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Non il tempo di attesa e di ordine, come pochi. Sun and Moon Volume 2 - Book Dover Original.. You can leave a. Finally, our. In particular, planners. Internal evidence is also afforded by puns that play on the identity of b and v, e. Will it be any the less wine? He frotado con b, pues con v no he podido, tal estaban as listas electorales Alarcon.
For giie instead of bue or vue cf. IF As heretofore cf.
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IChi: chi-co Chi-le Chi-na ar-chi-vo co-chi-no ca-pu-chi-no. Che: che-que co-che-ro ma-che-te o-chen-ta pu-che-ro co-se 2 -che-ro ran 3 -che-ro trin-che-ra cu-chi-che-o co-che chin- che le-che no-che par-che San-chez es-tu-che a-za-ba-che 5 ca-chi-va-ches 2 troche-mo-che. Cha: chan-za char-la chas 2 -co chas 2 -qui-do a-cha-que cu- cha-ra chi-cha-ro char-lar e-char fe-char man-char plan- char a-ce-char es-cu-char bro-cha col-cha con-cha fa-cha fe-cha fle-cha fi-cha lan-cha lu-cha man-cha tru-cha co- 10se 2 -cha es 2 -car-cha mu-cha-cha sal-chi-cha sos 2 -pe-cha.
Cho: cho-que cho-za cho-car Chon-chi-ta an-cho bi-cho cin-cho cau-cho cor-cho cho-cho di-cho gan-cho le-cho ma-cho mu-cho o-cho pe-cho ran 3 -cho San-cho te-cho tre-cho biz-co-cho ca-pri-cho car-tu-cho de-re-cho des 2 -pa- 15 cho des 2 -pe-cho es 2 -tre-cho ga-ba-cho gaz-pa-cho mu-cha- cho per-tre-cho pro-ve-cho. Chu: chu-lo Chu-cha ca-chu-pm chu-zo chu-par ca-chu-cha.
An-cho y de-re-cho. Di-cha fe-cha. Mu-chas 2 sal-chi-chas 2. U-na co-chi-na con le-cho-nes 2. San-cho ha 4 20 di-cho mu-cho. Un ca-pri-cho de mu-chas 2 mu-cha-chas 2. Final ch is not Castilian. But as peculiar to Catalan with value of k the foreign student of Spanish meets it often in proper names, geographic and patronymic, in Mediterranean Spain from Barce- lona to Valencia, e. Montjuich Barcelona citadel , del Bosch, Leon Roch leading character of a well- known novel of Galdos , Escrich writer. Its position is mostly word initial: hi he ha ho hu hi-go hi-lo hi-to hin-char hi-dal-go hi-gue-ra a-hi mo- 1 hi-no he-lar he-rir he-chi-zo her-ma-no her-mo-so 2 he- chi-ce-ro hay ha-cha has 2 -ta ha-go ha-blar ha-cer ha- ri-na al-ha-ja bu-har-da Chi-hua-hua ho-gar hom-bre hom-bro hon-ra ho-ra ho-gue-ra hor-mi-gue-ra bu-ho hu- 5 cha hu-mo hur-to hue-vo hue-ro.
Hom-bre hon-ra-do. Guard against pronouncing English h in cognate Spanish words, e. A slight aspiration is sometimes heard for the h of hue If 5 2 , but the student is safe in disregarding it. In the Romanic languages h is an orthographic aristocrat, doing no work but levying quit-rent tribute by virtue of ill defined shadowy claims handed down from a remote and obscure past.
Hence, its existence is more ornamental than useful to show etymology as its coat of arms and thus proclaim its mediaeval origin. Its pretensions are quite at variance with modern businesslike methods. But thus far it has successfully stood off reforming attacks directed against its privileges.
For giie instead of hue cf. If 9, Rem. For the effect of intervocalic h on syllabication cf. It has one, or two, sounds, namely- 1. When word initial or medial syllable initial after a closed' 3 syllable : it is a voiced stop 6 as in English, but rather softer, being more dental than English d 7 , since the tip of the tongue should touch the back of the upper teeth: INITIAL: di- de- da- do- du- di di-go Die-go de de-bo de-bil des 2 -de con-de dar da-ba dra-ma dos 2 doy don-de cal-do dan-do man-do par-do du-que clul-ce du-ro.
Intervocalic d in union with rolled r may also have this interdental sound, e. FINAL: Cid lid vid ar-did as 3 -pid Ma-drid vi-vid 4 red 1 sed co-med 4 ces 3 -ped mer-ced pa-red us 3 -ted bon-dad ciu-dad 5 mi-tad pa-gad 4 ver-dad ca-ri-dad ne-ce-si-dad en- fer-me-dad e-lec-tri-ci-dad u-ni-ver-si-dad a-mis-tad di-fi-cul- 15 tad fa-cul-tad li-ber-tad ma-jes-tad vo-lun-tad sud la- ud a-ta-ud sa-lud vir-tud gra-ti-tud ju-ven-tud mag-ni- tud mul-ti-tud.
