Cauzzi, D. Smith, J. Offline-Performance of FinDer v. AlpArray is a European initiative to advance our understanding of orogenesis and its relationship to mantle dynamics, plate reorganizations, surface processes and seismic hazard in the Alps-Apennines-Carpathians-Dinarides orogenic system. The initiative integrates present-day Earth observables with high-resolution geophysical imaging of 3D structure and physical properties of the lithosphere and of the upper mantle, with focus on a high-end seismological array.
AlpArray is a major scientific collaboration with over 40 participant institutions. One of the main actions of the AlpArray initiative is to collect top-quality seismological data from a dense network of temporary broadband seismic stations. This complements the existing permanent broadband stations to ensure homogeneous coverage of the Alpine area, with station spacing on the order of 30km. A complimentary ocean bottom seismometer OBS component is expected in All national broadband stations also contribute to the AASN.
Prof Edi Kissling is the project coordinator. Alps, earthquakes, seismic broadband network, tomography, geodynamics, surface process, orogenesis. Alp Array - Probing Alpine geodynamics with the next generation of geophysical experiments and techniques. Zudem sind die beiden Untersuchungsgebiete von hoher gesellschaftlicher Relevanz.
Die St. Gallen, Valais, seismic hazard, Molasse basin. This project is carried out under a contract with the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste Nagra. It provides an independent monitoring of the earthquake activity in the area of the proposed nuclear waste repositories in northern Switzerland. Detailed microseismic analysis will help to identify active fault zones and provide insights into the underlying seismotectonic processes in the vicinity of proposed sites, which has direct implications on the seismic hazard assessment.
The SED provides results of this project in a transparent manner and all data acquired are made available for public access see SED declaration on transparency [link]. Within this project, the Swiss Seismological Service SED constructed ten new seismic stations in northeastern Switzerland and southern Germany to improve monitoring capabilities for very small earthquakes. Monitoring of weak seismic events in this region is challenging, because the study region is densely populated and sediments of the Molasse basin dominate the surface geology.
A novel step-wise optimization approach was developed to ensure an optimum configuration of the new stations. To reduce the seismic background noise, three of the ten new sites were equipped with borehole-sensors, located at depths of — m below the surface. The new stations are fully operational since December and will observe the local seismicity in northern Switzerland for a minimum of ten years.
The newly installed stations complement the five stations installed in under a first agreement with Nagra. We intend to achieve an overall catalog completeness of Mc 1. Accurate earthquake locations are essential for seismotectonic interpretations. Within this project we therefore aim to improve location accuracy, especially for focal depths, of past and future earthquakes in the region. Optimization of a large-scale microseismic monitoring network in northern Switzerland. Annual Report on Network Performance and Seismicity ETH Zurich. This is the first comprehensive surface-based geophysical investigation of Mars.
The overarching mission goals are to illuminate the fundamentals of formation and evolution of terrestrial Earth-like planets by investigating the interior structure and processes of Mars, and more specifically to determine the thickness, structure and composition of the crust, mantle and core, and to measure the rate and distribution of seismic activity and the rate of meteorite impacts.
The Mission should land in November and have a lifetime of about two Earth years. A set of 3-component broadband and short period seismometers collectively known as SEIS will be deployed beside the lander. Seismological investigations of Mars have so far been based on modeling and synthetic data; starting in , waveform data will be returned from Mars and the era of 'Seismology on Mars' will begin.
1. KEYNOTE ADDRESS AND INVITED PLENARY LECTURES – CONTENTS
This service will comprise automatic and reviewed event detection and characterization of local and teleseismic events, as well as meteor impacts. The goal of this service is to provide a comprehensive high-quality event catalogue for Mars that is critical to the SEIS project, in particular as input to the development of Martian crustal and deep structure models. We are adapting advanced single-seismometer analysis techniques developed on the Earth to provide locations for Martian seismicity.
The Engineering Seismology group is in charge of the site characterization of these 3 stations. Therefore, a literature review and geophysical experiments are performed in order to propose velocity models able to reproduce the ground motion observed at these stations. Since , the Swiss Seismological Service is renewing and expanding its strong motion network. During the first phase, a total of 30 new accelerometer stations have been installed between and , both replacing existing strong motion dial-up stations and installing new stations.
During the ongoing second phase, 70 more stations are planned to be installed by , including four borehole installations. The goals of the enlargement of the Swiss strong motion network are a better spatial coverage of earthquake-prone regions, a better understanding of site effects and thus the verification and improvement of hazard models. The epicentral areas of relevant past earthquakes have been instrumented in the first phase, namely Aigle , Glarus , Sarnen , Sion-Sierre , Yverdon , Visp , St.
In the second phase, additional epicentral areas of past earthquakes are targeted: Churwalden , Ardez , Ardon , Arbon , Kreuzlingen , and Moudon , among others. Further urban areas are instrumented as well, e. Another aspect of phase 2 is the densification of the network, especially in earthquake-prone areas such as the Valais. The site selection is always a trade-off between the scientific objectives and the level of vibration disturbances. Modern stations are sensitive enough to record also small earthquakes, but the signal-to-noise ratio may be too low due to traffic and industries.
