Yugoslavia, whilst he was governor of Dalmatia, by issuing false documents and helping them get to Switzerland.
I went back to Musadino in for a short visit. Much had changed. The cobbled streets were tarmacked, and the roads were full of Lambrettas and Vespa scooters. Many villagers were now working in Milan or Varese, commuting daily. Nearly everyone now spoke formal Italian, and Lombard dialect was almost non-existent.
The oxen too had disappeared, a forgotten memory. The house now had running water and a toilet. It was now used as a summer vacation home by my French relatives. The fountain tap in the square was still there, but many were amazed when I told them that it had been our sole source of water for five years. Many of the old people had died and the war seemed a world away.
Even the Germans had returned, but now as welcome tourists. Find out how you can use this. These messages were added to this story by site members between June and January It is no longer possible to leave messages here. Find out more about the site contributors.
British Fascism and British Imperialism
I find your story you submitted excellent Peter, am i led to believe it is based on a true story? Excellent stuff here. Excellent stuff here best wishes Beniton. Peter, a most moving account of your life in Italy,I saw something of this myself with the struggle for survival in mainly, the larger centres. An unforgettable visit to our Tank when we were having a bite to eat by a middle aged man who spoke in perfect Glaswegian, pleading for food for his wife and five children.
Football, fascism and the British
He had apparently stayed over after WW1 to marry his girl friend and raise his five children. My own schooling was with a "giggler" one Horace Ianetta in Dundee who was quite a singer and violinist, he would give a little snort which set me off - usually in Mr McKillops's class at History - we invariably ended out in the Hall.
Read my story on "Rome" - will give you some background. Peter, as an "add on " to your lifestory I can vouch for the presence of the South Africans in both the North African and Italian campaigns. They took over from the Canadians whom we were supporting with our Churchill Tanks, after the Liri Valley Battle - I've forgotten the venue but it was a few miles north of Valmontone and we went on to near the Alban Hills for a rest - from there all the Catholics of the Brigade went into Rome for the first Papal Audience with Pope Pius X11 - a most memorable day in my life!
Does Vallerotondo ring a bell? Hullo Peter, You know - I always thought an oxymoron was a description of a Carribean Rush Hour - Vallorotondo doesn't ring a bell but Frosinone certainly does as well as Arce as this is where we came across the tank killing gounds for the first time. I bought it on the killing ground on the approach to San Martina from an 88mm on the south end of Rimini Airfield. I spent the next six months in hospitals! That 'easy drive' that you experienced resulted in some of the most protracted, intense, and bitter fighting, under nearly impossible conditions, of the entire war.
A series of battles, little known, some of which bear comparison with Iwo Jima and Stalingrad in their ferocity. The book is primarily about Anzio, but the holdup at the river Rapido and the Liri Valley beyond, which prompted 'Shingles', the Anzio landing, is fully covered. In my view it is the definitive account. Carlo D'Este retired from the U. Army in as a lieutenent-colonel. He has since become a major military historian. Scrupulously fair, he has a vast detailed knowledge of the British Army.
One of the most bitter battles to be fought was at San Pietro near the Rapido when Mark Clark finally flipped his lid and damn near annihilated his 36th Texas Division, so much so the this Battle is no longer in the curriculam at West Point - although he is one of their most "revered" sic graduates! I am in touch with two other chaps in the U. Yes, D'Este says that it was Mark Clark's paranoid distrust of the British in general and of Lieutenant General Richard McCreary in particular which clouded his judgement in the ill-fated planned crossing of the Rapido on 20 January ' Appart from idiotically splitting his forces, Clark was determined to keep the British out.
It is now generally agreed that the US 36th Division was asked to accomplish the impossible at San Pietro. The attempt was a major debacle which ruined Clark's reputation as a general, yet seems to have had little effect on his career. In July '45 he was a full general and was head of the US occupation forces in Austria. After the war the 36th Division veterans' association demanded an investigation. It resulted in a Congressional enquiry.