Final d is very common from its occurrence in the numerous family of feminine endings -dad, -tad, -tud cf. If In ad or a-d plus vowel, where a[d] is felt to be a living prefix, the d has the initial value of If 12 I. Otherwise, when the a is not a prefix, interdental d If 12 2 prevails, e. Or it tends to prevail when an original prefix becomes so worn as to have lost its force, e. In ad plus consonant, the d may have the interdental sound of f 12 2, e.
The suppression of d is common under certain conditions chiefly as follows: 1. Apocope of final d in careless, offhand utterance, e. Madri d , uste d. But higado 'liver'. In illiterate usage the syncope of d in 1 is generalized between identical vowels, which, in utterance, then coalesce into one, e.
This last peculiarity even extends to d between different vowels, e. Intervocalic and final d is a consonant of weak resisting power, becoming easily disinte- grated into the interdental th and then lost. This was a fate common to the Latin d. Its operation in the modern language Rem. Ill conjugations, respectively. If 11 1 What kind of character is Spanish ch? What does it sound like in English equivalents? Pronounce it in the vowel scale. Where mostly is its location i. Pronounce the vowel scale with initial h. If 12 1 When Spanish d is word initial what does it sound like in English?
Pronounce initial d in vowel scale. If 12 2 What other sound may Spanish d have, and where? Pronounce it thus in the vowel scale. II and fl. They display the following parallelism: 1. It is a digraph p. The most common occurrence of 11 is intervocalic. Take care, in delib- erate utterance, to link the pronunciation exclusively with the syllable to which the sound properly belongs, without allowing the sound as happens correspond- ingly in English to be anticipated in the preceding syllable, e.
But their Spanish counterparts are pronounced sylla- bically, as written, namely: ba-tan', pos-tin', bri-llan'-te, min', me-da- llon'. He: lie-go lle-vo lie-gar lle-var ca-lle va-lle fue-lle mue- lle ta-lle Te-llez ba-lle-na be-lle-za bi-lle-te ca-lle-ja fu- lle-ro ga-lle-go Gui-ller-mo mo-lle-ra pe-lle-jo ban-de-rri- 5lle-ro ba-ra-ti-lle-ro ca-ba-lle-ro ca-lle-jue-la cor-di-lle-ra ga- lli-ne-ro ta-ller ba-chi-ller can-ci-ller em-be-lle-cer.
Ha: lla-ma lla-mo llan-to lla-ve lla-mar qui-lla si-lla vi- lla An-ti-llas 2 ar-ci-lla as 2 -ti-lla ca-pi-lla Cas-ti-lla cos 2 - qui-llas 2 cos- 2 ti-lla cua-dri-lla ga-vi-lla me-ji-lla man-ci-lla lOo-ri-lla pas 2 -ti-lla pa-ti-lla po-li-lla ro 3 -di-lla se-mi-lla Se- vi-lla tor-ti-lla va-ri-lla ban-de-ri-ll. II U llu-via pi-llue-lo po-llue-lo. Or-gu-llo hu-mi-lla-do. Un ban-de-ri-lle-ro de la cua-dri-lla. No hay vi-lla sin su ma-ra-vi-lla. E-lla es 1 bri-llan-te y be-lla. El chi-qui-llo chi- lla y bu-lla.
La don-ce-lla de-go un po-llo en el ga-lli-ne-ro. To guard against misleading English analogy in the matter of double consonants e. In parts of Spain notably Andalusia , and quite generally in Spanish America, 11 becomes softened to y-consonant, replacing Castilian 11 altogether as standard pronunciation, e. This reduction of 11 to y marks a trait peculiar to the genius of the language and is already so wide- spread as to bid fair some day to be recognized as standard. Some teaching authorities already hold that it should be taught as the only practical Spanish-American variety of the Castilian 11, with claims to standard recognition quite as good as those allowed to American soft c.
The Spanish varieties, II and y Rem. The same for 11 Rem. English 'canyon' and 'pinion' are pronounced can'yon and pin'yon. But their Spanish spelling counterparts are pronounced syllabically, as written, ca-non' and pi-non'. Com-pa-ni-a ma-dri-le-na. El due-iio de la ca-ba-na. Even to the native, it fluctuates in a few examples, e. Like "liquid I" Rem. English 'sign', Spanish sena, Italian segna. French signe. Later, the second n came to be left out and its former presence indicated by a superscript bar over the first n. Hence, the nasal ng is present in any of the above combinations of which the n belongs to any initial syllable as prefix or preposition, etc.