At all sites, geophysical measurements are performed to characterize the site response. Recorded signals can then be interpreted, and sites classified according to the amplification at the site, which is basic information for improved site-specific seismic hazard studies. Michel C. Hobiger M. Daraus lassen sich mittels einer in diesem Projekt weiterentwickelten kalibrierten Methode die Ereignisparameter, wie Magnitude, Lokalisierung und Herdtiefe, ableiten.
Diese Ergebnisse werden zudem mit der Auswertung historischer Seismogramme abgeglichen. Die mittelstarken Erdbeben des Jahrhunderts sind von besonderer Relevanz. Earthquake can initiate subaquatic mass transport and sediment deformation structures, the deposits of which are stored in the sedimentary archive. Due to their good preservation potential and improving dating methods, these earthquake-related deposits in the sedimentary archive of lakes can extend the earthquake catalogue back to prehistorical times. The determination of frequency, epicentre and magnitude of these paleoearthquakes can be a key input for improving a probabilistic seismic hazard model, especially in areas such as Switzerland where strong earthquakes have long recurrence rates and might not be recorded in historic times.
In order to better interpret the prehistorical earthquake-related sedimentary record, it remains important to understand which historical earthquakes did trigger mass transport deposits and sediment deformation structures, and which earthquakes did not trigger secondary sedimentary effects in the lake basins.
The proposed project is aimed to improve our understanding of which earthquakes, or what kind of shaking, leave traces in the sediments, in order to evaluate the completeness of the sublacustrine paleoseismological record, using Lake Thun as example. The second aim of this project, directly linked to the first one, is to compare the paleoseismological record with the contemporary national seismic hazard model of Switzerland, updated in Thus, using the intensity ranges determined in the first part of this project and using the paleoseismic database of Switzerland a systematic analysis of frequencies, sources and magnitudes of possible paleoearthquakes will be compared to time series produced by the seismic hazard model of Switzerland.
The third phase of this project is split into 3 subtasks with the main goal to improve regional and local seismic hazard assessment in Switzerland; with particular focus to the sites of potential regions of nuclear repositories. These sub-projects are:. Subproject 1 aims to improve models and develop methods for the prediction of strong ground motion in Switzerland at the surface and at depth. Two main approaches are investigated: ground motion prediction equations GMPEs and stochastic simulation models.
Both approaches require calibration to the local seismicity and careful consideration of their extrapolation to large magnitude events which have, as yet, not been instrumentally recorded in Switzerland. In this context, we study the effect of source- and site-related parameters, as stress drop and kappa. Subproject 2 is focused on earthquake scenario modeling for Switzerland and exploration of the physical limits on ground motion.
Our modeling combines realistic rupture along irregular fault surfaces and wave propagation in complex heterogeneous media at high frequency, with focus on underground repositories. Moreover we investigate the plastic and non-linear behavior of soft sediments when subject to high-amplitude Mach waves, conducting CPT measurements to calibrate our numerical models. Subproject 3 focuses on numerical modeling the induced seismicity during tunnel excavation. Simulations will be performed using both thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled model and statistical model.
We will adapt existing models for induced earthquakes to the conditions typically met in deep geological repositories. Available geomechanical faulting models will be used during the validation and calibration stage. Finally, the results will be used as input for Subproject 1 and 2. Wiemer, D. Roten, B. Edwards, V. Poggi, C. Cauzzi, J. Burjanek, M. Spada, R. Grolimund, M. Gisler, G. Schwarz-Zanetti, P. Expertengruppe Starkbeben. Wiemer, B. Poggi, D. Roten, R. Spada, J. Spada, B. Schechinger, J. Expertengruppe Starkebeben. Schechinger , T. Tormann, J.
Earthquake Strong Motion Research. This group gathers the researchers with competences in site characterization in order to discuss and improve the work performed for different projects involving site characterization, especially for sites with new seismic stations. The available tools for processing, archiving and disseminating are shared within the group. The group is responsible for setting up and filling the SED database for site characterization.
A process of review has been established in order to validate the work done before it is made public. Site characterization, strong motion stations, broadband stations, site response, site effects, site amplification, field. Michel, C. Site amplification at the city scale in Basel Switzerland from geophysical site characterization and spectral modelling of recorded earthquakes.
Poggi, V. Seismic site-response characterization of high-velocity sites using advanced geophysical techniques: application to the NAGRA-Net. Assessment of site effects in Alpine regions through systematic site characterization of seismic stations. Empirical evidence of local seismic effects at sites with pronounced topography: a systematic approach. Within this project, new signal processing techniques for the analysis of ambient vibrations are developed. The focus is on the development of single-station methods and the adaptation of existing techniques to large arrays.
