Mythical Surrender I


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It is striking that many north eastern plays not only of today but also of the past write almost obsessively about the invasion of identities in the name of nation building. Indubitably, the performance manages to send the message to the centre that something is rotten in the state of India. Awasthi, Suresh Schechner, Richard. Brecher, Michael. Nehru: A Political Biography.

London: OUP, Mcluhan, Marshall. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. Mee, Erin B. New York: Seagull, Reynolds, Bryan. London: Palgrave, Schechner, Richard.

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Performance Theory. New York: Routledge, Oh, why may we not join hand to hand, or ever converse straightforwardly? In summary, Aeneas is not allowed to encounter his goddess-mother face to face, nor join his hands with hers, as any son would like. He is permitted to recognize her only in the moment of her departure, when she turns her back on him, which is the precise moment that she reveals her divine splendour. We observe something analogous in the encounter of Moses with Yahweh on Mount Sinai. God has already given Moses the order to depart to the Promised Land. Moses must climb the mountain with the new engraved tables, and before doing so he says to Yahweh: " Remember, too, that this nation is your own people.

And God answers him: "I myself will go with you, and give you rest.

By what means can it be known that I, I and my people, have won your favour, if not by your going with us? By this we shall be marked out, I and my people, from all the peoples on the face of the earth. Thus, he says, "Show me your glory, I beg you". And God replies: "I will let all my splendour pass in front of you, and I will pronounce before you the name Yahweh.

I have compassion on whom I will, and I show pity to whom I please.

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You cannot see my face You must stand on the rock, and when my glory passes, I will put you in a cleft of the rock and shield you with my hand while I pass by. Then I will take my hand away and you shall see the back of me underlined by this author ; but my face is not to be seen. This biblical scene was often commented on by the Fathers of the Church, in particular by Saint Agustin [ 3 ]. According to him, the image of God -essentially an invisible being — is possible only at God's whim, who manifests himself to whomever He wishes, however He pleases, and under the appearance He wants, even while "His nature remains invisible".

Moses, by contrast, being a good pious man of his time, as a good son, wanted to see his father God in natura propria as He really was. Saint Agustin concludes his comments saying: "No living being can see Him in this life such as He is.

Many have seen what the divine will has decided to show, but not what human nature desired. The case of Jesus' encounter with the disciples in Emmaus also represents an analogy to above narratives. The text is as follows: "That very day, two of them were on their way to a village called Emmaus, seven miles from Jerusalem, and they were talking together about all that had happened Passion and Death of Jesus Christ.

Now as they talked this over, Jesus himself came up and walked by their side, but something prevented them from recognizing him underlined by this author. He said to them, 'What matters are you discussing as you walk along? Then one of them, called Cleopas, answered him, 'You must be the only person staying in Jerusalem who does not know the things that have been happening there these last few days'.

They walk with Him the whole way without recognizing Him, while the Master explains to them the meaning of the Scriptures and how all these events had been already foretold by the prophets, "beginning with Moses". At nightfall the Emmaus disciples ask the outsider to stay with them. They did not recognize Him either at the beginning of the supper, but when " He took the bread and said the blessing; and He broke it and handed it to them.

Nevertheless, the text proceeds, immediately afterwards, " The eye-opening and recognition of the object is perfectly synchronized with its final fading away, to such extent that it is not clear if it is actually the object that disappears, or if it is the subject which, when becoming aware of the divine presence, dissipates, so to speak, the figurative representation, and retains only that superior reality, which remains beyond his grasp. The total simultaneity of the two sensations appears psychologically incompatible.

There is a fleeting instant when the creature understands; and that is the same instant when the figure disappears. The Emmaus disciples should have recognized Jesus during the long road they travelled together, through his clarifying words, which could have come only from the One who had been the very victim of the phenomena that so concerned them; but there the Lord was too close: it was an encounter face to face, and they can recognize them only in the moment when He withdraws, when He vanishes from their sight. They themselves became aware of this strange failure to recognize him when, at the moment the presence of Jesus vanishes, " Once Jesus has disappeared, there comes for the Emmaus disciples the sacramental effect by which they get the courage to go to Jerusalem, and there they bear witness to having seen Jesus.

And the text proceeds: " The Lord has risen and has appeared to Simon. Thus, God appears in a privileged moment saved by the scriptures from being forgotten. Once it is transformed in narrative it takes on the characteristics of a revelation, and thus, the theophany acquires a literary dimension. The initiative is now in the hands of the creature, who by means of a movement to approach the divinity re-establishes contact between man and that God proclaimed by the discourse and favourably disposed to those who seek Him; and Christianity offers the peculiarity that the discourse, the logos itself, becomes flesh, that is to say, it is unified and incarnated in the person of Christ.

The normal road will then be meditation and prayer, and the hope of ever achieving a direct encounter, face to face with divinity, will have to be forsaken.

Thirty Myths About Lee's Surrender

An extreme example of the impossibility of a face to face encounter with God is what happens to Paul of Tars, persecutor of Christians, on the road to Damascus. Let us remember narrative from the Acts of the Apostles: "Meanwhile Saul was still breathing threats to slaughter the Lord's disciples. He had gone to the high priest and asked for letters addressed to the synagogues in Damascus that would authorise him to arrest and take to Jerusalem any followers of the Way, men or women that he could find.

Suddenly, as he was travelling to Damascus and just before he reached the city, there came a light from heaven all around him. He fell to the ground, and then he heard a voice saying, 'Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me? Get up now and go into the city, and you will be told what you have to do. The men travelling with Saul stood there speechless, for though they heard the voice they could see no one.