What are they equivalent to in respect to formation? What is the tongue-tip location? H 13 1 What kind of character is 11? What approximate English sound is it equivalent to? If 13 R. Pronounce 11 in the vowel scale. H 13 2 What kind of character is n n with til'de i. Pronounce n in the vowel scale. In what combinations does this sound take the place of the primitive w-sound? H 1, n, t. HIS: s, w, x, y. Mi ma-ma; mi mis-mo mo-do; mi muy ma-la mu-la.
Por pa-pa; ca-pi-lla pu-bli-ca en Pa-la-cio. The language does not favor final m, which is found only in foreign loan words e. In cognate English and Spanish words the final m of the former usually corresponds to n in the latter, e. For English mm corresponding to Spanish nm cf. If 16 Rem. In the following words p is usually silent and may be optional in writing: psicologia 'psychology'. I, n, t. As in English, but more decided especially when final in word or in medial syllable , the quality tending to be more linguo-dental i.
El co-liar de per-las 1. El pi-llue- lo del mue-lle. El po-llue-lo de la ga-lli-na. Note the occurrence of 1 as the liquid element in the inseparable consonant combinations pi and bl, cl and gl, and fl If 7 Rem. Fin sin bien sien men-te sen-ci-llo cuan pan plan tan a-fan man- do mon-do co-Ion le-6n pe-6n mun-do be-tun. Los 1 le-o-nes 1 no llo-ran. But in trans- with a following vowel the n is fully organic, e. Of nn properly speaking, the only double consonant in Spanish each letter is to be pronounced in deliberate utterance. Llevan-nos 'They take us' Presentaron-nos 'They introduced to us'.
Spanish nm not to be confused with nn of Rem. In parts of Spain, and extensively in Spanish- America, an, en, in especially before f are pronounced as nasal vowels as in French , e. This usage is growing, but as yet with ill defined boundaries. For digraph tl cf. IT 21 Rem. Spanish single r is characteristically strong i. In other situations i. Ri-gor ru-mor a-mar ha-blar re-zar ra-yar co-mer rom-per vi-vir su-frir re- 5 pri-mir.
H 17 2 r-rr, s-x-y 47 Rem. Single r is strong when it is medial after a dosed syllable, e. The rolled r is merely a more emphatic and prolonged utterance of the smooth r. The latter is not set off from the former by a sharply defined boundary, but easily shades into the stronger variety according to the temperament or habits of the speaker, or the degrees of emphasis or emotion present.
In some speakers the r tends uniformly to the stronger rolled variety. The beginner can well afford to stress the Spanish r whenever he meets it even though the condi- tions may allow it to be "smooth". Even some exaggeration is here a virtue in order to counteract false habits in respect to Spanish formed from the prevailing weak English r. The situation imposes upon the English-speaking learner the need of a conscious effort in order to square himself properly with the Spanish requirements. From the foregoing it follows that Spainsh r offers no analogy with the more or less com- plete suppression that has been the fate of medial and final English r over wide areas in the United States, e.
New Yau'k, bau'be' barber , dinne' pawty, coppe' wiyo'. Spanish does not favor two r's in adjoining syllables, especially when one or both are liquids in combination If 7 R. When so related by etymology or foreign cognates, one r is found missing in Spanish although present in the English cognate , e. In illiterate speech the intervocalic r sometimes drops out, e. Hence juvenile and affectionate pae for padre, and mae for madre cf. The Spanish r is lingual, as distinguished from the uvular r of France and parts of Germany. The intervocalic trilled rolled r is doubled in writing in order to dis- tinguish it graphically from the intervocalic smooth r of H 17 la.
El he-rre-ro hie-re el hie-rro. En su ros! To guard against misleading English analogy in the matter of double consonants, observe in the above examples how Spanish rr being an inseparable character 1f 1 2 is indivisible in writing e. La parra para el jardln. Pero el perro. This digraph rr, as the sign of intervocalic rolled r, results graphically whenever a word with initial r constitutes a derivative word with a vowel-ending prefix, e. Morro Castle, at the entrance of Havana Harbor. S is the hissing i. Hence, in this respect, the Spanish-American standard is unphonetic in its spelling, since only a knowledge of the word itself suggested by context will enable the hearer to recognize in it whether the sibilant is s or soft-c, e.
Las Mon-ta-iias Ro-que-nas. Los pa-i-ses fri-os. De su som-bra se a-som-bra. A-lon-so mo-zo 15 de mu-chos a-mos. Sin-te-sis fi-lo-so-fi-ca de la Re-vo-! Si Se-fior, e-lla se ca-sa con su so-bri-no que sa-be ha-blar fran-ces, y no sa-be re-zar el ro-sa-rio. A corresponding caution should be noted concerning back palatal s, voiceless as in 'sure', 'push' and voiced as in 'pleasure', 'azure' , e. VOICED: ad-he-sion, a-lu-sion, ca-sual, con-clu-sion, [in-] de-ci-sion, [des-] a-lu-sion, ex-plo-sion, in-va-sion, u-sual, [a con, di, in, per -] version, vi-sion.