Again he came out smelling of roses. Clark became commander of the United Nations forces in Korea. He retired in October , loaded with honours. He then became president of The Citadel, a military college in Charleston. Sometimes you just can't keep a good man down, can you? I often thought that a good 6 pounder round of Armour piercing shot up Mark Clark's exhaust pipe would have saved uncounted manpower. In fairness though - he had a good reason to distrust Dick MacCreary - Dick Mac's decision led to the Salerno Mutiny which gave all concerned a black eye - this story has finally been told - "Mutiny at Salerno" by Saul David pub.
Brassey's and foreword by Ludovic Kennedy. This was an apalling "cock up" and should never have gone to court martial, or Dick Mac should have been the defendant! Nevertheless Clark took it to extreme's I was "invited' to join the party for Korea, thankfully my wounds cut in and saved the day.. As you know, on 16 September some British replacement troops sat down on the beach at Salerno and refused repeated orders to move. Finally McCreery personally intervened and managed to get all but to shift. The were mostly veterans of the 50th Northumbrian and 51st Highland divisions.
Most of these believed their leaders had broken a promise to rotate them home. What made matters worse was that the Scots wanted to be assigned to none but a Scottish regiment.
Recruited by MI5: the name's Mussolini. Benito Mussolini | World news | The Guardian
I would be most interested how you, Tom, and your fellow veterans rated Alexander at the time. I have read several accounts of veterans who rated him very highly, particularly his approachability, lack of fuss, and his presence up in front. Evidently he seems to have been well liked and trusted, was that your contemporary impression? Personally I feel that, as their commanding officer, he should have got a grip on both Clark and McCreery. You probably know that Montgomery said of Alexander that he was a good man but 'he is not a strong commander A sad state of affairs in which to face a brilliant tactician and strategist like the unflappable Kesselring.
I was about to post this when I remembered that Kesselring and Rommel repeatedly clashed and, by the time of the Italian campaign, their animosity was such that neither could stand the sight of the other. Mackensen commanded the 14th Army most of its eight divisions were armoured, the rest mechanised and was very highly rated as a soldier.
Yet he and Kesselring could not get on and repeatedly clashed, each blaming the other for mishandling the defence of Rome, with Mackensen finally resigning. Maybe there is something in generals under stress that makes them behave like petulant prima donnas. Perhaps we should start a thread on this theme. A PS on a different matter. You say 'there was a Dora line in there somewhere'.
There were a whole series of well constructed German defensive lines in Italy. In front of this were the Barbara and Bernhard Lines. When Kesselring realised that the Hitler Line was about to fall, and realising the political implications if it did, he changed its name to the Dora Line. Far behind Rome, across Perugia, were three consecutive lines known as the Albert Line. I have been facinated by the dialogue between yourself and my friend Tom Canning.
Your childhood story gave me another angle on my research of the Italian Campaign. Having just finished reading War in Italy by Richard Lamb, many things said by you both,fell in to place. I had wondered what life had been like for the Italian civillians. Tom's knowledge of the 'sharp end'in Italy has been priceless to me and to find my name alongside Gerrys and his, makes me feel very humble.
We owe them both a debt of gratitude,as will future WW2 researchers. It seems to have been daily terror and daily starvation beyond what anyone born postwar or living in Britain can imagine. It shows the horrors of being a civilian in an occupied country. Additionally I hadn't heard of the Salerno mutiny and I wasn't aware that Italian nationals could be deported rather than interned. One really does need a knowledge of Italy and some appreciation of the rugged Appenines, ideal defensive country, to understand what war was like there and what Tom went through. Churchill used the phrase 'the soft underbelly of Europe'.
He was talking about grand strategy, of course, but many now totally misread his words and think that he was referring to an easy campaign. Often tanks were quite useless off of hard roads, particularly in and around the reclaimed Pontine marshes, and as a consequence suffered very high attrition. I too rank Carlo D'Este very highly, a fine military historian.
