The modern-day Kenya emerged from a protectorate established by the British Empire in and the subsequent Kenya Colony , which began in Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colony led to the Mau Mau revolution , which began in , and the subsequent declaration of independence in After independence, Kenya remained a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The current constitution was adopted in to replace the independence constitution. Kenya is a presidential representative democratic republic, in which elected officials represent the people and the president is the head of state and government.
With a GNI of 1,,  Kenya is a lower-middle-income economy. Kenya's economy is the second-largest in eastern and central Africa after Ethiopia. The service industry is also a major economic driver, particularly tourism. Kenya is a member of the East African Community trade bloc, though some international trade organisations categorise it as part of the Greater Horn of Africa.
The Republic of Kenya is named after Mount Kenya. The earliest recorded version of the modern name was written by German explorer Johann Ludwig Krapf in the 19th century. While travelling with a Kamba caravan led by the legendary long distance trader Chief Kivoi, Krapf spotted the mountain peak and asked what it was called. Ludwig Krapf recorded the name as both Kenia and Kegnia. Kenya as Mt. Kenia, It did not come into widespread official use during the early colonial period, when the country was instead referred to as the East African Protectorate.
It was changed to the Colony of Kenya in Fossils found in Kenya suggest that primates roamed the area more than 20 million years ago. Recent findings near Lake Turkana indicate that hominids such as Homo habilis 1. Previous research on early hominids is particularly identified with Mary Leakey and Louis Leakey , who were responsible for the preliminary archaeological research at Olorgesailie and Hyrax Hill. Later work at the former site was undertaken by Glynn Isaac. The first inhabitants of present-day Kenya were hunter-gatherer groups, akin to the modern Khoisan speakers.
By the first millennium AD, Bantu -speaking farmers had moved into the region. Remarkable prehistoric sites in the interior of Kenya include the archaeoastronomical site Namoratunga on the west side of Lake Turkana and the walled settlement of ThimLich Ohinga in Migori County. The Kenyan coast had served host to communities of ironworkers and communities of Bantu subsistence farmers, hunters and fishers who supported the economy with agriculture, fishing, metal production and trade with foreign countries.
These communities formed the earliest city states in the region which were collectively known as Azania. By the 1st century CE, many of the city-states such as Mombasa , Malindi , and Zanzibar began to establish trade relations with Arabs. This led to the increased economic growth of the Swahili states, introduction of Islam , Arabic influences on the Swahili Bantu language , cultural diffusion , as well as the Swahili city-states becoming a member of a larger trade network. The Kilwa Sultanate was a medieval sultanate , centred at Kilwa in modern-day Tanzania.
At its height, its authority stretched over the entire length of the Swahili Coast , including Kenya. The Swahili built Mombasa into a major port city and established trade links with other nearby city-states, as well as commercial centres in Persia, Arabia, and even India. Later on in the 17th century, once the Swahili coast was conquered and came under direct rule of Omani Arabs , the slave trade was expanded by the Omani Arabs to meet the demands of plantations in Oman and Zanzibar.
Swahili, a Bantu language with Arabic , Persian , and other Middle Eastern and South Asian loanwords , later developed as a lingua franca for trade between the different peoples. Throughout the centuries, the Kenyan Coast has played host to many merchants and explorers. Among the cities that line the Kenyan coast is the City of Malindi.
It has remained an important Swahili settlement since the 14th century and once rivalled Mombasa for dominance in the African Great Lakes region. Malindi has traditionally been a friendly port city for foreign powers. In , the Chinese trader and explorer Zheng He representing the Ming Dynasty visited the East African coast on one of his last 'treasure voyages'. The colonial history of Kenya dates from the establishment of a German protectorate over the Sultan of Zanzibar 's coastal possessions in , followed by the arrival of the Imperial British East Africa Company in Imperial rivalry was prevented when Germany handed its coastal holdings to Britain in This was followed by the building of the Uganda Railway passing through the country.
The building of the railway was resisted by some ethnic groups—notably the Nandi led by Orkoiyot Koitalel Arap Samoei for ten years from to —however the British eventually built the railway. The Nandi were the first ethnic group to be put in a native reserve to stop them from disrupting the building of the railway. During the railway construction era, there was a significant inflow of Indian people, who provided the bulk of the skilled manpower required for construction.