Single-station methods represent an extremely valuable tool. The use of a single station further simplifies the measurement procedure thus enabling a more time and cost effective survey. Assumptions on the wavefield used when processing small arrays may be no longer valid when analyzing large arrays. For this reason, we investigate adaptations of existing techniques to large arrays. Target applications of the methods developed within this project include microzonation studies in Switzerland and investigation of the characteristics of the Swiss Molasse Basin.
Recent discoveries include: Non-volcanic tremors NVT , strong heterogeneity of the relative stress distribution , temporal and along-fault variable aseismic creep, repeating earthquakes, slow slip events. In this project we link for the first time the statistical analysis of the size distribution of earthquakes with complementary observations of fault movement. This yields an improved understanding of the nature of fault loading cycles. Therefore, the results will provide key understanding to unravelling the predictability of earthquakes and has the potential to radically change the assessment of local seismic hazard for selected well-understood and well-monitored faults.
Non-volcanic tremors NVT , strong heterogeneity of the relative stress distribution, slow slip events. Quantifying time-varying seismicity rates is fundamentally important to protecting people who live in areas subject to extreme earthquake shaking. One primary difficulty with such assessment is determining how faults interact.
Some recent studies have noted the ability of passing earthquake waves to increase the 'triggerability' of a fault in a delayed form of dynamic stressing: after seismic waves pass, faults are more prone to fail in a subsequent earthquake. The deadly Canterbury earthquake sequence has characteristics that suggest it was promoted by such distant, delayed, dynamic triggering. The sequence is also compatible with a model in which low-strain rate areas are efficient at storing and transferring static stresses. This has implications for earthquake clustering and the generation of damaging ground motion.
We will apply recently-developed techniques in concert to address three questions: 1 Can we quantify distant and delayed triggering in this sequence? We will address this by correlating increased geodetic crustal velocities in Canterbury following the M7. We will apply source scanning and template matching techniques to search Canterbury for microseismicity that was triggered by the M7. We will build a comprehensive model of earthquake generation in low-strain rate areas by using an earthquake simulator to model the evolution of the sequence. The model developed in this project could provide a true step change and bring seismology closer to bridging the gap between probabilistic forecasting and deterministic modelling of earthquake hazard.
Our present knowledge about earthquakes does not yet allow us to reliably forecast earthquakes. Therefore, the study of precursors is an essential step in the direction of earthquake forecasting. Precursors can be anomalous seismic patterns or other phenomena such as peculiar animal behavior, or electromagnetic anomalies etc. We focus in our studies on seismic precursors, namely quiescence, which is expressed through reduced seismic activity, accelerated seismicity ASR and short term foreshocks.
The mentioned precursors are observed in many selected earthquake sequences in the past.
However, there is skepticism if these precursors happen systematically; some studies explain their occurrence rather as a random temporary perturbation of normal seismicity which is accidentally followed by a large earthquake. We believe that systematic investigations on the occurrence of precursors give essential evidence for or against their existence.
We chose to perform these investigations with statistical tools, hence by evaluating location, time and magnitudes of earthquakes from several regional earthquake catalogs of the world, to obtain representative precursor statistics. We find that small earthquakes, as they occur more frequently, could facilitate the detection of precursory patterns Mignan , We study statistical models used to describe earthquake occurrence and the impact of the choice of the lowest magnitude on them Seif et al, , submitted. Using these models we evaluate if foreshock occurrence differs from normal seismicity.
In the future remaining precursory patterns, quiescence and accelerated seismicity, will be investigated in the same way. We hope that the statistical analysis will allow us to better understand the physical processes which lead to the occurrence of precursors. The debate on the prognostic value of earthquake foreshocks: A meta-analysis. Seif, S.
Estimating ETAS: the effects of truncation, missing data, and model assumptions. Statistical seismology is the application of rigorous statistical methods to earthquake science with the goal of improving our knowledge of how the earth works. Within statistical seismology there is a strong emphasis on the analysis of seismicity data in order to improve our scientific understanding of earthquakes and to improve the evaluation and testing of earthquake forecasts, earthquake early warning, and seismic hazards assessments.
Given the societal importance of these applications, statistical seismology must be done well. Unfortunately, a lack of educational resources and available software tools make it difficult for students and new practitioners to learn about this discipline. The goal of the Community Online Resource for Statistical Seismicity Analysis CORSSA is to promote excellence in statistical seismology by providing the knowledge and resources necessary to understand and implement the best practices. Zechar, J.
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Seismological Research Letters. This subproject aims to improve source-scaling and attenuation models and to develop methods for the prediction of strong ground motion in Switzerland both at the surface as well as at depth. Both approaches require adaptions to the local seismicity and careful consideration of their calibration to Swiss conditions.
The complete understanding in terms of physical parameterization of such models is crucial in order to decouple different effects, which allow building robust predictive models that scale appropriately to large magnitude events. In this regard, variability in source parameter such as stress drop is crucial. Similarly, variability in site-related attenuation parameter kappa is also need to be well understood.