I recently bought his latest book 'Eisenhower', but I haven't started it yet. Good to hear from you again! Your name rang a bell, then I realised that we had chatted about Bletchley Park. You say that you weren't aware 'that Italian nationals could be deported rather than interned'. It was a unique event. The normal train route through France was out of the question in June , so two ships were used the SS. When it was realised that there would be plenty of space left over, each Ambassador was allowed to present a list of Italian and ,vice versa, British nationals to fill the ships.
In the end, out of the nominated by the Italian ambassador opted to go. Apparently Bastianini, the Italian ambassador, presented his list to the Foreign Office early on, but the speed of the arrests had been so fast, with so many police forces involved, that many on the list could not be traced for several days. My dad said that he was marched to the internment camp office with about four others and given about 5 minutes to decide. I think he already knew that his group were going to Canada, but I'm not sure about that.
My mother, my sister, and I are British, but he was allowed to take us with him if my mother agreed, which she did when he got back to Leeds. I forgot to add, there is an excellent account of an escaped PoW who joined a partisan group here A Alex was always held in high regard with the side view that he was a "committee" man and would go along - usually- with the strongest voices, when he should have been laying down the Law - Monty knew him best as he was Alex's instructor after the first war at the Defence College. His handling of his Division in France then the Corps coming out at La Panne and Dunkirk and his escape - with the whole Army in Burma made his reputation as an unflappable General.
Alex possibly like Alanbrooke, didn't really like fighting whereas Monty actually revelled in it for which we should all be thankful! It was no different for the Germans - Kesselring Vs Rommel - Rommel was an upstart and an opportunist as Monty saw very quickly - Kesselring also knew this and tried to cover his back but finally grew tired and had him "relieved" after Kasserine and days before Medenine - which was controlled by an Italian Officer and NOT Rommell!
Even Monty didn't know this at the time and when the 30th Corps Commdr Gen Lesse reported the 'sitrep' in mid morning Monty said " the boy Marshall has made a balls of it - I will write letters '! Operation Capri was a spoiling attack designed to wreck Eighth Army's assembly areas, it was Rommel's idea from start to finish.
Rommel was in his scout car at 2pm on 5 March on Hill , about 15 miles from the British front line. On the plain below him were 31, men with guns and tanks. Unfortunately for Rommel, on 28 February Ultra decrypts had revealed his intentions. It was this priceless intelligence that enabled Montgomery, between 28 February and 4 March, to rush in British tanks and artillery and anti-tank guns. Montgomery himself confirmed Rommel's presence at Medenine, in , in "El Alamein to the River Sangro" at page "On 5 March [the day before the battle] Rommel, by now a sick man, addressed his troops in the mountains overlooking our positions [ie, Hill ] and told them that if they did not take Medenine and force the Eighth Army to withdraw, the days of the Axis forces in North Africa were numbered.
CAPRI went wrong from the very outset, when the 21st Panzer Grenadier Division fell for the ruse of bully beef tins laid out to look like anti-tank mines, simulating a mine field 5 miles west of Medenine. The German tanks swerved left, offering their vulnerable flanks to British anti-tank guns.
Montgomery wrote in his diary "It's an absolute gift and the man must be mad. Rommel went forward during the day, but then returned to his bivouac on Hill The historian Rick Atkinson says that "The slaughter had been so lopsided, the battle so plainly anticipated by the British, that the field marshall suspected treachery, perhaps from the Italians, a view which Kesselring came to share. Rommel left Hill on 7 March, the day after the battle. It was this departure that was not known to Montgomery for a month.
I do not normally favour pedantically giving times, other than dates, but here I have done so where possible for you to be able to check Rommel's movements during and after the battle. Peter, Once again I bow to your superior knowledge of events - all I have to go on is Nigel Hamilton's "Monty - Master of the Battlefield" page but the build up to the Battle a few pages before is a bit messy and does not give explicit details before wandering off to the Kasserine debacle once more but it does mention the tanks of 1st Armed div.