In naturalized foreign words originally having it notably those of Latin origin it is avoided, initially, by means of a prefixed "prosthet'ic" e, thus constituting an initial syllable in es-, e. But in careful, deliberate utterance the regular voiceless type-sound reappears. For sibilant i as the popular pronunciation of graphic x cf. Hence Spanish w, not introducing a new sound, is not considered a regular letter of the Spanish alphabet H 1 Rem.
If 17 R. The Spanish Academy prescribes this ks sound for x under all circumstances. But when a consonant follows, usage is Quite general in reducing the x to s in pronunciation, and it tends to make the same substitution in writing, e. When ex is followed by a vowel it has a tendency to be pronounced as egz i.
But the student should avoid it Cf. In the older language x initial, medial, and a few examples of word final did duty exten- sively as the spelling of the jota -sound, and is still to be met now and then cf. If 9 Rem. For y as vowel cf. For South American i replacing Castilian y cf. H 6 Rem. The preceding analysis of consonants aims only at generalizing fundamental distinctions. But, as with the classification of vowels If 2 Rem. These influences, left to themselves, work out unconsc'ously to the speaker a course of sound-evolution along the lines of least resistance in harmony with the law of the conservation of energy, a law that holds as true in language development as in any other of the forces of nature.
It is the explanation of all speech change in the course of the latter's incessant progress from the complex to the simple. Pronounce them accordingly in the vowel scale.
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If 17 1 What is the characteristic tone of Spanish single r? In what location has r this tone unmistakably? Pronounce word-initial r in the vowel scale. If 17 la When may single r be smooth instead of rolling? If 17 2 What kind of character is Spanish IT? What sound of r does it always have? In what location does it represent this sound i.
Tf 18 1 What variety of English 5 does the Spanish s sound like? If 18 R. Tf 18 2 What is Spanish w equivalent to? In what class of words does it occur? Tf 18 4 What is Spanish consonant y equivalent to in English? Where is it prescribed by the rules of Spanish spelling? The Syllable. Syllabication is vital to printing and writing, inasmuch as Us rules determine the division of words at the end of lines, a feature for the student not to overlook in his written exercises. Apart from its close relations to writer and printer, syllabication is of the utmost practical importance to the beginner by furnishing him an indispensable guide in pronunciation: to get at which in a long and apparently difficult word, an- alyze the word in question syllable by syllable, considering each syllable for the time being as a single monosyllabic word.
Which is equivalent to enjoining, as the corner-stone precept in the matter: go slowly and thoughtfully, applying to each doubtful situation of syllable division the clearly denned and easily recognized rule appropriate to it. There is no problem of syllabication that cannot readily be solved in this fashion. A Spanish syllable is the expression, in speech and writing, of an in- separable speech and spelling unit: which unit may be a single vowel; or as is more usual it consists of a letter-group composed of one con- sonant and a following vowel, or of two consonants and an intervening vowel.
The vowel in the syllable may be a simple letter or an insepa- rable compound : as a simple letter, it is either strong a, e, or o or an accented weak i or u ; as a compound, it consists of a diphthong or a triphthong. The consonant in the syllable may be a simpie letter b, c, d. A Single Consonant. A single vowel may occur syllabically by itself, although it is usually found leaning against a consonant as the stronger partner.
But a consonant cannot exist without an adjacent vowel as the vitalizing principle of its being 4. Hence the be- havior of consonants in syllabication is the primary consideration, which divides it- self into two heads according as the consonant appears single or by twos i.
The single intervocalic consonant may be thought of as the pivot on which Spanish pronunciation turns. The word-initial or word-final consonant is single and neces- sarily begins or closes the syllable to which it belongs, without need of further comment. A single intervocalic consonant 3 goes, in syllable division, with the following vowel.
Adjacent Consonants are goes with the preceding vowel thus constituting the final consonant of the preceding syllable ; the second member goes with the following vowel thus becoming the initial consonant of the following syllable. The liquid combinations r TTacoIula t. Living 4 prefixes L e. BUT tfV-jastre "disaster". Most consonant-ending nouns and adjectives including nouns in -y inflect their plural and feminine by means of suffixes -es, a[s] ; these lengthen the syllabication of the word by one point, creating a new final syllable to which the once final consonant now becomes initial, e.
Tecnica industrial. Quisquillosidad montanesa. Escultura y arquitectura. Municipali- zacion y nacionalizacion de los servicios publicos. Adjacent Vowels 3 are divided: the first member ends the syllable of which it is a part; the second member begins or constitutes by itself the next syllable i. But in normal pronunciation they are linked together without no- ticeable separation, e.
