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This is a must read for anyone who is concerned about the future of democracy and wants to learn about the struggles of communities around the world to reclaim it. Choudry and Kapoor have assembled an urgently timely and significant contribution in this regard and is a must-read for students and activists alike, especially in this moment of accelerating and deepening inequalities within and between countries.
Perhaps most innovative is the argument - advanced by the editors and taken on squarely by richly detailed case studies from an impressive range of world regions - that NGOs are not external to state, market or society. Rather, in the early twenty-first century, they have come to constitute "one more institutional form through which class relations are being contested and reworked.
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However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied. Saving Biodiversity, for Whom and for What? Colonization is an age old process of theft and control facilitated by doctrines of conquest such as the Manifest Destiny and Terra Nullius, that claim the land as empty except for the millions of aboriginals living there , and non-productive in its natural state.
As the self-proclaimed 'discoverers' of crops, medicinal plants, genetic resources, and traditional knowledge, these bioprospectors become the new 'owners'. Intellectual property rights are being used to turn nature and life processes into 'private property'. As private property, it is alienable; that is, it can be owned, bought and sold as a commodity.
NGOisation: Complicity, Contradictions and Prospects
The result is a legitimized process for thievery, which we call 'biocolonialism' Harry, , n. From the more critical currents of the coalitions and networks of non-governmental organizations NGOs , social movements and activist groups which came to be known as the 'global justice' or 'anti-globalization' movement — including Indigenous Peoples in both Southern and Northern contexts Jackson, , as well as the prescient anti-colonial thinking of Fanon — come reminders that today's 'globalization' is another stage in much older processes of colonialism and capitalism.
While numerous scholars and political commentators celebrated the ascendancy of NGOs and the rise of 'global civil society', more radical critiques charged that the environmental, aid and development, and advocacy NGOs which dominated this milieu and their campaigns were attempting to humanize capitalist exploitation.
Some take the critique further, arguing that through their refusal to confront ongoing colonial practices, these NGOs are themselves behaving as colonizers. This chapter argues that rather than challenging dominant state or corporate practices and capitalist power relations, environmental NGOs often serve elite economic and political interests and are themselves deeply colonial in their practice and discourse. I situate my analysis of environmental NGO practices in an anti-colonial and anti-capitalist framework of understanding.
Here I identify and question hegemonic environmental NGO practices, perspectives and normative frameworks in the context of new threats posed by the imposition of intellectual property rights IPR regimes, and the increasing power and reach of transnational capital into new frontiers for profit. Inclusion of intellectual property rights provisions in international free trade and investment agreements, and the rise in bioprospecting — what Executive Director of the Indigenous Peoples Council on Biocolonialism, Debra Harry Northern Paiute terms 'biocolonialism' — is an important factor, a major focus, and significant area of tension between some Indigenous Peoples and major environmental NGOs.
As Giovanna Di Chiro contends, challenges to mainstream environmentalism often argue that an effective movement 'must integrate, not dichotomize, the histories and relationships of people and their natural environments' p. Many critical scholars and activists Beder, ; Burton, ; Lubbers, ; Rowell, ; Tokar, have emphasized the role of major international environmental NGOs in facilitating the greenwashing of corporations with controversial records of violations of environmental and human rights violations through funding, joint initiatives and various 'partnerships' and collaborations which project environmental concern of some kind.
Several contributors in this book illustrate how NGOs are often deeply integrated into neoliberal capitalist relations at national and international levels, attempt to dominate the political space and undermine grassroots movements, and abandon or pull back from demands for genuine and deep transformation of the capitalist system and its power relations.
Alongside the extension of colonialism into the control of nature and the appropriation of Indigenous Peoples' knowledge by corporations for private profit, environmental NGOs through their acts and omissions often act in complicity with state and business interests encroaching on the lands of Indigenous communities. Reflecting on dominant forms of environmentalism, Di Chiro points out 'the colonial discourse of Euro-American forms of "nature talk"':.
Although 'nature talk' separates humans from nature and posits them as superior to nature, it specifies that some humans are in fact part of nature. In other words, particular Euro-American romantic constructions of nature have been and continue to be problematic and even genocidal for people who have been characterized as being more like nature and thus less than human p.
NGOisation: Complicity, Contradictions and Prospects - the professionalisation and institutionalisation of social action - has long been a hotly contested issue in grassroots social movements and communities of resistance. This book pulls together for the first time unique perspectives of social struggles and critically engaged scholars from a wide range of geographical and political contexts to offer insights into the tensions and challenges of the NGO model, while considering the feasibility of alternatives.
NGOization: Complicity, Contradictions and Prospects - Dip Kapoor - Google книги
For more information, refer to www. You are here Home NGOisation: Complicity, Contradictions and Prospects The growth and spread of non-governmental organisations NGOs at local and international levels has attracted considerable interest and attention from policy-makers, development practitioners, academics and activists around the world. Resource type:. Civil society. Governance and democracy.
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