On page it does mention that at So it would appear that my memory is finally going downhill,like my Tank in " Green Envelopes "! Tom, I can never remember anything, things ring a bell when I read them and then I look them up. I rely entirely on my sources, but I do have a good collection of books and I have a love of history in general. Trouble is I get lost in detail. It took me about five years to read the 6 volumes of Gibbon's 'Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire', for the simple reason that each episode would send me off to more books in an ever widening net.
Hopeless :. Peter I know what you mean - I have an exceptional memory - my trouble is that i have read so many books that I sometimes get the "facts" twisted - I certainly recall that Rommell - according to one book - was fired and an Italian took over the Battle on an hour's notice - but then there are facts and real facts! Just had an e-mail from regt. Like Paddy Quinn - he would never talk about his M.
He reckoned it was quite the booze up! He lived in North Yorks. In my article on the Vienna Tattoo I stated that -" it was a searchlight Tattoo and as such we had to wait until the sun set when the Coldstream Guards performed the Sunset ceremony as only the Guards can "!
I have just had an e-mail from the Head Tour Guide of the Schoenbrunn palace in Vienna where we held the Tattoo with a history of the Coldstrem Guards - guess what - in June of Lt. It would appear that we raised more than 10, GBP , schillings for that week which allowed more than Viennese children to have a holiday in the country! I see that other bands taking part were those of the Royal Dragoons and the Royal Warwickshire Regiment. Peter No that was not a test but merely my arthritic fingers not hitting enough keys - The Tattoo was a lot of fun and to have Vienese children benefit with a country holiday was the icing on the cake!
Recently doubt has been cast on the veracity of my story for reasons that I completely fail to understand. When I wrote my story I did not realise that specialist knowledge might be required. In preparation I had to study the general phenomenon of fascism in Europe. My detailed knowledge of fascism in Britain will, hopefully, be of some use here.
First, there appears to be some confusion between what my father was a member of and British fascism. Remnants of the IFL were still active in , a virulent anti-Semitic group. It was dissolved on 23 May Ostensibly copying Italian Fascism in dress, it was more in tune with Nazism, being particularly anti-Jewish. Although it never won a seat, the BUF had a major impact on British politics in the s. At its peak it had a membership of upto 40, An overtly Nazi group.
Joyce is the infamous Lord Haw-Haw, hanged in Only Italian nationals could join. My father was a member of the Bradford Fascio at the Italian consulate in Bradford, there was no consulate in Leeds. I do not know when my father joined the Fascio, I think it was around By he was an active anti-fascist, at a time when it was extremely dangerous to be anti-fascist, and remained so all his life.
He was arrested on the night of either 10 or 11 June , I cannot remember now which. We, his family, consisting of my mother, my 4 year old sister, and myself were not arrested. My maternal grandfather, who was also arrested, was a devout Catholic who would have nothing to do with politics. ALL Italians were interned, whether or not they were Fascists. A few, like my father, were given a choice to either remain interned or to return to Italy.
When Italy declared war in the normal train route through France was out of the question, so two ships were used the SS. My father said that he was marched to the internment camp office with about four others and given about 5 minutes to decide. I contributed my story not out of any notion of self-promotion. I wrote it because I thought it might help people understand how devastating WW2 was, and the impact it had in creating millions of refugees world-wide. Concerning your reply i feel you have still not addressed the original question of was your father a fascist or not. Instead you have made numerous quotes from books which i still do not understand the relevence of, shirleyvincent.
Firstly i have not had a reply by helen regarding my letter ref Kenneth Williams. Hi Peter Concerning your reply i feel you have still not addressed the original question of was your father a fascist or not. Where conversation is quoted by me, I have added 'or words to that effect'. This was a complete distortion of what I had written. Could you please camly read the original relevant part? My family, other than my father, was NOT arrested since my mother, sister, and I are all British under what law, pray, would they have been arrested? He was arrested and interned because he was an Italian citizen.
