Boron has been hypothesized to exert its effects on calcium and hormone metabolism by affecting cell membrane functions or stability. Another possibility is that boron acts as a metabolic regulator through forming esters or complexes with a variety of substrate or reactant compounds including enzymatic systems Nielson , but there is no solid evidence to support either hypothesis.
A series of four boron deprivation studies involving postmenopausal women and men over the age of 45 was subsequently conducted to further investigate the relationship between boron and calcium metabolism, as well as to identify other possible effects of dietary boron manipulation. During the boron depletion period of the studies, subjects were fed a diet providing approximately 0. The day repletion period that followed required subjects to consume the same diet supplemented with 3 mg of boron as sodium borate.
One of the studies providing a marginal copper and low magnesium diet found that boron manipulation affected several variables associated with calcium metabolism.
Plasma ionized calcium and serum hydroxycholecalciferol levels were significantly lower, and the serum calcitonin level was significantly higher during boron depletion compared to boron repletion Nielsen et al. In a magnesium and copper adequate study only serum hydroxycholecalciferol, which was decreased during boron depletion, was reported to be affected by boron manipulation Nielsen et al. In a review of these studies, Nielson explained that serum calcitonin and serum osteocalcin levels were abnormally high in subjects consuming the magnesium and copper poor diets compared to those consuming the adequate diets, and these levels were even higher during boron depletion Nielsen From this comparison, Nielson concluded that consumption of a diet deficient or marginal in magnesium and copper results in abnormal calcium metabolism, which is exacerbated by boron depletion.
It is important to note that in contrast to these findings, a recent study in postmenopausal women found that dietary boron manipulation did not have an obvious effect on the response to a magnesium deficient diet. While magnesium deficiency significantly decreased urinary calcium excretion, and increased hydroxycholcalciferol, boron did not affect either of these variables. In addition, neither magnesium, nor boron affected serum calcitonin, osteocalcin, mid-molecule parathyroid hormone, or alkaline phosphatase. Nielson concluded that previous reports of magnesium status affecting the response to boron probably reflect an indirect, rather than a direct, relationship between the two elements Nielson b.
The effects of boron on calcium metabolism, and hydroxycholecalciferol specifically, noted above may have positive implications on bone metabolism including a reduced risk for osteoporosis and perhaps other maladies Zitterman Boron has also been shown to improve bone strength characteristics in rats Nielsen a and pigs Armstrong et al.
A comparison between countries found that the occurrence of arthritis is negatively correlated with the level of boron in the soil and food supply. The study found that in areas where daily boron intakes are typically 1. After 8 weeks of supplementation the average condition of all patients' joints was significantly better, and there was significantly less pain on passive movement, for those taking boron compared to those on placebo Newnham One of the studies providing a magnesium and copper adequate diet reported somewhat different results.
In addition, serum immunoreactive ceruloplasmin and triglyceride concentrations were higher in subjects ingesting estrogen, but boron repletion increased both variables in all subjects, not just those ingesting estrogen. These findings suggest that boron both enhances and mimics some effects of estrogen. It was proposed that since boron has been shown to have estrogenic effects, and estrogen is known to affect calcium, perhaps boron affects calcium metabolism through similar processes Nielsen et al. Since boron has been shown to have effects similar to estrogen, Nielson and Penland conducted a double-blind crossover trial in 43 peri-menopausal women to determine if supplementation with 2.
The study authors explained that boron may be acting in manner similar to selective estrogen receptor modulators, which can influence some changes of menopause, such as bone loss, but not others Nielsen and Penland Preliminary cell culture, animal and human evidence suggests that boron may have a protective role in prostate cancer risk.
A cross-sectional case-control analysis based on data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANES III found that increased dietary boron intake was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer with a dose-response pattern. The adjusted odds ratio was 0.