Note that the accented i is written without the dot the accent mark taking up and replacing the dot , e. Si Senor ' Yes [Sir] '. SAccordingto the terms of U 19 a. Examples are com- mon in i but rare in 6. In the former capacity it is of course, inseparable and without accent mark.
But as a "false" diphthong it is etymologically dissyllabic although pronounced the same as a true diphthong. With the object of showing this distinction some writers put the accent mark over the i as u-i in the relatively few words containing dissyllabic u-i, e. As the office of the accent mark is not properly etymological, such an application is superfluous and contrary to the rational spelling principles of the language. Double Letters are not favored in the written language, there being but few examples and these for special reasons, namely- 1.
The only divisible double consonants are C-c and n-n 11 and rr being digraphs and hence not to be considered as doubles. It follows that in all examples of cognate words in the two languages the English double consonants e. In pronunciation the case may be different. Theory prescribes and it should be scrupu- lously followed in the student's careful deliberate utterance that intervocalic consonants be pronounced as single and syllable-initial only.
But in smooth normal utterance there is an inevitable tendency to double a single intermediate consonant to some extent e. Nevertheless, the jerky staccato movement that characterizes Romanic pronunciation in general whereby the syllables are sharply set off from one another is a strong counteracting agency against any excessive doubling of con- sonants in speech.
The student should particularly avoid it, since with him the problem at the outset, and long thereafter, is to fix the habit of pure type-sounds in the syllable location appropriate to each occurrence. Examples are few, mostly as follows: a-a: Sa avedra prop, name contra ataque 'counter attack'.
O o: co operar 'to cooperate' co ordinar 'to coordinate' zo ologia ' zoology '. This contraction of ee into e has taken place in the written form, as well, of a couple of verbs that were spelled ee in the older language: ser 'to be' from se-er and ver 'to see' from ve-er. I "Elide" means to reduce or contract by suppressing a superfluous vowel or syllable cf. Tf 24 Syllabication 59 a. Word Linking. The terminal vowels of adjacent words closely connected in sense i.
Spanish no longer recognizes written elision as in French , of which there were a few ex- amples in the classic period e. An adjacent final consonant and initial vowel break syllabically together in pronunciation: el? Such economies of speech in rapid or even natural discourse are characteristic of all tongues and present a prime source of perplexity to their foreign students, e.
Engjish: "d'y' mind? They explain the disconcerting experiences of a student trained to academic precision when he hears for the first time the spoken idiom with its puzzling vowel elisions and combinations. II 19 R. How does syllabication enable you to get at the pronunciation of a long and apparently difficult word? H 19 What is a Spanish syllable the expression of, in speech and writing?
What may this unit be? What does it more usually consist of? T[ 19 a What may the syllabic vowel be? What is the vowel unit when represented by a simple letter? What does the vowel unit consist of as a compound character? H" 19 b What may the syllabic consonant be or consist of? What are the inseparable consonant compounds entering into syllabication? What is the pivotal point of Spanish syllabication? What consonant location, in the word, needs no comment? If 21 What happens, in syllabication, to adjacent intervocalic con- sonants?
What becomes of the first member? Of the second? What is meant by "impure" S? If 22 What happens, in syllabication, to the adjacent vowels of a polysyllabic word? But how are they treated in normal pronunciation? Tf 22 a Why are stressed i and u written with the accent mark as i, u when adjacent to a strong vowel? Why not? Which are digraphs? Is cc properly to be considered a double consonant? How are they considered in syllabication?
But in utterance? K 23 2a What effect has h between similar vowels? What is the necessary condition to this linking of adjacent words? If 24 a How would you pronounce syllabically el amigo, al espejo? The Syllable Stress is the stamp of a word's individual- ity, and in the utterance of every word of more than one syllable its proper place must be learned by observation and practice. In the transformation of Latin into Romance, the syllable stress was, so to speak, the soul of a word, preserving its identity and keeping its place unchanged through ages of disguised exterior, and at every stage of development furnishing the primary test of kinship with the parent language.
Although the matter of syllabication concerns, strictly, words of two or more syllables, there are few words in the language that do not, at some point, come under its terms. Monosyllables are few: those that cannot lengthen their syllabication such as articles and certain pronouns and prepositions bear the relations of atonic syllables to the neighboring words of the discourse; while all but two monosyllabic nouns fe and pie are consonant ending and by virtue of this fact bi-syllabic in their inflections.
To facilitate observation and practice for learning syllable stress in some systematic fashion there are some general principles, namely 1. The great majority of Spanish words of two or more syllables have a regular tonic i. Other consonant endings than the above are rare as j, x , or occur in words of foreign origin and mold Latin, Arabic, English, French, Indian , e. Accent Mark. In writing and printing, these words of regular tonic stress dispense, as in English, with any accent mark. But all others are considered of irregular stress; and the rules of Spanish spell- ing require that in such instances the written or printed word take the accent mark over the syllable bearing this irregular tonic stress.