You may not be aware that scores of German Jews who had fled from Nazi Germany were also arrested and interned. So were many anti-Nazis, to give but two examples out of hundreds: Dr Franz Borkenau, Austrian, a distinguished historian and sociologist, whose book 'the Totalitarian Enemy' was fiercly anti-Nazi. My father was a member of the Bradford Fascio and it was this that probably got him on the Ambassador's list of internees to be exchanged with British citizens resident in Italy.
Italian Fascism never was racial, despite the anti-Semitic Laws passed by Mussolini in , aping Hitler. What is more to the point is that during the Nazi occupation my father was actively anti-fascist at a time when to be so was courting with death. I did not put it in my story becuse it was not relevant, but a cousin of mine was executed by firing squad. There is also a monument in the Grenoble region of France to an uncle of mine he was married to my father's eldest sister, Maria who was also executed by the Germans, shot by firing squad for being a member of the French Maquis.
Maria attended his execution. Her brother, my father's youngest brother, Emmanuele, was also in the Maquis. In the above post "a cousin of mine", more properly a kinsman. The Luino Ghiringhelli are relatives of my grandfather's brother. I knew your family well both before the war and after and have photos taken before the war, Pietro, your grandfather; Santino, his brother; Alfonso, married to Palmira, another brother.
Peter is a year older than me. I also knew Alfie and Rita. Dolfo my godfather and his wife Kitty, cutlers in Burmantoffs, now long demolished. Pity Peter you wouldn't sympathise with my story re Why don't we get amention? Arandora Star etc. I do apologise if I have offended you in any way. You say that it is a pity that I do not sympathise with your story. That didn't come into it, what I said was you have to put things in context.
It seemed to me that you resented the internment of enemy aliens during the war, a normal procedure in all belligerent coutries. What was totally inexcusable was the sporadic mob violence, but this wasn't government sponsored nor encouraged, as it was for example in Germany against the Jews on Crystal Nacht. I replied here Messages 3 and 4 A Sorry, Peter, there was much violence against Italians You are confusing mindless mob violence with government policy. Britain was fighting fascist totalitarianism in all its manifestations and was not racially motivated in any way whatsoever.
I am probably one of the very few people who have observed and chatted with British, American, South African, Italian and later with both extreme fascist militia and anti-fascist partisans and German soldiers, including being held at gun point at an SS road block. For the first nine months of the war I was in England, for the next three years in the fascist Kingdom of Italy, and for the next eighteen months in Mussolini's ultra-fascist Republic of Salo' during the entire Italian brutal civil war.
I witnessed a great deal of violence and death, but the only racism I met with was from Nazi and die-hard fascist soldiery. I again encountered racism in early with South Africans when I first saw and learnt about what subsequently became legal racism with the enactment of apartheid laws in I should not have been surprised that anyone with such a fascinating background as your own should have been responsible for producing such a powerful story about his early years.
The unvarnished and often painful truth is evident in every word and paints a powerful picture of what life must have been like for an immature youngster trying to survive in wartime Italy. As a so called 'Site Helper' I often make a point of thanking writers to this site for putting their stories on to the Public Domain. In your case I am doubly grateful to you because I know that your story will surely stand the test of time and will be of great interest and value to future researchers and archivists.
Peter, I cannot add to Ron's comments as they say it all, surely one of the most unique stories on the site from the civilian side of the war. It tells of the mistakes made by the authorities at the beginning of the war. This was the cause of many good people being attacked locked up and in your case sent back to an alien country. I think you came through it all with flying colours. Excused Guard for two weeks fall out.
Regards Frank. Many thanks for your generous comments Frank, much appreciated. Can I be excused boots for two weeks? Now now lad dont come the old soldier, you can be excused cleaning my boots for two weeks send Ron in to do it. To Lisa Maturi. I was so interested in Peter's story. I am Margaret Granelli, the wife of the John Granelli mentioned in the story, and I knew your grandparents very well.