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While building the railway through Tsavo , a number of the Indian railway workers and local African labourers were attacked by two lions known as the Tsavo maneaters. At the outbreak of World War I in August , the governors of British East Africa as the protectorate was generally known and German East Africa agreed a truce in an attempt to keep the young colonies out of direct hostilities.
Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck took command of the German military forces, determined to tie down as many British resources as possible. Completely cut off from Germany , von Lettow conducted an effective guerrilla warfare campaign, living off the land, capturing British supplies, and remaining undefeated. He eventually surrendered in Northern Rhodesia today Zambia fourteen days after the Armistice was signed in To chase von Lettow, the British deployed the British Indian Army troops from India but needed large numbers of porters to overcome the formidable logistics of transporting supplies far into the interior on foot.
The Carrier Corps was formed and ultimately mobilised over , Africans, contributing to their long-term politicisation. In , the East Africa Protectorate was turned into a colony and renamed Kenya for its highest mountain. During the early part of the 20th century, the interior central highlands were settled by British and other European farmers, who became wealthy farming coffee and tea.
By the s, approximately 30, white settlers lived in the area and gained a political voice because of their contribution to the market economy. The central highlands were already home to over a million members of the Kikuyu people, most of whom had no land claims in European terms and lived as itinerant farmers. To protect their interests, the settlers banned the growing of coffee, introduced a hut tax, and the landless were granted less and less land in exchange for their labour.
A massive exodus to the cities ensued as their ability to provide a living from the land dwindled. Kenya itself was the site of fighting between Allied forces and Italian troops in —41 when Italian forces invaded. Wajir and Malindi were bombed as well. The young princess cut short her trip and returned home immediately to take her throne. She was crowned Queen Elizabeth II at Westminster Abbey in and as British hunter and conservationist Jim Corbett who accompanied the royal couple put it, she went up a tree in Africa a princess and came down a queen.
From October to December , Kenya was in a state of emergency arising from the Mau Mau rebellion against British rule. The British began counter-insurgency operations. In May , General Sir George Erskine took charge as commander-in-chief of the colony's armed forces, with the personal backing of Winston Churchill. Operation Anvil opened on 24 April , after weeks of planning by the army with the approval of the War Council. The operation effectively placed Nairobi under military siege.
Nairobi's occupants were screened and the Mau Mau supporters moved to detention camps. The Home Guard formed the core of the government's strategy as it was composed of loyalist Africans, not foreign forces such as the British Army and King's African Rifles. The capture of Dedan Kimathi on 21 October in Nyeri signified the ultimate defeat of the Mau Mau and essentially ended the military offensive. The most important of these was the Swynnerton Plan , which was used to both reward loyalists and punish Mau Mau. The first direct elections for native Kenyans to the Legislative Council took place in The Colony of Kenya and the Protectorate of Kenya each came to an end on 12 December with independence being conferred on all of Kenya.
The United Kingdom ceded sovereignty over the Colony of Kenya. The Sultan of Zanzibar agreed that simultaneous with independence for the Colony of Kenya, the Sultan would cease to have sovereignty over the Protectorate of Kenya so that all of Kenya would be one sovereign, independent state. Exactly 12 months later on 12 December , Kenya became a republic under the name "Republic of Kenya".
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Concurrently, the Kenyan army fought the Shifta War against ethnic Somali rebels inhabiting the Northern Frontier District , who wanted to join their kin in the Somali Republic to the north. Kenyatta and his family were tied up with this corruption as they enriched themselves through the mass purchase of property after His family used his presidential position to circumvent legal or administrative obstacles to acquiring property.
The Kenyatta family also heavily invested in the coastal hotel business, with Kenyatta personally owning the Leonard Beach Hotel. He ruled until his death on 22 August Moi was Kenya's president from to At Kenyatta's death in , Daniel arap Moi became President. Daniel arap Moi retained the Presidency, being unopposed in elections held in , snap elections and , all of which were held under the single party constitution.
The elections were held a year early, and were a direct result of an abortive military coup attempt on 2 August The abortive coup was masterminded by a low ranked Air Force serviceman, Senior Private Hezekiah Ochuka , and was staged mainly by enlisted men in the Air Force. The putsch was quickly suppressed by forces commanded by Chief of General Staff Mahamoud Mohamed , a veteran Somali military official.