This regularity and clearness of accentuation are unique advantages that Spanish possesses over other modern tongues in facilitating the foreign learner's task with the written language. Through the means of ready discrimination provided by the accent mark he can promptly determine the proper word stress for each example: he has only to follow the accent mark when there is one; while to the un- accented word he has only to apply the logical and intelligible rules of accentuation governing it.
As a needed caution to those liable to carelessness in such matters of detail note that the accent mark, whenever required, is to be scrupulously expressed in writing. Take time and care to make it distinct for the significance of accented icf. H 22 Rem. Secondary Stress. The tonic or syllable stress is as decided as in English, but without obscuring distinctness of utterance of the ad- joining vowels. Words lengthened out to two or more syllables beyond the one bearing the tonic stress, take a secondary stress on every other syllable counting from the one bearing the tonic or by contrast the primary stress.
Regular Stress. Coordinating the general principles of If 25 1 into specific rules of action, and generalizing from past ob- servation If , consider 1. Unaccented 1 words ending in a vowel OR either of the consonants n and s 2 , are stressed on the next to the last syllable, e. Stressed penultimates in -n are mostly verbs 3rd person plural ; and in -s, verbs 2nd persons and substantive plurals.
There are no singular adjectives among such words; and singular nouns are few, namely 1. About a dozen in -en having a form akin, directly or by analogy, to Latin originals with corresponding nominative endings : abdomen abdomen germen germ orden order certamcn competition gravamen burden origen origin crimen crime imagen image resumen summary dictatem opinion joven young virgen virgin examen examination margen margin volumen volume For the effect of plurization on the shifting accent mark of the above list of words cf. The five consecutive week-days in -es, which are incapable of pluralizing in- flection H 41 Rem.
A small list in -is H , likewise incapable of pluralizing inflection. Proper names geographical and personal in -n and -s, e. In certain verb inflections with enclitic pronoun object 1 66 Rem. But in such instances the accent which good usage tends to discard properly belongs to the verb as a regular part of its inflection, independently of the coincidence of syllable stress, e.
As rule 2 reverses the English and Spanish order of stress in a multi- tude of consonant-ending paronyms, be careful NOT to put English stress on corresponding Spanish words where it does not belong, c. Write down, syllabically, every other word of the following lists, with the tonic syllable stress indicated by the underscored vowel or the subscript dot in the manuscript follow the order and arrangement of the printed lists : NOTE. In this and the remaining exercises of the Lesson, only Spanish cognates have been intro- duced whose accentuation differs in the two languages.
Such examples afford the double advantage of striking contrast in difference of usage and needed training on treacherous ground. La base fundamental de la sociedad. Irregular Stress. It is shown graphically by means of the accent mark H 25 a , and concerns all words whose accentuation is not regular i. AVOID giving English [ante]penultimate stress to Spanish cog- nates with stressed ultimates like the following: cafe 'coffee', Jose 'Joseph', rubi, sofa, cipres, Paris, Simon, capitan, sermon, educacion, canon, etc.
When nouns and adjectives with stressed ultimates in -n and -s add an inflectional syllable i. A few consonant-ending monosyllables come indirectly under the pro- visions of rule If 27 1, assuming the accent mark whenever they occur as the final syllable of a compound of which they compose the chief element, e. But there are a few monosyllabic preterites that keep the accent mark from the example of the regular preterit inflection, e.
This accent may be be discarded as superfluous, a practice that is spreading, and, in the press, is becoming quite general. A number of word pairs are alike in spelling but different in accentuation, one regular by f 26 1 and one irregular by H 27 1 : anden 'they may go' esta 'this veto veil anden ' platform ' esta ' is ' velo ' he watched ' Cortes 'Legislature' hacia 'toward' veras true' cortes 'courteous' hacia 'he made' veras 'thou wilt see' entre 'between' picaron 'they stung' viaje journey ' entre 'I entered' picaron 'rascally' viaje 'I travelled' Also some corresponding pairs of I conjugation verb inflections, e.
The rules of accentuation for ultimate and penultimate stress were drawn up by the Spanish Academy in , and have been generally observed in printed matter thereafter. In verbs apart from the ultimates in the future and the few antepenultimate stresses e. Correspondingly, the stressed ultimates of nouns and adjectives in -n and -s were not accented, e. But the penultimate stress of singulars in -s was accented as if to distinguish this s from its plural- izing functions , e. AVOID giving English reversed stress to Spanish paronyms with stressed penultimates like the following: Cadiz, caracter, dificil, imbecil, versatil cf.
