Dorcas no fue resucitada por su propio bien. Llamando a los santos y a las viudas : Hechos y 41 mencionan los santos en Lida y Jope. Cuando la biblia llama santos a los cristianos, la idea no es de un pueblo superperfecto; la idea es de un pueblo que es diferente. Santos son apartados del mundo en general; son distintivo. Since the text and audio content provided by BLB represent a range of evangelical traditions, all of the ideas and principles conveyed in the resource materials are not necessarily affirmed, in total, by this ministry.
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Filología Neotestamentaria (22 vols.)
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¿Qué es lo que se restringe y quién lo está restringiendo en 2 Tesalonicenses 2: 7?
Let's Connect x. Subscribe to our Newsletter. Daily Devotionals x. Daily Bible Reading Plans x. Recently Popular Pages x. Recently Popular Media x. Saulo en el camino a Damasco. Hechos Dios tuvo un encuentro con Pablo en el camino a Damasco. Hechos Saulo predica con poder en Damasco. Hechos El escape de Saulo de Damasco. Hechos Pedro sana a Eneas en Lida.
We will briefly establish a link between material culture that is, the actual texts and tools available for interpretation and the reading of Scripture in Hebrews. This is done within a theoretical standpoint developed in dialogue with the work of sociologists and cultural theorists such as Peter Berger, Peter Burke, Mikhail Bakhtin and Pierre Bourdieu.
After a brief overview of recent interpretations of apocalypses as mystical texts, the paper investigates literary features of Revelation 1 that point towards the mystical nature of the Christophany and that projects an extraordinary, exalted nature of the Christophany in Revelation 1. The second part explains the Christophany in terms of recent apocalyptic research on apocalyptic texts as the mystical revelation of hidden knowledge, focussing on the glory of the Son of Man.
The paper concludes with an explanation of the function of this mystical picture of Christ in the letter's communication situation and the way in which a mystical Christology illuminates the relationship of believers with the divine. In how far do such hymns or metrical versions of the Psalm enrich the understanding of the Psalm? And where do they show loss of meaning that future writers of hymns based on Psalm may seek to overcome?
Plantinga, Thomas R. Thompson, and Matthew D. In these instances, specific areas of the Anatolian environment became places for attention and reflection—such as groves, vineyards, rivers, the under waters, the steppes and cities as well—of which different stories were narrated, and where important acts of the gods were believed to have occurred. In this regard, special consideration will be given to the myth of?
For CTH in particular, a comparative approach to the Anatolian texts will be developed, together with the study of grammatical features in the texts—e. All in all, the objective of the present study is to bring light to how the Hittites incorporated symbolic images of their landscape into their narratives. For Latin American Biblical hermeneutics, the fundamental identity of meaning is more important than the analogy between situations.
Thus, the "apologetic" approach, which uses the concept of inspiration to prove that Holy Scripture comes from God, has long proven to be inadequate and insufficient. For the Latin American reading, that the Bible is the "Word of God" is an assumption: the problem is not "if" Scripture is the "Word of God," but "how" it is so. The issues raised by the search for identity of sense refer to how and why texts of human authors are received and assumed as Word "of God. How does each text intend to convince and persuade the reader, and what praxis does it intend to lead? How and why is a text, written to another people, another culture, other historical and social circumstances, assumed to be valid for us?
How and why do we see ourselves in the biblical text? Is the biblical text the only inspired text or are there others? What makes the biblical text unique? Several texts of Mark's Gospel provide good case studies to demonstrate what it means to read the biblical text with a new concept of "inspiration. In the GLAE And in her words, we find not only the explanation of this injury, but also the unique meaning of this attack.
The basis of theological conceptions that legitimates of violence against native American people, African and Afrodescendents. In search of a intercultural and liberating rereading of monotheism. I will present the different interpretations suggested by medieval commentators and by modern scholars and dictionaries, and I shall try to show which one of the medieval interpretations is the most appropriate in light of modern Biblical Hebrew philology. Medieval Jewish commentators suggested two different interpretations of the word mehuspas: "rounded" and "uncovered".