Your mom and dad were married on the same day as John and I were, in Leeds. We emigrated to Canada 52 years ago.
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It was wonderful reading Peter's story, after returning to England he stayed at my mother-in- laws house, his grandmother, and I have visited him many times when on vaction in England. Hope you and Peter get in touch. Best wishes, Margaret. What a pleasant surprise! If you haven't got my email address let me know here, but don't post yours publicly.
The story has already been categorised, but now my single amendment has sent it back to the Editorial desk as a fresh submission. Is there any way of bypassing the Editorial Desk when editing? Peter - Never mind - they will do their own thing despite all protest - it's still a great story and should be required reading - if they still do that kind of thing - in schools! Peter Una storia brillante!
A childhood one would be fine or perhaps one of you in your military finery. All best wishes Ron. Re your very interesting story of your families removal to Italy for the duration of World War 2 and the incredible experiences you relate of those terrible times, there is an serious anomaly that concerns me. You may be aware that there has been a recent upset concerning Frank Mee and his military service or otherwise during WW2.
There is no question that Mr. Mee admits that he did not serve in WW2 but decided to publish photos of himself in post war army uniform on the site. Since he was challenged on this matter he has decided to retire from the site and may or may not return. As my father served in WW2 and was seriously injured and later died of these injuries I take strong objection to people who did not serve in the forces during the war displaying photos of themselves in military uniform on this essentially WW2 experience story collection.
I have just noticed that your excellent story of life in wartime Italy is now accompanied by a photo of yourself in army uniform circa and would ask if you could explain the rationale behind your publishing this photo attached to a story of wartime Italy? I think this is inappropriate and may offend others as it has me.
Perhaps you could replace this photo with one that is more in keeping with your story of life in wartime Italy? I am sorry that my photo offends you, you seem remarkably easy to offend. I am also sorry that you find my WW2 experiences "incredible", there is nothing I can do about that. I am also saddened to learn that you were partly or wholly instrumental in causing Mr Frank Mee to retire from this site. Blue Peter As one who asked Peter to place a photo of himself on the site I feel obliged to respond to your recent jibes.
The photo is therefore completely appropriate to accompany the story and very welcome to everyone connected with this site. No one has done more to enrich the site with help and painstaking research and your remarks are completely uncalled for. Ron Goldstein. Blue Peter - Gosh 'n Golly Sorry about your Dad.. I would assume that it was WW2 we are referring to here on this site?
You must be getting on a bit as well then? Way after the actual fighting ceased.. As a consequence of this particular day - I lost all of the photgraphs taken during my service in North Africa and Italy as they were still in my Tank when it was knocked out, silly old me should have sent them home at the time. So - if you ever see me in a photograph - in uniform you can be sure it was taken - after the war!
Then you can write another letter! I find to be totally dispicable as their respective contributions to this site and the subsequent forums to have been immense and to lose the wisdom of Frank Mee and his humour, is beyond belief High time you grew up matey! I just thank God that we don't have any current wars as we might be dependent on people like you to save us I can see you "yomping" across the Falklands..
I doubt you would last a mile! Get lost! Frank and Peter have both been encouraging, helpful and kind to me whilst I have been researching my late father's war service. Both these gentlemen have made me feel that I have actually accomplished something. They are people, I think, that my Dad would have been glad to know. I hope you read this Frank. Marjorie - if you know anyone in or near Stockton on Tees as it used to be known would you ask them to give Frank a call and tell him to get back on line no matter what wasisname says, I would do it myself but I would probably wake him at 3 in the a.
Reagrds tomcan. I actually live in Scotland, just over the border, near Galashiels. I'm afraid I don't know anybody in Frank's area. I'm really sorry that he has not been on site as he is so kind to everyone - almost a father figure! Let's hope he's just on holiday. One of the contributors was once very horrible to me, asking what right I had to be posting on this site as I had no direct experience of WW2.