Fourier and duration models from Japanese data are now being developed that will allow the review of the Swiss model for large magnitudes in the different distance ranges and at various rock sites which have, as yet, not been instrumentally recorded in Switzerland. Moreover, we will use recordings of local seismicity in addition to numerical modeling results of related projects to calibrate the predictive models. The long-term goal is to develop an improved stochastic simulation model for Switzerland allowing existing uncertainties to be reduced.
Ground motion prediction equations, Fourier spectral models, stochastic ground motion models, ground motion duration models. Please log in or register to continue. Registration is free and requires only your email address. Email required.
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Reset Password Cancel. Get our weekly newsletter. By proceeding, you are agreeing to our Terms and Conditions. Dec 14, Michael Spence. LinkedIn Bookmark Email Print. Show More Contact Us. Multiple regressions assessed relations between child- and parent-rated child reactions, and parent reactions. Objective: To examine potential mutual influences between parent and child posttraumatic stress responses PTS over the 6 months following hospitalization for an acute injury.
Method: children years , and one parent per child, were enrolled within days of an acute injury.
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Child and parent self-report of PTS were obtained at baseline, 6 weeks, and 6 months post-injury. We evaluated the fit of models that included paths for stability child PTS from each time point to the next, and the same for parent PTS , cross-lagged influences parent PTS influencing child PTS at each subsequent time point, and vice versa and reciprocal influences between parent and child PTS within each time point. Discussion: There was little evidence for child symptoms driving parent symptoms, either concurrently or across time.
It appears that parent PTS symptoms that persist to 6 weeks may be one risk factor for continued child PTS at that time point. Colville Gillian; Cream, P. Posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression were assessed 5 months later by postal questionnaire. Results: Outcome data were obtained for parents. Whole group analyses revealed no significant differences in psychological outcome between control and intervention groups.
Discussion: These results do not justify routine provision of PICU follow-up clinic appointments for all parents. However, for parents who find the admission particularly traumatic, distress rates might be reduced by a simple intervention, which was feasible in a clinical setting.
Patricia Resick and colleagues report on the effect of dissociation on treatment CPT outcome for PTSD related to interpersonal or sexual violence, elucidating the effects of CPT on dissociative symptoms. Martin Bohus gives an overview on the current knowledge on neurobiology of emotion regulation and dissociation in CSA-related PTSD and its implications for treatment development. This presentation will review the results of a two module, sequential treatment in which the first module emphasizes present-focused skills training in affective and interpersonal regulation STAIR for day-to-day life difficulties and the second module incorporates past-focused work on the processing of the trauma, using a modified version of prolonged exposure, called Narrative Story Telling NST.
The treatment was specifically designed to treat high risk, multiply traumatized individuals with chronic PTSD and related affect regulation and interpersonal disturbances. It was also associated with reduced dropouts and symptoms exacerbation during the memory processing work when compared to the exposure alone condition. These data suggest potential patient-to-treatment strategies. Resick Patricia A. It is often questioned whether short evidence-based treatments for PTSD can work with people with complex presentations. Dissociative symptoms represent an example of a complex presentation.
This talk will focus on the presence and outcomes of dissociative symptoms in two randomized controlled trials for PTSD conducted by the author in which multiple measures of dissociation were collected. The other trial was a dismantling study of CPT into its constituent components with women who had experienced interpersonal violence at some point in their lives.
Both samples had extensive trauma histories. Dissociation was not an exclusion criterion in either trial. The treatments were not altered or lengthened to accommodate dissociative symptoms. None of these measures has been examined in prior presentations or publications. The presentation will first describe the level and type of dissociative symptoms in these samples. Next, the effect of treatment on these symptoms will be examined. Third, dissociative symptoms will be examined as predictors of treatment outcome. The presentation will conclude with recommendations for future research and clinical practice.
PTSD after childhood sexual abuse is often characterized by the typical features of PTSD plus dysfunctional affect regulation, dissociation, and altered perceptions of the self and others. Recent research began to elucidate the underpinning neurobiological mechanisms of these features and their implications on neural plasticity. Particularly with regard to dissociation, our work group could show that experimentally induced dissociation leads to amygdala deactivation and hippocampus hypoactivity.
Emotional learning during activated dissociative states is inhibited. This has strong clinical implications: In particular exposure based procedures have to provide additional therapeutic interventions to block dissociative features. The presentation gives an overview on the current state of the art knowledge on neurobiology of emotion regulation and dissociation in this group of patients and the deduced specific interventions.
Objectives: We modified standard dialectical behavior therapy DBT to meet the specific needs of adult patients experiencing severe and chronic PTSD related to childhood sexual abuse plus severe co-occuring psychopathology such as BPS or eating disorder. Patients were assessed prior to randomisation t1 , post treatment t2, 3 months post randomisation , at 6 weeks and 3 months post discharge t3, t4; 4. Schnyder Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A. Background: The currently available data on incidence and prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse CSA is far from robust due to the limitations of available samples and methodologies.