In support of these findings, one study using nude mice implanted with human prostate adenocarcinoma LNCaP cells found that boron supplementation reduced serum prostate-specific antigen PSA levels, and reduced tumor size and expression of IGF-1, a tumor trophic factor Gallardo-Williams et al. Another study showed that boric acid inhibits the proliferation of some human prostate cancer cell lines Barranco and Eckhert Adverse embryonic effects related to boron depletion have been reported for frogs Fort et al. Boron has been shown to stimulate embryonic and larval growth in trout Eckhert Results from a series of in vivo and in vitro rodent studies suggest that boron deficiency impairs early embryonic development.
In comparison to dams fed a boron adequate diet, dams fed a low boron diet had a significantly reduced number of implantation sites, reduced blastocyst formation, reduced blastocyst cell numbers, and an increased number of degenerates. These studies suggest that boron may be essential for proper reproduction and development but boron deprivation studies have not shown development effects consistently in rodent or higher animal models. Furthermore, these studies cannot be considered to provide evidence for potential benefits of boron supplementation where a deficiency does not exist.
A series of studies has consistently shown that boron deprivation in rats and humans leads to undesirable effects on brain electrophysiology Penland and, in humans, results in significantly poorer performance on tasks involving eye-hand coordination, attention, and short-term memory Penland and It has also been shown that boron depleted diets in humans may reduce performance on tasks measuring manual dexterity, perception, and long-term memory Penland Again, it is important to note that boron supplementation in people who are not deficient will not necessarily provide any benefits to the structures and functions affected by deprivation.
A lack of data on ovarian effects precludes a definitive assessment with respect to female sensitivity to boron exposure. Reviews of the toxicology of boron have been published by the U. Doses of In a study using Sprague Dawley rats, Price et al. Developmental toxicity was noted to be occurring at lower doses than maternal effects, which were limited to increased relative kidney weight with 0. In Phase II of the above study Price et al. There were no offspring body weight effects observed through postnatal days , no treatment-related skeletal variations observed on postnatal day 21 and minor skeletal malformations of the ribs remained elevated only at the highest dose However, this study has many limitations, and it is not considered to be a critical study for reference dose derivation by most authorities because:.
In contrast to what was reported by Weir and Fisher, PMRA stated that their analysis revealed that testicular effects were observed in dogs within the high-dose groups 8. Moreover, the day boric acid and borax dog studies, which were also included in the Weir and Fisher paper, reported occurrence of decreased absolute and testicular weights at 4.
Boron action in bone health
There are some questions as to the statistical and clinical significance of these results since the studies involved irregular sacrifice schedules, dose level inconsistencies between studies, and variability in the actual intake of test compounds. The potential dose-effects within each of the two 2-year studies needed to be evaluated on an individual dog basis and treated groups could not be combined across the two 2-year dog studies.
Histologic artifacts from use of formalin confounded a number of the microscopic assessments, and some of the results were interpreted as spontaneous, incidental findings unrelated to the test article treatment. The original studies' authors, Weir and Fisher , reported that there did not appear to be any definitive test article effect on any parameter examined. PMRA assessment of the original unpublished data led to the conclusion that pathologic findings in 1 of 2 male dogs administered 9.
Since it is possible that the adverse effects observed were treatment-related, new studies are needed to clarify the effects of boron on male and female animals' reproductive organs. In summary, high doses of boron have been associated with reproductive toxicity in laboratory animals, with characteristic effects being produced in the testes. A clear dose-response relationship has been demonstrated. No evidence of carcinogenicity was observed from oral exposure to boron compounds in rats and mice Dieter No evidence of genotoxicity was found in mammalian cell mutation in vitro assays Weir and Fisher ; Benson et al.
There is no evidence of an association between cancer and boron exposure in humans either, but nevertheless, the available data are considered inadequate for a proper evaluation of the human carcinogenic potential of boron USEPA-IRIS Human data on the safety of boron are limited. Boron has also been used in the treatment of epilepsy at doses of 2.