Frank was extremely supportive to me at that time, as was Peter. Let's hope he heeds all his supporters. Marjorie - Galashiels eh? A young man came out and asked what the problem was and I told him that my Mother had bought me a school tie from their roving salesman and it now had a hole in it! Italy's use of daredevil elite shock troops , known as the Arditi , beginning in , was an important influence on Fascism.
World War I inflated Italy's economy with great debts, unemployment aggravated by thousands of demobilised soldiers , social discontent featuring strikes, organised crime  and anarchist , socialist and communist insurrections. The peace pact was officially denounced during the Third Fascist Congress on 7—10 November The Liberal government preferred Fascist class collaboration to the Communist Party of Italy 's class conflict should they assume government as had Vladimir Lenin 's Bolsheviks in the recent Russian Revolution of ,  although Mussolini had originally praised Lenin's October Revolution  and publicly referred to himself in as "Lenin of Italy".
By the early s, popular support for the PFR's fight against Bolshevism numbered some , people. In , the Fascisti Fascists metamorphosed into the PNF and achieved political legitimacy when Mussolini was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in The March on Rome became a victory parade: the Fascists believed their success was revolutionary and traditionalist. Until , when the liberal economist Alberto de Stefani , although a former member of the squadristi , was removed from his post as Minister of Economics — , Italy's coalition government was able to restart the economy and balanced the national budget.
Stefani developed economic policies that were aligned with classical liberalism principles as inheritance , luxury and foreign capital taxes were abolished;  and life insurance  and the state communications monopolies were privatised and so on. During Italy's coalition government era, pro-business policies apparently did not contradict the State's financing of banks and industry.
Political scientist Franklin Hugh Adler referred to this coalition period between Mussolini's appointment as prime minister on 31 October and his dictatorship as "Liberal-Fascism, a hybrid, unstable, and transitory regime type under which the formal juridical-institutional framework of the liberal regime was conserved", which still allowed pluralism, competitive elections, freedom of the press and the right of trade unions to strike. One of Prime Minister Mussolini's first acts was the million-lira financing of Gio. Given the overwhelmingly rural nature of Italian economy in the period, agriculture was vital to Fascist economic policies and propaganda.
To strengthen the domestic Italian production of grain, the Fascist Government established in protectionist policies that ultimately failed see the Battle for Grain. Historian Denis Mack Smith reports: "Success in this battle was [ From following the Pact of the Vidoni Palace and the Syndical Laws , business and labour were organized into 12 separate associations, outlawing or integrating all others. These organizations negotiated labour contracts on behalf of all its members with the state acting as the arbitrator. The state tended to favour big industry over small industry, commerce, banking, agriculture, labour and transport even though each sector officially had equal representation.
Enforcement of contracts was difficult and the large bureaucracy delayed resolutions of labour disputes. After , the Fascist regime countered the Great Depression with massive public works programs, such as the draining of the Pontine Marshes , hydroelectricity development, railway improvement and rearmament.
The Italian economy's Gross National Product increased 2 per cent; automobile production was increased, especially that of the Fiat motor company;  and the aeronautical industry was developing. As Prime Minister, Mussolini physically participated with the workers in doing the work; the "politics as theatre" legacy of Gabriele D' Annunzio yielded great propaganda images of Il Duce as "Man of the People".
A year after the creation of the IRI, Mussolini boasted to his Chamber of Deputies: "Three-fourths of the Italian economy, industrial and agricultural, is in the hands of the state". In the 19th century, the forces of Risorgimento — had conquered Rome and taken control of it away from the Papacy , which saw itself henceforth as a prisoner in the Vatican.
Upon ratification of the Lateran Treaty, the papacy recognized the state of Italy in exchange for diplomatic recognition of the Vatican City,  territorial compensations, introduction of religious education into all state funded schools in Italy   and 50 million pounds sterling that were shifted from Italian bank shares into a Swiss company Profima SA. Cambridge historian John F.