Saul got up from the ground, but even with his eyes wide open he could see nothing at all, and they had to lead him into Damascus by the hand. For three days he was without his sight, and he took neither food nor drink. The divine presence, its light, blinds Saul and throws him from his horse to the ground. It is not, obviously, a light directed at the senses, but, as Tellenbach says, an atmospheric emanation from the absolutely other, from the divine You, You whose presence, whose nearness, we would add, is unbearable.

The great German-speaking poet, Rainer Maria Rilke [ 5 ], describes this same irresistible proximity of divinity when in the first stanza of the First Duino Elegy he says, referring to the angels:. And with this same phrase with which he finishes the first stanza of the first elegy begins the second: "Every angel's terrifying". This means that the divine, the transcending, is unbearable in its, at least visual, proximity.

The reaction to the sound emanating from the divine force is different. So it is that Paul of Tars, on his way to Damascus, is able to listen to the voice of God and answer Him, without being destroyed. On the other hand, his vision blinds him, and this inability to see, as we can read in The Acts of the Apostles, lasted several days. Years later, transformed into an apostle and one of the major promoters of the new religion, Saint Paul writes an Epistle to the Corinthians, famous because he develops in it the theme of love as caritas and where, at one point, he declares: "Now we are seeing a dim reflection in a mirror "in enigma, says another translation ; but then we shall be seeing face to face.

The knowledge I have now is imperfect; but then I shall know as fully as I am known. The apostle puts into words the thesis we have been developing since the beginning of this essay, that is, that in this world the knowledge of God the greatest and deepest of truths can be given in only a veiled, indirect way, with the back turned, as occurs to Aeneas with his god-mother Venus, "in enigma", as the epistle says.

The direct knowledge of God will be possible only in the next life, where we will be able to see God such as He is "then I shall know as fully as I am known". The philosopher and mystic Plotinus often speaks of "visions" and this seems to contradict the findings we have pointed out. Nevertheless, it is necessary to keep in mind that Plotinus did not believe in a personal god.

His divinity was rather nearer to Plato's idea of Beauty than to the god of the monotheistic religions.

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In Enneads IV, 8, describing the highest level of mystical experience, Plotinus [ 8 ] said that he sees a "marvelous beauty", which he experiences as a divinity. Nevertheless, the idea of domestic betrayal resonated among its audience, and its claims would provide some basis for public support for the emerging National Socialist Party , under an autocratic and chauvinistic form of nationalism. Anti-Jewish sentiment was intensified by the Bavarian Soviet Republic , a Communist government which ruled the city of Munich for two weeks before being crushed by the Freikorps militia.

Many of the Bavarian Soviet Republic's leaders were Jewish, allowing anti-Jewish propagandists to connect Jews with Communism and thus treason. Richard M. Hunt argues in his article that the myth was an irrational belief which commanded the force of irrefutable emotional convictions for millions of Germans. He suggests that behind these myths was a sense of communal shame, not for causing the war, but for losing it.

Hunt argues that it was not the guilt of wickedness, but the shame of weakness that seized Germany's national psychology , and "served as a solvent of the Weimar democracy and also as an ideological cement of Hitler's dictatorship". The Allied policy of unconditional surrender was devised in in part to avoid a repetition of the stab-in-the-back theme.

According to historian John Wheeler-Bennett , speaking from the British perspective,. Parallel interpretations of national trauma after military defeat appear in other countries. See also Vietnam Syndrome. A similar mythology was the Lost Cause of the Confederacy nostalgia after the American Civil War, which tried to erase the South's addiction to slavery from history, and paint the war as "Northern Aggression". The "lost cause" continued to resurface well into the Civil Rights conflicts in the s. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the American crime film, see November Criminals film. Part of Jewish history Part of Discrimination. History of antisemitism Timeline Reference.

FBOs: tackling media myths around passport surrender | Football Supporters' Federation

Antisemitic canards. Antisemitic publications.


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Antisemitism on the Web. Boycotts Expulsions General Order No. Helmreich noted that: " Der staatsfeindliche Zionismus , published in , was Rosenberg's major contribution to the National Socialist position on Zionism. It represented in part an elaboration on ideas already expressed in articles in the Volkischer Beobachter and in other published works, notably Die Spur.

The title provides the gist of a thesis that Rosenberg sought to convey to his readers: 'The Zionist organization in Germany is nothing more than an organization that pursues a legalized undermining of the German state. He went on to assert that the interests of Zionism were first and foremost those of world Jewry, and by implication the international Jewish conspiracy. In other words, he suggested that they generated violence and war among the gentiles in order to secure their own, exclusively Jewish, interests. In fact, the title of one of those works, Der Staatsfeindliche Zionismus "Zionism, the Enemy of the State" , published in , conveys the gist of Rosenberg's approach to the question, an approach that Hitler had been taking in some of his speeches since Rosenberg writes: 'The Zionist Organization in Germany is nothing more than an Organization that perpetrates the legal subversion of the German state.

The Weimar Republic.

Stab-in-the-back myth

New York: Routledge. Cambridge: Cambridge Military Histories. New York: Penguin. Spring Virginia Quarterly Review. New York: Cambridge University Press. Barth says Doehring was an army chaplain, not a court chaplain.


  1. Ralph Ellisons Invisible Man: A Reference Guide (Greenwood Guides to Multicultural Literature).
  2. ILSA #19 (Italian Edition);
  3. The Emperor — Volume 09;
  4. Stab-in-the-back myth - Wikipedia?
  5. To the underworld and back, surrender, trust and the myth of Inanna;

The Dark Valley: A Panorama of the s.

Mythical Surrender I Mythical Surrender I
Mythical Surrender I Mythical Surrender I
Mythical Surrender I Mythical Surrender I
Mythical Surrender I Mythical Surrender I
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