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Withdrawal of treatment resulted in recovery from these effects without sequelae Culver and Hubbard Data from accidental poisonings indicate that the human acute, lethal dose of boric acid is g in infants, g in children, and g in adults for example, this would be equivalent to 2. However, in an examination of cases of boric acid ingestion, Litovitz and coworkers found minimal to no acute toxicity at these intake levels and other authors have reported high inter-individual variability in human acute toxicity EGVM Evidence suggests that there is a linear relationship for acute toxicity in that similar boron intakes in infants amounts per body weight elicit similar effects as compared to adults Culver and Hubbard Clinical symptoms in acute boron poisoning include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, skin rashes, desquamation and central nervous system stimulation followed by depression, ataxia and convulsions.
Death is thought to result in approximately five days as a result of circulatory failure Health Canada ; Ellenhorn ; EGVM Some acute boron poisonings have also resulted in renal symptoms which range from mild urinary changes including the presence of cellular sediment and tubular range proteinuria, to oliguria, anuria, and azotemia Pahl et al.
A recent review of the literature found that while acute exposure to high quantities of boron mg produces symptoms of renal toxicity, chronic exposure to non-lethal doses of boric acid in humans does not seem to be associated with renal symptoms Pahl et al. The threshold for chronic boron toxicity for humans is not known, but there is some evidence to suggest that it may be quite high.
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One study found that water boron levels in differing locations of the Kutahya Province of Turkey ranged from 2. Despite such high levels of boron exposure, the authors stated that no remarkable findings of toxicity were observed in the residents. In addition, no difference was found in fertility rates in Turkish villagers living in two regions with boron concentrations of 2. Such epidemiological studies have their weaknesses in that they are observational so there may be confounding factors, and laboratory analyses for non-overt pathologies were not done, but they do help to provide some information on whether or not chronic exposure to boron at these levels has clinically significant adverse effects on the parameters being studied.
With respect to the reproductive toxicity seen in animals, there is only limited evidence of overt symptoms of reproductive toxicity in humans with chronic industrial exposure mainly by inhalation. However, further studies triggered by this initial report found a significantly higher than expected standardized birth ratio in men who were exposed industrially. This suggests no clinically relevant reproductive toxicity, although the birth ratio is a less sensitive measure of reproductive toxicity than direct histopathologic testing for testicular effects.
There was no correlation between high versus low boron exposure levels and a decrease in live birth rates among women who were exposed to boron in industrial settings, so exposure to borates did not appear to adversely affect fertility in these populations. Another study in women exposed to chemicals including boron used to manufacture semiconductors found no significant positive association between the level of exposure to boron and spontaneous abortion risk.
The adverse reaction reports are not attributable to the boron itself but relate to worsening of symptoms in those patients who discontinued prescription medications or took the product in conjunction with prescribed medications without consulting a healthcare practitioner. The CADRMP summary is based on information from adverse reaction reports submitted by health professionals and laypersons either directly to Health Canada or via market authorization holders.globcompostparksec.tk/adventures-in-africa-by-an-african.php
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Each report represents the suspicion, opinion or observation of the individual reporter. The CADRMP is a spontaneous reporting system that is suitable to detect signals of potential health product safety issues during the post-market period. The data has been collected primarily by a spontaneous surveillance system in which adverse reactions to health products are reported on a voluntary basis. Under-reporting of adverse reactions is seen with both voluntary and mandatory spontaneous surveillance systems.
Accumulated case reports should not be used as a basis for determining the incidence of a reaction or estimating risk for a particular product as neither the total number of reactions occurring, nor the number of patients exposed to the health product is known. Because of the multiple factors that influence reporting, quantitative comparisons of health product safety cannot be made from the data. Some of these factors include the length of time a drug is marketed, the market share, size and sophistication of the sales force, publicity about an adverse reaction and regulatory actions.