We conducted a nation-wide survey, using mutliple methods of collecting data. Methods: A school-based national representative sample of approximately 9' adolescents attending the 9th grade age was drawn using a latest list of all schools and classes provided by the Federal Bureau of Statistics. The sample was stratified according to the 7 great regions and all 26 cantons in Switzerland. A computer-based self-administered questionnaire using laptops was given in class, resulting in a total of 6' completed interviews.
We also conducted an internet based comprehensive survey of cases of CSA and other forms of maltreatment involving more than 1' agencies in Switzerland. Data were collected online, using a modified and translated version of the NIS-4 data form. Finally, 26 adolescent victims of CSA 23 girl, 3 boys underwent in-depth interviews, and data analyzed using qualitative content analysis.
Results: Results will be presented by the following three speakers. Conclusions: The results of the study will contribute to a better estimate of prevalence and annual incidence of CSA in Switzerland. Lessons learned will be discussed at the end of the symposium. Landolt Markus A. Background: Available data on incidence and prevalence of child sexual abuse CSA is far from robust due to the limitations of available samples and methodologies. This paper reports lifetime prevalence and annual incidence of CSA among adolescents ages years in Switzerland.
Methods: A school-based national representative sample of 6' adolescents attending the 9 th grade was assessed. Contact and non-contact CSA was assessed by the respective items of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and additional self-developed questions. A computer-based self-administrative questionnaire using laptops was conducted in class. Results: Lifetime prevalence of any kind of contact and non-contact CSA was Past year incidence rates were Contact CSA was reported by German speaking parts of Switzerland showed the highest rates of CSA.
Measures to improve prevention are urgently needed. In addition to epidemiological surveys, there is a need to assess the number of cases of CSA disclosed to agencies. We report findings from a nationwide agency survey assessing the annual incidence of disclosed cases of CSA. Methods: We conducted an internet based comprehensive survey on cases of CSA and other forms of maltreatment involving more than agencies in all 26 cantons of Switzerland.
Agencies were classified into three categories: 1 tutelary civil child protection agencies, 2 penal authorities, 3 voluntary services of child protection. Data was collected online, using a modified and translated version of the NIS-4 data form. Results: A total of cases of child abuse were reported during the 6-months collection period whereof were classified as sexual.
Data about the nature and severity of maltreatment, characteristics of the children involved, perpetrators, families, and interventions initiated by the agencies will be presented. Conclusions: The results of the study contribute to a better understanding of how, when and by whom cases of CSA are disclosed. Background: Victims of child sexual abuse CSA often disclose the abuse with a considerable delay. They seem to particularly be concerned to inform their parents about the abuse. We did a qualitative in-depth study on disclosure patterns by adolescent victims of CSA in Switzerland.
Methods: Twenty-six adolescent victims of CSA 23 girls, 3 boys were interviewed. In addition to standardised measures on mental health and sexual abuse experiences, qualitative open questions on the disclosure process were applied. A qualitative content analysis according to Mayring was performed.
Recipients of both immediate and delayed disclosure were in most cases peers. Main motives for non-disclosure towards parents were lack of trust or not wanting to burden parents. Conclusions: Our results confirm previous findings that delayed or non-disclosure of CSA to parents is common.
Instead, friends are regarded as more reliable confidants. Since parents, compared to peers, have in most cases more competence to disrupt CSA, the facilication of disclosure to parents should be given specific attention in prevention programmes. The basic human rights of asylum seekers have often been violated before the arrival in Denmark and they continue to be challenged to a certain extend while the asylum case is being tried.
Hence, means and ways ahead for professional intervention are heavily influenced by various practical, financial, and legal restrictions in the asylum phase. These challenges bring the underlying platform of Human Rights to the foreground and firmly place our professional responsibility within this greater context. In line with the Declaration of Human Rights, it is our obligation to ensure a safe, meaningful, and dignified wait at the asylum centers. The assessment and treatment of trauma are part of a general resilience promoting effort with an overall aim to ensure elements of basic human rights.
By illustrating our experience through presentations on psychological screening, psycho-education, and resilience-promoting living conditions, we wish to shed light on some challenges and possibilities concerning human rights and psychotraumatology when working with asylum seekers. The services implied by this legal framework might be argued to somewhat conflict with the liminal status of the asylum seeker, accentuating the tension field between universal human rights and national legal rights that professionals working within the asylum system need to navigate.
With this in mind, the Danish Red Cross initiated a new practice of psychological screenings of all arriving children in the beginning of The purpose was to assess and identify those children who have either developed psychological difficulties or are at risk of doing so. A research study on the psychological screenings resulted in a publication Shapiro et al.
The problems are often associated with human rights violations such as violence, torture, and other life threatening events which many times have resulted in severe traumatic stress — either directly or, more often, secondary through a parent. The screenings therefore enable earlier coordinated psychosocial attention, e. In the Danish asylum system, we intervene with psycho-educational group sessions that aim at re-establishing basic human rights such as increased agency and resilience.