On the heels of the Garissa Massacre of , Kenyan troops committed the Wagalla massacre in against thousands of civilians in Wajir County. An official probe into the atrocities was later ordered in The election held in saw the advent of the mlolongo queuing system, where voters were supposed to line up behind their favoured candidates instead of a secret ballot. Several contentious clauses, including one that allowed for only one political party, were changed in the following years. Kenya became a multiparty state in after 26 years of being a single party state. On 28 October , president Moi dissolved parliament, five months before the end of his term.
As a result, preparations began for all elective seats in parliament as well as the president. The elections were scheduled to take place on 7 December , but delays led to its postponement to 29 December the same year. This election was marked by large-scale intimidation of opponents, as well as harassment of election officials. It resulted in an economic crisis propagated by ethnic violence as the president was accused of rigging electoral results to sustain power.
Moi retained the presidency and George Saitoti became the vice president. Although it retained power, KANU won seats and lost 88 seats to the six opposition parties. The elections of market the beginning of multiparty politics after more than 25 years rule by KANU. However, this party was plagued with disagreements. In , Richard Leakey formed the Safina party, but it was denied registration until November Subsequently, Moi stood for re-election and won a 5th term in Beginning in , Moi attempted to influence the country's succession politics to have Uhuru Kenyatta elected in the upcoming elections.
Anderson reports the elections were judged free and fair by local and international observers, and seemed to mark a turning point in Kenya's democratic evolution. In , Kenyans rejected a plan to replace the independence constitution with a new one. Kibaki was re-elected in a highly contested political scene which was marked by political and ethnic violence. This resulted from accusations by the main opposition leader, Raila Odinga, that the election results were rigged and that he was the rightfully elected president.
As a result, 1, people were killed and another , were internally displaced, making it the worst post-election violence in Kenya. To stop the death and displacement of people, Kibaki and Raila agreed to work together, with the latter taking the position of a prime minister. Following the passage of the new constitution, Kenya became a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Kenya is both head of state and head of government , and of a multi-party system. The new constitution also states that executive powers are exercised by the executive branch of government, headed by the President, who chairs the cabinet, that is composed of people chosen from outside parliament.
Legislative power is vested exclusively in Parliament. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Mwai Kibaki became the first president to serve under this new constitution while Uhuru Kenyatta became the first president elected under this constitution. In mid, two consecutive missed rainy seasons precipitated the worst drought in East Africa seen in 60 years. The northwestern Turkana region was especially affected,  with local schools shut down as a result.
Aid agencies subsequently shifted their emphasis to recovery initiatives, including digging irrigation canals and distributing plant seeds. In , Kenya had its first general elections after the new constitution had been passed. Uhuru Kenyatta won in a disputed election result, leading to a petition by the opposition leader, Raila Odinga.
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The supreme court upheld the election results and President Kenyatta began his term with William Ruto as the deputy president. Despite the outcome of this ruling, the Supreme Court and the head of the Supreme Court were seen as a powerful institutions that could carry out its role of checking the powers of the president. In , Uhuru Kenyatta won a second term in office in another disputed election.
Following the defeat, Raila Odinga again petitioned the results in the Supreme Court accusing the electoral commission of mismanagement of the elections and Uhuru Kenyatta and his party of rigging. The Supreme Court overturned the election results in what became a landmark ruling in Africa and one of the very few in the world in which the results of a presidential elections were annulled. From the coast on the Indian Ocean, the low plains rise to central highlands.
The highlands are bisected by the Great Rift Valley , with a fertile plateau lying to the east. The Kenyan Highlands are one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa. Kenya's climate varies from tropical along the coast to temperate inland to arid in the north and northeast parts of the country. The area receives a great deal of sunshine every month, and summer clothes are worn throughout the year. It is usually cool at night and early in the morning inland at higher elevations.
The rainfall is sometimes heavy and often falls in the afternoons and evenings. The temperature remains high throughout these months of tropical rain. The hottest period is February and March, leading into the season of the long rains, and the coldest is in July, until mid August. Kenya has considerable land area devoted to wildlife habitats, including the Masai Mara , where blue wildebeest and other bovids participate in a large scale annual migration.