The accent mark is required with those words whose stress falls on the third 2 ' from the last syllable: articulo 'article' lugubre 'gloomy' naufrago 'shipwreck' fosforo ' match ' merito ' merit ' periodico ' newspaper ' huerfano 'orphan' metodo 'method' proximo 'next' Rem.
Examples arc very numerous, particularly cognates cf. The accent mark is required over stressed i and U as i and u whenever these are syllabically separate from an adjoining strong 3 vowel cf. Barring one exception caracter, pi. IND: Rem. When nouns with wwstressed ultimates in -n i. Antepenultimate stress, with its attendant accent mark, characterizes certain verb inflections, namely 1. Verb forms not monosyllabic with enclitic pronoun object, e. The 1st person plural of some past tenses, e. Latin expressions current in Spanish customarily take the accent mark of irregular stress antepenultimate or otherwise, e.
It will be noticed in the exercises below 3 that nouns and adjectives of antepenultimate accentuation all end in vowels save one noun in -es miercoles 'Wednesday' and a small group in -is If , which last are all incapable of a pluralizing inflection H 41 2a and hence take no lengthened syllabication f 21 Rem. Therefore, the vowel-ending antepenultimate nouns and adjectives have an invariable accentuation that maintains a constant syllabication unaffected by number and gender inflections. Writedown, syllabically, the following examples of l - 2 and the first line from each group of 3 , p.
Eden sultan Adrian refran. Los arboles de los paises frios y calidos. The Diacritic Accent. This is the accent mark con- sidered as an instrument of definition rather than of accentuation, since it deals only with a few monosyllables and bisyllabic words. It is associated, as a distinguishing spelling mark, with one of two words that are alike in spelling but of different meaning or function. Usage has restricted it to the following special word groups, viz: 1.
Unreasoning usage has been the chief factor in assigning the diacritic accent to one member of the pair rather than to the other, although in the majority of examples it is properly put on the less common homonym e. Other pairs of homonyms without the diacritic accent are quite common, their occurrence not being' varied enough to provoke confusion of sense.
They comprise verb and noun pairs sometime quite disconnected, but usually related, e. I breakfast f encuentro v. I meet f pedido p. I peel f ama n. I sing I escrito p. I study J sentido p. I console J hecho p. I count juego v. I play J suefio v. I dream 1 cuento n. Without the diacritic accent are also certain like verb forms in different tenses, e. IXD: hablamos 'we spoke' vivimos 'we lived' 1 "Homonyms" pron. On the other hand, "par'onyms" are words virtually alike in spelling and meaning.
To mark the demonstrative adjectives este 'this', ese and aquel 'that' used substantively as este 'this one', ese and aquel 'that one'. The indefinite demonstratives esto, eso, and aquello are not so accented. Up to the beginning of the second decade of the twentieth century, a fourth diacritic class was observed the preposition a and the conjunctions e, 6, u, considered as vitalized letters set off against their plain alphabetic counterparts. In the Spanish Academy very sensibly ruled the suppression of this spelling hobble that had not ever, the plea of ornamental to recommend it.
But all printed matter before this date will show these accented letters. Of the three diacritic groups set forth above, only the last one seems defensible. The first two do not rest on any stronger argument than usage which may be respectable without at all being convincing.
As "diacritic" is to subserve clearness of definition, its use is intended to have, presumably, a useful rather than superfluous or ornamental purpose. But under this caption its pretentions are absurd for 2, and idle for 1. To what classes of endings do these stresses correspond? If 25 2 What is peculiar about the accentuation of words of regular stress? Of what kind of stress are the others considered?
What do the rules of Spanish spelling require in respect to such words when written or printed? If 25 2a What only accent mark is there in Spanish? What is its office? If 25 R. What additional stress, and where, may polysyllables have? What part of a diphthong or triphthong? If 26 R. II 26 R. If 27 How is Spanish irregular stress graphically shown? What words does it concern?
Likewise refran and ingles? II 27 2 Why are words stressed like huesped, arbol, and lapiz con- sidered of irregular accentuation, and so requiring the accent mark? If 27 R. It is associated, as what kind of sign, with words in what relation? II 28 1 Name a couple of common homonyms it distinguishes.
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If 28 2 What adjectives does it distinguish and in what function? Appendix 1 IF Spelling Permutations. The underlying principle of these spelling changes is that a given conso- nant key-sound is common to all members of a family of derivatives, and must be kept intact without modification and free from admixture of diphthong elements. I Permutation illustrated in verbs whose inflectional syllable begins with any of the above consonants : Rem.
Observe that such permutation is merely a spelling peculiarity, NOT a verb irregularity. PRES: lanzo lanzas lanza etc. FRET: lance lanzaste lanzo etc. As will be observed below, examples of permutation in soft- and hard-g 1 I, 3 are very numerous, with virtually none in soft-g 2 , owing to the prevailing tendency to standardize the spelling of medial soft-g- into j If 9 la. Andalucia Andalusia atroz atrocious atrocidad atrocity cabeza head cabecera bed head capaz capable capacidad capacity cruz cross cruces pi.