Both suggestions have received support also in modern Biblical Hebrew philology. Thus, for example, the interpretation "rounded", which was suggested by R. Saadya Gaon, R. Yonah ibn Janach, and R. David Qimchi, has been supported by the Ben-Yehuda Dictionary. The interpretation "uncovered", suggested by Rashi his first interpretation , Menachem ben Saruq and Nachmanides, as based on the translation of Onqelos, is supported by the modern BDB dictionary. Two medieval commentators, Rashbam and Ibn Janach in one of the three interpretations which he suggested , rightly interpreted the word man in the phrase man—hu' as an interrogatory particle.
This is also the commonly accepted interpretation in modern Biblical Hebrew philology. Admittedly, medieval commentators had no access to the ancient Semitic languages Akkadian, Canaanite, and Ugaritic which are available to today's scholars and through which this interpretation is considerably strengthened. They therefore relied on support from other languages Egyptian and Aramaic. Nevertheless, their lack of knowledge of the former languages did not prevent them from ultimately arriving at the right interpretation.
ISBL in Buenos Aires provides an ideal venue for a fresh discussion of the topic in light of this scholarship and in view of new evidence, approaches, and methodologies. I propose proposes a deeper look at those issues because Euclides da Cunha tells exactly the opposite about them and Canudos - and more importantly, he had, in his own possession, the second of two books known to be written by the Conselheiro. Her role and even her cunnings had been discussed by Church fathers and Rabbis.
As there seems to be no discussion about her negative character in the Bible, different hermeneutic methods present a diverse image of her. As to Gottfried of Admont 12th century , abbot in the monastery of Admont, Austria, the sensus allegoricus and moralis allows to apply a different concept of Dalila. Other amazing concepts of Dalila can be found in profane German Literature, presenting a Dalila that arouses sympathy and understanding as shown in the short-novel-like story in the chronicle of Jans Enikel or Jans of Wien in the 13th century.
The paper will explore different conceptions of Dalila by presenting reflections of this discussion in bible illustrations. Both of these texts employ the figure of Moses to convey a message relevant to the contemporary context. Scholarly discussion on the composition and inter-relationship of these two documents has ranged from the fruits of source criticism to arguing for the primacy of one document over the other.
More recent scholarship, however, has posited the interdependence of the two in a climate of both oral and textual composition. With its emphasis on reading texts as resulting from oral-aural events, performance criticism has emerged in recent decades as a tool to examine Second Temple era texts as performance events. This paper will utilize performance criticism analysis to examine the use of the Moses figure in the apocalypses of 4 Ezra and 2 Baruch. Examples drawn from The Dead Sea Scrolls, the New Testament, and Talmud are juxtaposed with readings within contextual theology and trends in the contemporary scholarly discussion on Amos.
It will be shown that ancient and modern readers have focused on quite different topics and themes within this prophetic book. It is an intriguing fact that two of the earliest textual attestations of Amos reception and interpretation, the Damascus Document and the Acts of the Apostles, quote the same passage, namely , on wilderness wanderings and exile. An attempt will be made to explain these shifts in emphasis, as we move from ancient to modern readings, in terms of both continuity the impact of interpretive traditions and context-related innovation.
Maimonides, Freud, Hoffman, and numerous scholars have made a study of him. Maimonides treated Moses as a human with flaws and infallibility. The Mishnah and Talmudim treat him as venerable. Hoffman saw Moses as heroic. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam and treat him hagiographically. This paper revisits Freud and Jesus to ask whether the real Moses is available for psychological assessment, and should he be, what he was really up to and what was it he achieved. One knows what perseverance is, and the stories to follow after verse 4 of chapter 11 will make that abundantly clear, but perseverance in faith, not in virtue is the issue of Heb Or, what is it to have faith?