More than 1 million wildebeest and , zebras participate in the migration across the Mara River. The "Big Five" game animals of Africa, that is the lion , leopard , buffalo , rhinoceros , and elephant , can be found in Kenya and in the Masai Mara in particular. A significant population of other wild animals, reptiles and birds can be found in the national parks and game reserves in the country. The annual animal migration occurs between June and September with millions of animals taking part, attracting valuable foreign tourism. Kenya is a presidential representative democratic republic.
The president is both the head of state and head of government , and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly and the Senate. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. There was growing concern especially during former president Daniel arap Moi's tenure that the executive was increasingly meddling with the affairs of the judiciary.
Kenya has a high degree of corruption according to Transparency International 's Corruption Perception Index CPI , a metric which attempts to gauge the prevalence of public sector corruption in various countries. Following general elections held in , the Constitution of Kenya Review Act designed to pave the way for more comprehensive amendments to the Kenyan constitution was passed by the national parliament.
In December , Kenya held democratic and open elections, which were judged free and fair by most international observers. Under the presidency of Mwai Kibaki , the new ruling coalition promised to focus its efforts on generating economic growth, combating corruption, improving education, and rewriting its constitution. A few of these promises have been met. There is free primary education.
Under the new constitution and with President Kibaki prohibited by term limits from running for a third term, Deputy Prime Minister Uhuru Kenyatta ran for office. He won with In December , President Uhuru Kenyatta signed a Security Laws Amendment Bill, which supporters of the law suggested was necessary to guard against armed groups. Opposition politicians, human rights groups, and nine Western countries criticised the security bill, arguing that it infringed on democratic freedoms.
The governments of the United States , the United Kingdom , Germany , and France also collectively issued a press statement cautioning about the law's potential impact. Through the Jubilee Coalition, the Bill was later passed on 19 December in the National Assembly under acrimonious circumstances. Kenya has close ties with its fellow Swahili -speaking neighbours in the African Great Lakes region. Relations with Uganda and Tanzania are generally strong, as the three nations work toward economic and social integration through common membership in the East African Community.
Relations with Somalia have historically been tense, although there has been some military co-ordination against Islamist insurgents. Kenya has good relations with the United Kingdom. With International Criminal Court trial dates scheduled in for both President Kenyatta and Deputy President William Ruto related to the election aftermath, US president Barack Obama chose not to visit the country during his mid African trip.
The armed forces are regularly deployed in peacekeeping missions around the world. Further, in the aftermath of the national elections of December and the violence that subsequently engulfed the country, a commission of inquiry, the Waki Commission , commended its readiness and adjudged it to "have performed its duty well.
Kenya's armed forces, like many government institutions in the country, have been tainted by corruption allegations. Because the operations of the armed forces have been traditionally cloaked by the ubiquitous blanket of "state security", the corruption has been hidden from public view, and thus less subject to public scrutiny and notoriety. This has changed recently. In what are by Kenyan standards unprecedented revelations, in , credible claims of corruption were made with regard to recruitment  and procurement of Armoured Personnel Carriers.
Kenya is divided into 47 semi-autonomous counties that are headed by governors. These 47 counties now form the first-order divisions of Kenya. The smallest administrative units in Kenya are called locations. Locations often coincide with electoral wards. Many larger towns consist of several locations.
Each location has a chief, appointed by the state. Constituencies are an electoral subdivision, with each county comprising a whole number of constituencies. An Interim Boundaries commission was formed in year to review the constituencies and in its report, it recommended creation of an additional 80 constituencies. Previous to the elections, there were constituencies in Kenya. Homosexual acts are illegal in Kenya and punishable by up to 14 years in prison though the state often turns a blind eye on prosecuting homosexuals. Our culture, our societies don't accept. In the report, the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights KNCHR reported these in their key finding "e ", stating that the forced disappearances and extrajudicial killings appeared to be official policy sanctioned by the political leadership, the Police.
Kenya's macroeconomic outlook has steadily posted robust growth over the past few decades mostly from mega-infrastructure road and railway projects. However, much of this growth has come from cash flows diverted from ordinary Kenyan pockets at the microeconomic level resulting in diminished incomes in ordinary middle and low income homes and businesses leading to widespread hardship, layoffs and discontent across multiple sectors. In , the country's macroeconomic indicators were re-based causing the GDP to shift upwards to low-middle-income country status. As of [update] , Kenya is usually classified as a frontier market or occasionally an emerging market , but it is not one of the least developed countries.