The methods used are varied traditional teaching, workshops, and joyful play , acknowledging the complexity of difficulties experienced as a result of prior traumatic experiences, disempowerment, living in exile, not being able to plan for the future etc. There is a strong interpersonal focus on feeling safe within the group-setting which challenges many traumatized individuals since interpersonal trauma in many cultures is considered taboo, leaving the individual alone with the memories, thoughts, and feelings.
By offering this type of intervention we want to facilitate new perspectives on symptoms and reactions and enable the participants to gain new and more helpful coping strategies. With children and parents, the intervention aims i. In this way a psycho-educational intervention supports the asylum seekers in their current life situations, and by improving resilience it equips them to meet future challenges.
One of the most vulnerable groups in the Danish asylum system consists of families who are not deemed eligible for asylum, but at the same time, cannot return to their country of origin. Such families are faced with great uncertainty, living in the asylum system for up to years, without benefitting from the general rights that apply to Danish citizens. Viewed from one perspective this might be considered an obstacle to the re-establishment of their human rights. This situation calls for increased professional awareness as it is difficult to discriminate symptoms of traumatic stress and symptoms stemming from pro-longed stay at asylum centers.
As the Danish State in let 16 such families move out of the asylum centers, the Danish Red Cross was determined to document the effect of this change of environment and agency. A qualitative study was made, investigating the experienced difference between living in an asylum center versus living in the community. In this way, the study allows for a heightened awareness of factors that might promote resilience versus maintenance in relation to traumatic stress. In the aftermath of a traumatic event children or adolescents do not necessarily experience negative psychological consequences.
Whether they develop trauma-specific symptoms is related to risk and protective factors associated with 1 the traumatic event, 2 the child and 3 it's environment. The presentations in this symposium will examine the roles of several risk and protective factors in children, adolescents and parents who were confronted with a single non-interpersonal trauma.
This presentation aims to describe the risk factors for the development of posttraumatic stress reactions PTSR in children involved in a technological disaster which took place in the industrial zoning of Ghislenghien Belgium on July 30th The children in the area surrounding the disaster, involved in various degrees, were assessed at four months T1 and at fourteen months T2. The results indicate that several risk factors were related to the severity of PTSR: 1 type of exposure to the disaster; 2 peritraumatic dissociation during or immediately after the disaster, i. It is widely acknowledged that, compared to boys, girls are more at risk of developing PTSD or other trauma-specific symptoms when they are confronted with a traumatic event.
Research shows that the development and severity of trauma-symptoms is closely connected with a number of risk and protective factors such as characteristics of the traumatic event e. Only a few studies investigated whether these influencing factors function differentially in the development of trauma symptoms in boys and girls. As road traffic accidents RTA are internationally considered as one of the most common traumatic experiences for adolescents, this study investigated two samples of young traffic victims.
Results will show whether gender moderates the relation of risk and protective factors with trauma symptoms. Insight in these gender differences can offer new opportunities for the prevention of long term psychological problems. Adolescents who experienced a traffic accident with injury run serious risks to develop posttraumatic stress reactions. Research on the psychological consequences for young traffic victims is intrinsically connected with the study of influencing factors, such as the protective role of familial support.
Children have a higher risk to develop posttraumatic symptoms if one of the parents as well exhibit stress symptoms caused by the accident. Most studies focussed on the role of the mother while research showed that stress symptoms of the father also predicted stress symptoms in the child. In addition, parents are not always capable to correctly assess the problems of their child.
This entails the risk that parents underestimate the emotional repercussions of the accident on the child and that they therefore would give less efficient support. Results of this study will be discussed. Parenting behaviours are known to affect the development trajectories of children.
Positive parenting styles are related to positive child outcomes, while negative parenting styles are associated with increased risk for both internalizing and externalizing problems. Only a few studies focused on the relation of parenting behaviours to the development of traumatic symptoms. These studies identified hostile, coercive or controlling parenting styles as a predictor of PTSD.
However, most studies focused on type II trauma and little is known about the role of parenting styles in the processing of a single event trauma. In a sample of 80 traffic victims years who consulted an emergency department after a road traffic accident the roles of different parenting styles responsiveness, behavioural control, psychological control and autonomy support on trauma symptoms and perceived social support by the victim after the accident were investigated.
The results of this study will be discussed in this presentation. The fact that patients seldom spontaneously disclose traumatic experiences necessitates that clinicians ask patients about potential traumatic events and trauma-related symptoms. The Trauma Psychology Research Group, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen has initiated a screening project and collected data about the psychological effects of trauma in exposed groups of civilians.
Assessing five types of childhood maltreatment, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire CTQ , help mental health professionals identify persons who are at risk for trauma-related symptoms. Some of the results from the screening project are presented by the four speakers in this symposium. Dalsboe Savita A. Endorsement of one or more of these items may be regarded a minimization tendency if the total CTQ score indicates presence of childhood trauma.