The future things are there in v. Andrews In succession to the four-way panel on the earlier volumes at Vienna , I shall attempt to summarise and consider how the gradual loss of confidence in the historical paradigm for biblical study is reflected even in these two volumes. The second volume has what one reader has called 'rear-view mirror driving'.
There is indeed a surprising amount of 'ressourcing', even a nostalgia for better times. The Bik?? In Jewish Wisdom writing, for instance the book of Job, the implication is that it is not for man to question the ways of God. However, Proverbs 8 describes a Wisdom that understands all things, and is accessible to the human mind.
For Jews in the Persian period Moses had been the dominant icon associated with law. The deuteronomic conviction that where there is disorder there is wickedness was taken for granted. However, in the new intellectual climate of Hellenism during which Jewish apocalyptic emerged, the figure of Enoch was focused on science and nature. In I Enoch the secrets of natural phenomenon could now be released for the knowledge and benefit of the just because the days of eschatological fulfilment were close at hand.
Certain sections of 1Enoch stress the symmetry and regularity of nature and set out the laws which govern the movement of the great heavenly bodies in Nature. These are referred to in terms of measurement, weight, quantity and proportion.
Such meticulous observations, still today, form the foundation of the discipline of science. This article considers the possibility that the fertility of thought and observation in such apocalyptic texts contributed some of the seeds of what culminated more than two thousand years later in the scientific knowledge about evolution as the most feasible explanation of the inevitability of suffering in the natural world.
This is sometimes the case, but local observers in various parts of the world also point out that these preachers give people hope and encourage them to organize their lives and new ways that lead to upward social mobility. Miller and Yamamori, Global Pentecostalism, pp. This paper will look at two key Pauline passages used by nearly every prosperity teacher, Galatians and 2 Corinthians , and ask whether the hermeneutic that guides Western biblical interpretation is really adequate for evaluating a teaching that has found its primary cultural home outside Europe and North America.
It will also look at some of the sociological examples of upward social mobility found in Pentecostal churches, especially in Latin America. Is Jonah Also among the Leaders? From a prophet we expect leadership, using his rhetorical skills to persuade his audience to change their life, in the case of Jonah to move the Ninivites away from their evil deeds. Jonah doesn't do that. Instead the king of Niniveh is taken the role of the prophet.
The paper will investigate the rhetorics used by the king of Niniveh in his language to convince the hearers of his words Ninivites but the rhetorics of he book parable of Jonah as a whole to convince its readers the intended Judean readers and we as actual readers to convince us "to move away from our evil deeds". Because the book of Jonah is a parable, it has a strong persuasive power and therefore can serve also today, especially in our multicultural society, as a rhetorical means to convince people to move towards a common goal.
It also pinpoints the exact mountain where Moses is said to have received the Ten Commandments and provides corroborative evidence in the form of a newly identified Sinaitic Hebrew inscription; remains of the Tabernacle built at the base of the mountain; an extant copper snake, said to have been used by Moses to ward off poisonous serpents; the remains of an artefact that was once carried in the Ark of the Covenant. This analyses makes use more a synchronic approach, to emphasize and to explore the literary dimension, because in this approach is possible to obtain, with more clearness, the literal sense and the total sense in the text.
In this paper avert to fell in the temptation that conduce many scholarships in the past went preoccupied much more with the process and the stages that the final considerations. We honor the members we consider less honorable by clothing them with greater care" 1 Cor 12, This quote portrays the backbone that supports the entire text of the First Epistle to the Corinthians, i. In this metaphor of the human body, Paul was speaking of the Christian community of Corinth.
Given the deeply unjust society, the Apostle shows what side he takes: The weak are the most honorable, and the less worthy of honor we surround with greater care. The existential and pastoral option of Paul for the "weak", those below the imperial pyramid, was crystal clear. In this citation, he was sending a message to the "strong" 1 Cor 1,26 in the church of Corinth and a warning to the powerful inhabitants of the Roman Empire.