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Pollard wrote in his book that this financial settlement ensured the "papacy [ Not long after the Lateran Treaty was signed, Mussolini was almost "excommunicated" over his "intractable" determination to prevent the Vatican from having control over education. The Fascist government model was very influential beyond Italy. In the twenty-one-year interbellum period, many political scientists and philosophers sought ideological inspiration from Italy.
Mussolini's establishment of law and order to Italy and its society was praised by Winston Churchill ,  Sigmund Freud ,  George Bernard Shaw  and Thomas Edison  as the Fascist government combated organised crime and the Mafia with violence and vendetta honour. Sinclair de Rochemont and Alfred Haighton. The Sammarinese Fascist Party established an early Fascist government in San Marino and their politico-philosophic basis essentially was Italian Fascism.
In Switzerland, pro-Nazi Colonel Arthur Fonjallaz of the National Front became an ardent Mussolini admirer after visiting Italy in and advocated the Italian annexation of Switzerland whilst receiving Fascist foreign aid. He then progressed to close associated with Falangism , leading to discarding the Spanish annexation to Italy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Fascist ideology as developed in Italy. For the Fascist calendar, see Era Fascista. For the Italian Fascist regimes, see Fascist Italy.
Core tenets. Definitions Economics Fascism and ideology Fascism worldwide Symbolism. Axis powers Montreux Fascist conference. Fascists by country. Related topics. Part of a series on the. Prehistoric Italy Etruscan civilization 12th—6th c. BC Magna Graecia 8th—3rd c. Ancient Rome. Early kingdom. Italy in the Middle Ages Byzantine reconquest of Italy 6th—8th c. Early modern. Italian Renaissance 14th—16th c. Young Italy Thousand. By topic. Further information: Italian Fascism and racism. See also: Caesarism. Main article: Fascism. Main article: Economy of Italy under Fascism.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Note that some authors refer to Mussolini's first political party as "The Revolutionary Fascist Party". Fascist ideology: territory and expansionism in Italy and Germany, — Modern Political Ideologies.
Third edition. Fascist Italy. The Western Tradition: From the Renaissance to the present. Heath, Fascism, anti-fascism, and the resistance in Italy: to the present. A History of Fascism, — Managing and Developing Communities, Festivals and Events. The Nature of Fascism. Martin's Press, War and Revolution in Yugoslavia — Occupation and Collaboration.
Millett, Williamson Murray. Military Effectiveness, Volume 2. New edition. Continuum International Publishing Group. Cambridge University Press, , Cambridge University Press. Albania in the twentieth century: a history, Volume 3. Taurus Publishers, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.
Fascist Ideology: Expansionism in Italy and Germany — A colloquio con il duce. Mursia, p. Encyclopedia of the world's minorities, Volume 3. London, England, UK: Routledge, Angeli, , p. Bradt Travel Guides. Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia. Nations, Language, and Citizenship. Scorched Earth: Studies in the Archaeology of Conflict. History of Libya. Routledge, Columbia University Press, Bruyning, Joseph Theodoor Leerssen. Italy — Europe. Rodopi, Racial Theories in Fascist Italy. SUNY Press, Racial theories in fascist Italy.
London; New York. Bose in Nazi Germany. Random House India. The Dark Valley: A Panorama of the s. Sport and the Shaping of Italian American Identity. Syracuse University Press, Showing Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Sep 01, Oscar rated it it was amazing Shelves: italy , non-fiction. Peter Ghiringhelli is a young boy of Italian origin living in Leeds. When Mussolini invades Abyssinia he is bullied at school, called an Eyetie. When Mussolini declares war on Great Britain his father is arrested and eventually the whole family are repatriated. At school in Italy he is bullied for being English!
What Ghiringhelli does so well is give us a vivid narrative of what daily life was like for a teenage boy during the war as well as a brilliantly researched overview of what was happening in the region of Italy in which he lived — in the vicinity of Lake Maggiore near the Swiss border. An excellent book for anyone interested in the subject matter.
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