CTQ is a widely used instrument, but very few authors have reported findings related to this validation score. The results indicate strong dose-response associations between experiences of complex childhood trauma and clinically significant levels of current symptoms of posttraumatic stress and general psychological distress. The family and the peer group are the two main sources of social and psychological support for young persons.
What are the effects of abandonment from the parents through intrafamilial abuse and neglect and abandonment from the peer group through bullying on later psychological symptoms? The study examined these effects on later posttraumatic psychological symptoms. Analyses indicate interesting patterns in the different subsamples regarding the associations between family and peer abandonment on later psychological health. Childhood trauma may have significant associations with the development of attachment styles which are important in coping with trauma in adult life.
This symposium addresses methods to respond to the needs of survivors of torture and other human rights violations. Two presentations report on the consecutive transnational research projects of six European institutions providing healthcare and support to this target group. These studies were directed towards the development of norms for, and the promotion and dissemination of best practice.
Another presentation addresses the evaluation of a prevention program for female victims of human trafficking. The last presenter reports on the findings of a study on torture-related somatization and discusses relevant treatment strategies. Rehabilitation centers working with victims of torture and human rights violations have to work in the space between the fields of health and human rights, and their work is often influenced by highly controversial debates in society and politics. The work is highly demanding: professionals run the risk of burnout or vicarious traumatisation, and often work under social and moral pressure.
Five European institutions providing healthcare and support to survivors of torture have cooperated in a transnational project directed specifically towards the development of norms for best practice. An essential element of the project was the use of self-evaluation as an internal method by which the organizations used team days to critically evaluate their own work within four core domains of their activities. Feedback was elicited through sharing the outcomes with the project partners as well as with external evaluators, using systematic outcome mapping during the evaluation process.
This participatory evaluation process brought forth key issues such as: the need for a linkage of treatment and advocacy; the tensions between professional neutrality and the political context; the balance between precariousness and resilience; and the capacity for change that makes systems resilient. This presentation will address the working methods as well as the project's outcomes and recommendations.
In most European countries there are specialised organisations in place to address the needs of victims of human rights violations and human trafficking. Although there is extensive relevant expertise, those in the field have noticed that the expertise is not adequately transfered and disseminated among the health professionals. This current project aims to identify working and treatment methods employed across six European organisations.
Data suggests there are a wide range of methods used in responding to the needs of this client group, with a large degree of overlap across organisations. Participating organisations have been emphasising different aspects of treatment and their different ways of working, reflecting the varying ethos, remit and political climate. The project is additionally trying to find indicators for qualities which are agreed to be essential for the centers work such as empowerment, diversity, the capacity for conflict and the ability to work within a controversial context.
The psychological consequences of human trafficking and subsequent forced prostitution are profound and far reaching. A group program has been established within the Amsterdam Coordination Point for Victims of Human Trafficking to prevent deterioration in mental health following a trafficked situation. The research presented here evaluated the effectiveness of this group in preventing deterioration of symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and hostility as well as preventing a decline in self esteem and assertiveness.
Women were interviewed when they first came to the centre and after they had attended the group on four occasions. The study took the form of a repeated measures design where 44 women completed the first interview and 27 of those completed a second interview also. Participants did not report an increase in symptoms over the course of the group. Some symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety and hostility decreased.
Symptoms of disturbed sleep remained the same pre and post group but did not increase. Participants found it difficult to implement symptom management techniques outside the group. Background: Torture is the most serious human right violation. Refugees who have been tortured usually show a mix of psychological and somatic complaints. In order to find out whether there is a difference between psychological and somatic symptoms in patients who were submitted to torture and those who were not, the amount of somatization and the connection with torture was analysed.
Methods: A clinical population of tortured and non-tortured refugees in care at Foundation Centrum '45 was studied with questionnaires and by means of file research. These tortured refugees presented many somatic complaints next to their psychopathology: headache and backache are among the most common complaints. However, in non-tortured refugees scores on somatic complaints were not lower. Conclusions: There appears to be a high amount of somatic complaints in both tortured and non-tortured refugee patients with PTSD. This calls for new treatment strategies where there is more attention for somatic complaints.
Further research should prove whether a specialised treatment with attention to function loss in somatic sense combined with psychological treatment has a greater effect on improvement in symptoms than psychological treatment only. Treatment of traumatized refugee children and families includes confrontations with human right violations in the country of origin as well as in the country of arrival. Becoming a witness places the therapist into a delicate choice: to opt for silence or to signal incidents and trends that are in the domain of public concern.
What is the position of the therapist when encountering traumatic experiences that belong to the domain of human rights and social justice? Do the professional and social responsibilities of the therapist come into collusion? When does the mental health professional need to go beyond a clinical role and become engaged outside his or her own institutional framework in signaling public concerns?