In some cases, the reported clinical data is incomplete and there is not certainty that these health products caused the reported reactions. A given reaction may be due to an underlying disease process or to another coincidental factor. Due to the recognized under-reporting of adverse reactions and the potential nature of adverse effects associated with excessive exposure to boron, a lack of adverse reaction reports cannot in itself be used to state conclusively that boron is without risk.
The Uncertainty Factors UF used to account for interspecific, intraspecific, and other factors range from 22 to The results from various authorities are summarized in Table 2. The DRIs reflect the current state of scientific knowledge with respect to nutrient requirements. The DRIs are also used to assess the nutrient intakes of Canadians. Even though boron is an essential element for plants, the biological function of boron in humans is not clear.
Five expert groups that assessed the risk to humans from boron all used the NOAEL from Price and coworkers a of 9. The Institute of Medicine concluded that there did not appear to be sufficient data to justify lowering the degree of uncertainty for extrapolating from experimental animals to humans from the 10 that is often used for nonessential chemicals.
Based on expected similarities in pharmacokinetics among humans, a UF of 3 was chosen for intraspecies variability. The Reference Dose was calculated as follows:. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level UL for infants was judged not determinable due to insufficient data on adverse effects in this age group and concern about the infant's ability to handle excess amounts. Thus, it was decided that in order to prevent high levels of intake, the only source of intake for infants should be from food and formula. Due to the absence of reports of low dose boron toxicity in children and adolescents, the UL for children and adolescents, was extrapolated from the UL established for adults, and was adjusted on the basis of body weight.
Since there are no reports of boron toxicity in lactating females, the UL for pregnant and lactating females is the same as that for non-pregnant and non-lactating females, i. For therapeutic products, currently there are three boron-containing oral mineral supplements for human use registered according to the Drug Product Database.
Centrum DIN is a multivitamin-multimineral providing mcg of boron from calcium borate, magnesium borate, and sodium borate, all in magnesium oxide, listed as being for non-prescription use. Centrum DIN providing mcg of boron and Centrum DIN providing 70 mcg of boron, are both prescription multivitamin-multimineral products. These products were scheduled as prescription drugs because they contain vitamin K1. The dosage forms include solution, powder, drop, globule, granule, pellet, tablet, jelly, and aerosol.
Routes of administration include topical, sublingual, oral, and ophthalmic. This indicates that boron is a restricted cosmetic ingredient. The qualifiers for boric acid and its salts are as follows:. If a cosmetic contains an ingredient which appears on the restricted list, the manufacturer may be advised to:.
In accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes, boron products regulated as dietary supplements may provide up to 20 mg of elemental boron equivalents per day IOM Under the Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act of DSHEA , there is no mandatory pre-market review for these products, but they are not permitted to be labelled or advertised with claims to treat any disease.
As boron appears to have some beneficial nutrient value, Nielsen also recommended a total daily boron intake of 1 mg to avoid boron deficiency. USEPA-IRIS commented that "Confidence in the principal development studies is high; they are well-designed studies that examined relevant developmental endpoints using a large number of animals. Similar developmental effects were noted in rats, mice, and rabbits.
Confidence in the database is high due to the existence of several subchronic studies, as well as an adequate reproductive and developmental toxicology data. High confidence in the RfD follows. Authorized products have specific structure-function claims such as:. Boron is present in a number of multi-vitamin and mineral food supplements at levels up to 10 mg, but not in licensed medicines in the UK EFSA The safe upper level for daily consumption for a lifetime was determined as 9.
Although if you take too much boron, you can quickly throw these off. With boron, there is such thing as too much of a good thing. An important role of boron includes how it helps your body absorb magnesium better. Magnesium is an important mineral for hundreds of functions in your body. Fortunately, these two minerals work hand-in-hand to keep you feeling your best. Boron also impacts how your body uses calcium and phosphorous. Of all the functions boron has in your body, it is by far the most famous for its role in your joints and bones. Osteoblasts are a type of cell that creates new material to rebuild bones.