The economy has seen much expansion, seen by strong performance in tourism, higher education and telecommunications , and acceptable [ neutrality is disputed ] post-drought results in agriculture, especially the vital tea sector. Privatisation of state corporations like the defunct Kenya Post and Telecommunications Company, which resulted in East Africa's most profitable company— Safaricom , has led to their revival because of massive private investment.
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The World Bank estimated growth of 4. The EAC's objectives include harmonising tariffs and customs regimes, free movement of people, and improving regional infrastructures. Kenya has a relatively speaking a more developed financial services sector than it's neighbours. As of late July , the system consisted of 43 commercial banks down from 48 in , several non-bank financial institutions , including mortgage companies, four savings and loan associations, and several core foreign-exchange bureaus.
Tourism in Kenya is the second-largest source of foreign exchange revenue following agriculture. Other attractions include the wildebeest migration at the Masaai Mara which is considered the 7th wonder of the world, historical mosques and colonial-era forts at Mombasa , Malindi , and Lamu ; the renowned vast scenery like the snow white capped Mount Kenya , the Great Rift Valley ; the tea plantations at Kericho ; the coffee plantations at Thika ; a splendid view of Mt.
Kilimanjaro across the border into Tanzania ;  and the beaches along the Swahili Coast , in the Indian Ocean. Agriculture is the second largest contributor to Kenya's gross domestic product GDP , after the service sector.
The principal cash crops are tea, horticultural produce, and coffee. Horticultural produce and tea are the main growth sectors and the two most valuable of all of Kenya's exports. The production of major food staples such as corn is subject to sharp weather-related fluctuations. Production downturns periodically necessitate food aid—for example, in aid for 1. Successive projects encouraged the commercialisation of legumes, by stimulating the growth of local seed production and agro-dealer networks for distribution and marketing.
The commercialisation of the pigeon pea is now enabling some farmers to buy assets, ranging from mobile phones to productive land and livestock, and is opening pathways for them to move out of poverty. Tea, coffee, sisal, pyrethrum, corn, and wheat are grown in the fertile highlands, one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa. Coconuts , pineapples , cashew nuts , cotton, sugarcane , sisal , and corn are grown in the lower-lying areas. The smallholder schemes are owned, developed and managed by individuals or groups of farmers operating as water users or self-help groups.
Irrigation is carried out on individual or on group farms averaging 0. There are about 3, smallholder irrigation schemes covering a total area of 47, ha. The country has seven large, centrally managed irrigation schemes, namely Mwea, Bura , Hola , Perkera , West Kano, Bunyala and Ahero covering a total commanded area of 18, ha and averaging 2, ha per scheme. They utilize high technology and produce high-value crops for the export market, especially flowers and vegetables. Kenya is the world's 3rd largest exporter of cut flowers.
There is a cement production industry. In addition, a substantial and expanding informal sector commonly referred to as jua kali engages in small-scale manufacturing of household goods, auto parts, and farm implements. The country has an extensive network of paved and unpaved roads. Kenya's railway system links the nation's ports and major cities, connecting it with neighbouring Uganda. There are 15 airports which have paved runways.
The largest share of Kenya's electricity supply comes from geothermal energy  followed by hydroelectric stations at dams along the upper Tana River , as well as the Turkwel Gorge Dam in the west. A petroleum-fired plant on the coast, geothermal facilities at Olkaria near Nairobi , and electricity imported from Uganda make up the rest of the supply. Kenya's installed capacity stood at 1, megawatts between and The state-owned Kenya Electricity Generating Company KenGen , established in under the name of Kenya Power Company, handles the generation of electricity, while Kenya Power handles the electricity transmission and distribution system in the country.
Shortfalls of electricity occur periodically, when drought reduces water flow. To become energy sufficient, Kenya aims to build a nuclear power plant by Kenya has proven deposits of oil in Turkana. Tullow Oil estimates Kenya's oil reserves to be around One billion barrels.
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Kenya currently imports all crude petroleum requirements. Kenya has no strategic reserves and relies solely on oil marketers' day oil reserves required under industry regulations. Kenyatta was "[a]ccompanied by 60 Kenyan business people [and hoped to] Base Titanium, a subsidiary of Base resources of Australia, shipped its first major consignment of minerals to China.