HARD-C atacar to attack ataque attack banco bench, bank banca banking banquero banker banquillo stool barco boat barquillo small barqucro boatman bianco white blanquccino whitish blanquear to whiten cerca near cerquita quite near duque duke ducado dukedom duquesa duchess flaco weak flaquisimo very flaqueza weakness loco mad locura madness loquero keeper enloqucdor maddening cnloquecer to madden manteca lard mantequilla butter mosca fly moscon gad-fly mosquito Paco Frank Paquito Frankie poco little poquito very rico rich riquisimo very riquezas riches roca rock roqueno rocky roncar to snore ronquido snore ronco hoarse ronquera hoarseness nistico rustic rustiquez rusticity secar to dry seco dry scquedad dry ness sequia drought tocar to ring toque peal trocar to barter trueque barter vaca cow vaquero cow-boy vaquita calf 4.
HARD-g- amigo friend amiguito dear amigable friendly droga drug droguero druggist hormiga ant hormigucra ant-hill huelga strike huelguista striker jugar to play juguetc plaything largo long larguisimo very larguezas generosity lobrcgo gloomy lobrcgucz darkness trigo wheat trigueno swarthy 5. The Alphabet is given below in three columns, namely. Column 1 contains the characters used in print- ing and writing.
The pronunciation of these characters is represented in Columns 2 and 3, whose names are to be pronounced according to the rules of Spanish sound-values that apply to the letter or letters composing them. Alphabetic Names. Column 2 contains the alphabetic names of the characters of column 1.
These names are used for running the alphabet a, b, c, etc. Spanish n "soft n" is written with n and the "tilde". Spelling Names. Column 3 contains the names that are used to supplement those of column 2 in spelling a word by telling its letters, e. The only difference between columns 2 and 3 is that for spelling purposes nearly all the two-syllable names of column 2 are reduced to one syllable sounds in column 3 by discarding the initial syllabic vowel e.
Their Distinguishing Features in Spanish as dif- fering from English usage may be summarized in the following terms : 1. Use small initials for days of week and month 11 33 1 and for adjectives of nationality 11 33 2. Punctuation 1[34a. Capitals are required for the beginning: 1. Of sentences or isolated expressions, of verse, of proper names sacred, personal, geographical, and corporate , of nouns personified, of the article introducing a quotation or descriptive title as a customary part thereof , of Don and Dona, of ustedfes] abbreviated Vdfsj.
The Republic of Peru. La Guerra de la Independencia. The War of Independence. Political Sciences. Parece que Vd. Su lema es ture. Its motto is "polish, fix, "Limpia, fija y da esplendor. On giving a dinner to the Stork. Of personal titles nobiliary, official, and professional the best usage of the two languages being alike, save that Spanish prefers a small initial for a title coupled with the appositional personal name of the bearer in indirect discourse: Yo el Rey 2.
I the King.
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El Conde-Duque de Olivares. The Count-Duke of Olivares. BUT- 1 Favorite name of Spanish newspapers for the most part in flagrant contradiction to the literal sense of the term. Es el senor Sua- Who is coming? It is Mr. Sua- rez. El presidente Diaz 'President Diaz'. El doctor Sangredo 'Doctor Sangredo'.
El profesor Menendez 'Professor Menendez'. El padre Coloma 'Father Coloma'. In the written forms of direct address, Senor is preferably written with capital initial as are all titles so used Presidente, Gen- eral, Doctor, etc. Si Senor, con Yes, Sir, with great pleasure, mucho gusto. Small Initials are preferred:- 1. For the names of the days of the week, of the months of the year, and of the seasons, e.
For English proper adjectives, and the same used substantively and as names of languages, e. French frontier', el ejercito aleman 'the German army', una espanola inglesa 'An. English-bred Spanish-woman', la noche toledana 'the! Toledan night'. La defensa heroica de les espano- The heroic defense of the Span- les contra los franceses en French in Los norteamericanos hablan in- The Americans speak English, but gles, pero los mejicanos hablan the Mexicans speak Spanish.
But the capital initial may be used in book titles, or specifically of an individual, e. For the pronoun yo ' I ' : No la olvidaba yo un punto. In isolated headings and title-page announcements, as well as in names of newspapers and periodicals, capital initials are to be expected for the main words, e. La Vida es Sueno, Drama de Calderon. La Correspondencia de Espana newspaper. Official or professional rank in a literary title may be considered as part of the proper name, c.
El Comendador comendador Mendoza. El Capilan capitdn Veneno 1. La Hermann hermana San Sulpicio.
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