Boron activates these cells through regulating gene expression. This is only the beginning — there are many other surprising health benefits of boron. Boron is great for speeding up and improving wound healing. A study that is still widely cited today found that a 3 percent boric acid treatment on deep wounds reduced the overall healing time by two-thirds.
Similar to how boron activates the osteoblasts in the bones, it also activates fibroblasts of the skin and tissues. Boron helps keep your teeth and gums healthy through reducing inflammation and improving bone and tissue repair. This is a long way off from becoming a reality but a fascinating possibility nonetheless. A healthy dose of boron could help to prevent gum disease naturally. First of all, you need to know that vitamin D is essential to your overall health. Vitamin D is so important I wrote a four part series on it.
The fact that boron is so good at preventing vitamin D deficiency is worth discussing. And the way in which boron prevents vitamin D is fascinating.
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It actually increases the biological half life of vitamin D levels in your body. Meaning, it prolongs the amount of time vitamin D stays in your body in a useful form. These two cytokines have been associated with breast cancer, obesity, insulin resistance, lung cancer, heart disease, depression, and more. In fact, because of its role in both reducing inflammation and activating healing cells of bones and joints, boron is considered an effective natural treatment for osteoarthritis.
Boron is important in both men and women. Studies indicate that boron supplements cause an increase in estradiol and testosterone. This advice usually points out that boron does indeed boost testosterone levels. In a few cases, a doctor might prescribe a boron supplement as a medication.
Always ask your doctor before taking a boron supplement. Boron is a supplement where I recommend you use caution. For a high-quality boron supplement, I recommend this brand. Rich in boron, magnesium, potassium, protein, iron, and calcium, this recipe is a must-make. It would make a perfect breakfast to power you through your day, or even a post-workout shake. Bananas, kale, and cacao are three of the best foods to reduce stress, aid in energy production, and keep the body strong.
Eat them all combined in a delicious, dessert-like meal. Breakfast crepes for your bones!? In all seriousness , these crepes really are packed with nutrient-dense ingredients. Like a thin pancake, crepes are easier to wrap up, so you can fill them with whatever you want. Here, bananas and hemp seeds are used not just for flavor, but also nutrition.
Eat these when you want something that feels a little fancy and indulgent, but that you know will be good for your body and simple to make. Nutrient-dense granola bars you make for yourself at home are so much better than those from the wrappers in those boxes at the store.
Store bought options may sound healthy on the label, but contain high doses of refined sugars that can actually weaken your whole body, bones included. Make your own at home, which is a much cheaper and healthier way to stay full through the morning or afternoon hours. For another healthy portable snack good for your bones, these granola bars fit the bill. Banana lovers can rejoice through this recipe, which is packed with flavor and the bars are easy to make. Use ripe heavily spotted bananas however possible.
These are easier to digest and they also taste better in bars and baked goods. We love bananas as one of our favorite egg-replacers! These Mexican bean burgers will put any typical burrito to shame! Try them out, dip them in some guacamole if needed, or top them with your favorite salsa. Portable meals and snacks are great tools to keep on hand if you have a busy lifestyle and are trying to avoid fast or processed foods.
Packed with lentils and plenty of flavoring, they are also healthy too. Make a batch for the week and pair with some raw veggies or a side salad for a healthy lunch at work or even at home. Breakfast is the most important meal of the day, right? Start things off right with not just protein, but also vitamins and minerals like boron that keep your body energized for hours.
Here, we have almonds, berries, and chia seeds added to quinoa, which all help support your bones, protein synthesis, brain function and keep your blood sugar in check. Chia seeds even pack more calcium than milk, while almonds also offer a good source too. All the ingredients are excellent sources of boron, so make this meal a part of your bone-building routine. Unlike most energy bars and bites, no sugar is included in these cookie dough bites , which are no-bake and full of healthy fats.
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