Mental health professionals have ethical codes to deal with family violence; do we also need codes to deal with political violence? Victor Kouratovsky PhD, clinical psychologist and child and adolescent psychologist works at Riagg Rijnmond Rotterdam, an outpatient mental health clinic. All over the world mass rape and forced impregnation increasingly has been used as a weapon of war. Reports of tens of thousands rapes as part of a systematic policy of ethnic cleansing in the former Yugoslavia stirred the international community to discuss rape as war crime or genocide. According to a report from the WCIP, tens of thousands of infants have been born of wartime rape or sexual exploitation in the last fifteen year alone.
Despite the increased legal attention for the suffering of these women, almost no attention was paid to the fate of these children. In this presentation it is argued that the silence surrounding children born of war in legal discourse resonates within clinical discourse. There are multiple ways in which these children are harmed: as victims of war crimes, of infanticide, of neglect, abuse or poor parenting, and of discrimination and stigmatization.
Despite their mental health needs children born of war fall through the cracks. Combining knowledge from research and clinical practice four key issues are formulated in this presentation; war born children as secondary rape victims, victims of multiple perpetrators, identity issues and competing interests. This presentation hopes to contribute to a discussion of the integration of respect for the needs and rights of rape survivors with those of their children in the aftermath of armed conflict.
Human right violations in country of origin, PTSS, unaccompanied minors: In conflict areas suicide bombers are a growing problem for the local population. Young boys are contracted against their will to be trained. Some of them succeed to liberate themselves and seek refuge in Western countries often with feelings of worry about their families in their home countries.
Mental health professionals are confronted with the aftermath of their experiences: posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depressed mood. They take notice of the fear of these youngsters of being returned against their will and await repercussion. Last year we saw a growing number of these cases and asked ourselves if we could restrict ourselves only to the psychological problems.
Is it not our duty to ask for public attention for these human right violations? How can we help to give a voice to our clients, instead of silencing them? How far can we stretch our therapeutic boundaries and how can confidentiality be guaranteed? This presentation hopes to clarify these issues and discuss with the audience a policy in which good care can be combined with a constructive answer on these human right violations. Witnessing political violence that led to extreme violations of human rights of traumatized children and families and yet remain insufficiently known in the public domain can raise ethical dilemma's and questions of social responsibility in the therapist.
In which way does the therapist assume a witnessing position? How should the therapist act? How to reconcile confidentiality and concerns for the safety of the client with concerns that have broader social ramifications? How can a therapist avoid the pitfalls of a medicalization vs. The therapist has a range of options, from a testimony method to the signaling of the human rights violations, to bring facts or memories outside the institutional framework in which the therapeutic intervention takes place.
Therapy will be discussed as a balancing act between personal and socio-political domains, between private and public, between traumatic experiences and empowerment.
In the Netherlands, when medical treatment is needed an exception is made for refugees denied of permanent stay: they are allowed to stay and awarded accommodations for the time needed for therapy. In the case of children and adolescents, special difficulties and dilemma's arise.
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These difficulties will be illustrated with three clinical case vignettes: 1 A 5-year old girl with seizures since witnessing the violent gang rape of her mother, 2 A young man traumatized as a boy waiting for his 18th birthday, and 3 A year old girl who is stateless. The vignettes illustrate that biopsychosocial development is context dependent. Trauma therapy with children and adolescents means repairing and furthering the development that is arrested, stunted, or otherwise impaired by trauma. It involves first and foremost a sense of basic security and stability on which a sense of agency can prosper, skills can be acquired as well as a motivation to become valuable to society.
The vignettes also help to illustrate the validity of recent insights about the working of human memory and trauma. Memory is triggered and formed by current context and circumstances that can keep trauma and feelings of being unprotected, unwanted, helpless and having no future, very much alive. These considerations lead to a call for special attention for the rights of children as part of basic human rights.
There is significant interest in implementing evidence-based trauma interventions in front-line community service agencies and NGOs. Numerous ongoing projects are implementing TF-CBT worldwide, primarily due to the strong empirical support for its efficacy with traumatized children. These projects are working with diverse populations and service delivery systems in high and low resource countries using several approaches to dissemination, training, implementation, and sustained use.
This symposium will report data and experiences from three projects implementing TF-CBT in community service systems which are being conducted in Norway, sub-Saharan Africa, and the US. TF-CBT has been implemented in Zambia in both rural and urban areas meeting the challenges presented by low resource nations. In Norway, TF-CBT is being implemented in community clinics where therapists must have competency in all youth mental health problems, not only trauma.
These projects have encountered and overcome specific cultural and service system delivery barriers at the individual, organization, and community levels to transporting, implementing and sustaining the use of TF-CBT. Presenters will discuss these barriers and the approaches taken to manage them. Similarities and differences in the obstacles identified across diverse projects, the solutions found, and emerging themes will be discussed. Related qualitative and quantitative data will be reported. Evidence supported interventions for trauma-related problems have been developed and tested.
However, how best to deploy these interventions to front-line community service organizations and insure they are used is still an open question for the growing field of implementation science.
Related Tsunamis - Gefahren, Geschichte, Gegenmaßnahmen (German Edition)
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