About 25, tonnes of ilmenite was flagged off the Kenyan coastal town of Kilifi. The first shipment was expected to earn Kenya about Kshs15—20 billion in earnings. In , the Kenyan government unveiled Vision , an economic development programme it hopes will put the country in the same league as the Asian Economic Tigers by the year In , it launched a National Climate Change Action Plan, having acknowledged that omitting climate as a key development issue in Vision was an oversight. At the launch in March , the Secretary of the Ministry of Planning, National Development and Vision emphasised that climate would be a central issue in the renewed Medium Term Plan that would be launched in the coming months.
This would create a direct and robust delivery framework for the Action Plan and ensure climate change is treated as an economy-wide issue. Kenya has proven oil deposits in Turkana County. President Mwai Kibaki announced on 26 March that Tullow Oil , an Anglo-Irish oil exploration firm, had struck oil but its commercial viability and subsequent production would take about three years to confirm. Early in Chinese president Hu Jintao signed an oil exploration contract with Kenya, part of a series of deals designed to keep Africa's natural resources flowing to China's rapidly expanding economy.
The deal allowed for China's state-controlled offshore oil and gas company, CNOOC , to prospect for oil in Kenya, which is just beginning to drill its first exploratory wells on the borders of Sudan and the disputed area of North Eastern Province of the border with Somalia and in coastal waters. There are formal estimates of the possible reserves of oil discovered. Child labour is common in Kenya. Most working children are active in agriculture. Most of the prostitutes in Kenya are aged 9— Additionally there are:.
Out of approximately 40 million Kenyans , about 14 million Kenyans are not able to receive financial service through formal loan application service and an additional 12 million Kenyans have no access to financial service institutions at all. Further, 1 million Kenyans are reliant on informal groups for receiving financial aid.
Kenya had a population of approximately 48 million people in January Kenya's capital, Nairobi, is home to Kibera , one of the world's largest slums. The shanty town is believed to house between ,  and 1 million locals. Kenya has a diverse population that includes most major ethnoracial and linguistic groups found in Africa. The largest native ethnic groups are the Kikuyu 6,, , Luhya 5,, , Kalenjin 4,, , Luo 4,, , Kamba 3,, , Somalis 3,, , Kisii 2,, , Mijikenda 1,, , Meru 1,, , Turkana , , and Maasai , Kenya's various ethnic groups typically speak their mother tongues within their own communities.
The two official languages , English and Swahili , are used in varying degrees of fluency for communication with other populations. English is widely spoken in commerce, schooling and government. British English is primarily used in Kenya. Additionally, a distinct local dialect, Kenyan English , is used by some communities and individuals in the country, and contains features unique to it that were derived from local Bantu languages , such as Kiswahili and Kikuyu.
Sheng is a Kiswahili-based cant spoken in some urban areas. Primarily consisting of a mixture of Kiswahili and English, it is an example of linguistic code-switching. There are a total of 69 languages spoken in Kenya. Most belong to two broad language families: Niger-Congo Bantu branch and Nilo-Saharan Nilotic branch , spoken by the country's Bantu and Nilotic populations, respectively. The Cushitic and Arab ethnic minorities speak languages belonging to the separate Afroasiatic family, with the Indian and European residents speaking languages from the Indo-European family. Orthodox Christianity counts , adherents.
Nonreligious Kenyans make up 2. Kenya has one of Africa's largest Hindu populations around , , mostly of Indian origin. There is also a small Buddhist community. Kenya's private sector is relatively advanced as compared to other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Private healthcare professionals are the main health care providers in the country even for the nation's poorest people. The private health sector is larger and more easily accessible than both the public and the non-profit health sectors in terms of facilities and personnel. According to a World Bank report, nearly half of the poorest 20 percent of Kenyans use a private health facility when a child is sick.
Licensed private healthcare professionals usually operate as small and medium-sized owner-managed institutions and clinics and are largely preferred for their accessibility, strong brands, value-addition and one-on-one patient-focused care in contrast to the highly bureaucratic and minimalist mass-oriented evidence-based care provided in the largely moribund public health facilities.