God has made a clear option for the poor and the slaves. The "arrogant" of the Church of Corinth, that is, those that discriminate against the poor, could not subject themselves to the Roman slave mode of production in the small units of the "ekklesia" because the members who seemed to be insignificant in the body were the most needed.
This is the embryo of Liberation Theology. In this perspective, we are allowed to ask ourselves how the leaders of the groups which authored the sectarian Dead Sea Scrolls, as we can infer from texts such as the Rule of the Community, who were predominantly priests, supposedly managed to guarantee their position, despite having natural claims for authority by birth, but being far from the only institution that emanated their indisputable source of power: the Temple of Jerusalem.
Based on central sectarian documents as the Rule of the Community and the Damascus Document, texts in which these communities found the basis for all their organization, we purpose to recognize, point out and analyse some of these mechanisms of power which apparently kept these close communities alive and united for circa years, although they tried to avert any contact with surrounding world. The core of the book may well be the narrative of the two beasts, where Revelation expresses poignantly how Empire operates.
This paper considers the second beast and its strategies, which aim to establish a social construction that allows and facilitates oppression. The presentation will conclude by exposing some of the similarities between the Roman Empire and the current one. Julian believed that only proper worship of the gods would ensure their beneficence and guarantee the success of the empire. Faced with stiff resistance to his program from Christians and pagans alike in Antioch, Julian employed Jewish Scriptures and heroes to structure space, model orthopraxy for pagans, and alter how Christians perceived of the dead and themselves.
The cult of the Christian martyrs was particularly troubling to Julian who believed the dead to be impure. This paper examines how Julian attempted to transform and control sacred space in Antioch using scriptural interpretation and active Jewish worship at the Maccabean martyr tomb in an effort to disrupt Christian memories of the cult of the Christian martyrs. It imagines what it would have been like for an Arian as he journeyed to the Antiochene suburb of Daphne to pray at the Maccabean martyr shrine. It is a composite work that consists of three books, with each book almost certainly composed by a different author.
Book 3 is focused on the relationship of husband and wife within the ancient household and thus has particular relevance for the ancient Haustafeln. This paper will offer a basic analysis and indicate its relevance for the study of early Christianity and the ancient economy. The Hyksos, the foreign dynasty which intended to control not only Lower Egypt but also Upper Egypt, built a distinctive and unique identity as rulers made of local and foreign elements.
An amalgam of old and new practices can also be detected. In this vein, the adoption of the Egyptian language and script and of part of the Egyptian royal titulary can be explained as elite emulation, while other practices point to reinforce their foreign origin sacred buildings, palaces, many religious and funerary beliefs.
Material culture tends to reflect these parameters. Contemporary and later rejection - and vilification - of these rulers by the Egyptians can be explained as a way to reinforce the Egyptian identity by antagonism. Excavations conducted over the next 28 years have yielded much information on a fishing village and city and its iterations.
The site of et-Tell was investigated by scores of excavators in the 19th and early 20th century with varying results and the site of Majdal has been investigated since the s by major excavators with varying results. The two sites are today thought of as two of the most important parts of the missing sacred geography that pilgrims sought over the last millennium. We will examine some of the archaeological evidence found at both sites and compare their rediscoveries.
This task is both complex and complicated in that all Pauline interpretation has underlying hermeneutical and philosophical presuppositions and, therefore, requires a dialogue between exegesis, theology and philosophy. The objective of this essay is to demonstrate that Pauline exegesis by itself is not sufficient in retrieving a comprehensive understanding of Paul. I propose that the disciplinary division between biblical exegesis and theological, philosophical thinking is a false and ultimately unfruitful dichotomy.
In order to make my case as concretely as possible, I will limit myself to an engagement with the new perspective on Paul, primarily the work of N. Wright, and in particular his understanding of the topic of sin.