Private health facilities are diverse and cater for all economic groups. Hospitals such as the Aga Khan Hospital and the Mombasa Hospital are comparable to many preferred hospitals in the developed world but are expensive and accessible only to the rich and the insured. Despite the dangerously large number of informal healthcare providers operating on the black market all over the country, properly registered and licensed healthcare providers exist that are affordable and easily accessible to ordinary and middle-class residents.
All registered medical facilities are subjected to regular supervisory and supportive visits from a joint multi-cadre team of health officials from the county government and national regulatory bodies in order to meet the legal threshold of the Fair Administrative Action Act, and may choose to undergo additional supportive and quality assurance and improvement processes by operating under a social franchise such as the joint government-donor funded Tunza Family Network. The control of medical practice by laymen through limited liability companies, county governments and other artificial legal entities is widespread and largely tolerated unlike other countries where medical affairs are strictly handled by medical professionals.
The health sector and health facilities are not protected by any special laws and are prone to mismanagement with health workers frequently being subjected to verbal, emotional and physical abuse by patients and administrators alike. Private health facilities are diverse, highly dynamic and difficult to classify unlike public health facilities which are easily grouped in classes that consist of community-based level I services which are run by community health workers, dispensaries level II facilities which are run by nurses, health centers level III facilities which are run by clinical officers, sub-county hospitals level IV facilities which may be run by a clinical officer or a medical officer, county hospitals level V facilities which may be run by a medical officer or a medical practitioner, and national referral hospitals level VI facilities which are run by fully qualified medical practitioners consultants and sub-specialists.
Nurses are by far the largest group of front-line health care providers in all sectors followed by clinical officers , medical officers and medical practitioners. According to the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics , in there were 65, qualified nurses registered in the country; 8, clinical officers and 7, doctors for the population of 43 million people These figures from official registers include those who have died or left the profession hence the actual number of these workers may be lower.
Traditional healers Herbalists , witch doctors and faith healers are readily available, trusted and widely consulted as practitioners of first or last choice by both rural and urban dwellers. Despite major achievements in the health sector, Kenya still faces many challenges. The life expectancy estimate has dropped to approximately 55 years in —five years below levels. Diseases of poverty directly correlate with a country's economic performance and wealth distribution : Half of Kenyans live below the poverty level.
The total fertility rate in Kenya is estimated to be 4. By colonial land alienation, women lost access and control of land. Children attend nursery school, or kindergarten in the private sector until they are five years old. This lasts one to three years KG1, KG2 and KG3 and is financed privately because there has been no government policy regarding it until recently.
Basic formal education starts at age six years and lasts 12 years consisting of eight years in primary school and four years in high school or secondary school. Those who complete high school can join a polytechnic or other technical college and study for three years, or proceed directly to the university and study for four years. Graduates from the polytechnics and colleges can then join the workforce and later obtain a specialized higher diploma qualification after a further one to two years of training, or join the university—usually in the second or third year of their respective course.
The higher diploma is accepted by many employers in place of a bachelor's degree and direct or accelerated admission to post-graduate studies is possible in some universities. Public universities in Kenya are highly commercialized institutions and only a small fraction of qualified high school graduates are admitted on limited government-sponsorship into programs of their choice.
Most are admitted into the social sciences, which are cheap to run, or as self-sponsored students paying the full cost of their studies. Most qualified students who miss out opt for middle-level diploma programs in public or private universities, colleges, and polytechnics. Preschool, which targets children from age three to five, is an integral component of the education system and is a key requirement for admission to Standard One First Grade.
At the end of primary education, pupils sit the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education KCPE , which determines those who proceed to secondary school or vocational training. The result of this examination is needed for placement at secondary school. Students sit examinations in eight subjects of their choosing. However, English, Kiswahili and mathematics are compulsory subjects. Other than the public schools, there are many private schools, mainly in urban areas.
Similarly, there are a number of international schools catering to various overseas educational systems. Verified purchase: Yes Condition: Pre-owned. Skip to main content. We're sorry, something went wrong. Please try again. About this product. New other : lowest price The lowest-priced item in unused and unworn condition with absolutely no signs of wear. Will include dust jacket if it originally came with one. Text will be unmarked and pages crisp. Satisfaction is guaranteed with every order. See details. Buy It Now.
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