Wright pays little attention to the question of sin. The Enochic fragments found in Qumran cover only a part of the work known today as 1 Enoch or Ethiopic Enoch chs. On the other hand the earliest Aramaic manuscript tradition contains material that is not known from 1 Enoch the Astronomical Book and the Book of Giants. The narrative on the fall of the Watchers 1 Enoch is a seminal part of the early Enochic tradition. The story explains the origin of the evil — which is a recurrent theme in the pericopae of Gen Differently from this Genesis originates evil in human factors. Both traditions are shaped in the terms of Mesopotamian culture that backgrounded exilic Judaism.
The authors of Tobit and Jubilees were acknowledged with both Enochic and Genesis traditions. Vernal and autumnal equinoxes coincide in the ideal calendar with the traditional festivals of Pesah and New Year. Song 3 in 11Q11v. The idea of Pesah being connected with demonic aggression is in line with the concept worded in Jubilees 49, according to which it is the proper observing of the Pesah festival that can assure protection against fatal demonic assaults through the year. The mystical antiphonal liturgies of the Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice arranged in a quarterly order might have been intended to secure a regular connection between the heavenly sanctuary and an earthly community on the days of Shabbat.
The interpretation of the term ranges from the distortion of text ta? Some articles address the debate within certain evangelical churches on this issue. What are the reasons laid out for drinking --if they are made explicit at all-- and its consequences on women? Drunkards may bring unpleasant moments on those around them.
The Bible is aware of some of those, including motion sickness, making a fool of oneself, and exposing a woman to a difficult situation. It is part of its wisdom to alert against these disorders. Comparison to some tango letters, in which the man attributes his need to get drunk to lovesickness which, in traditional tangos, refers always to a heterosexual relationship and therefore, to the woman leaving him will show different cultural responses to the drive to drink.
In the first place, this paper proceeds to enquire the process of narrative reshaping by noting the elements that were present in the Pre-Hispanic story and their adaptation into Christian topics that appear on the Bible. Following this, it studies the implications of this reshaping in the context of the early colonization of the Andes, particularly in relation with the previous presence of the Devil in the New World, one of the principal Spanish arguments to justify the need of Colonization and Christianization.
We will study the biblical text and analyze its metaphorical structure which makes use of the source domain of the house to depict - according to one of its interpretations- the human experiences of old age and death. Consequently, the perception and emotions associated with old age and death on the one hand and love on the other are poetically matched. In this paper, both poems will be analyzed with the aid of theoretical tools from cognitive linguistics such as conceptual metaphor and blending.
Recent scholarship answers this question by turning to the Testament of Job, which specifically attributes the characteristic of hypomone to the person of Job. With this beginning point, scholars find other thematic material in the Testament easily identifiable in the letter of James as well. With evidence in hand, they conclude that James and his readers know of the person of Job primarily through the tradition as reflected in the Testament of Job.
The problem with this approach, however, is that it neglects examining those themes associated most closely with James in the letter of James, namely, blessedness, endurance, and perfection. Yes, the letter of James and the Testament of Job have several themes in common, themes such as hospitality and the dualism between heaven and earth. But an examination of themes most closely related to Job in the letter of James might serve as a better indicator of the potential source for James's understanding of Job. The hope is to illuminate one of the two latter texts as a suitable or preferred text for expression of the traditions of Job as understood during the first century.
The expected conclusion of this study may provide hesitancy in embracing the Testament of Job as the ideal source for understanding James's employment of Job as an exemplar and give weight to the idea the LXX Job may be sufficient as a source of tradition for James and his readers. While the theological perspective often neglects the significance of the visions and the epilogue for the work as a whole, the psychological perspective often fails to give due consideration to authorial intention.
Traditional beliefs based on covenant, divine justice, sin and atonement are found inadequate in the light of the crisis; yet tradition is not rejected but redefined and complemented with new revelations about the coming age. Why Such Difference? There is, however, a very wide range of dates proposed for both canonical and non-canonical documents, primarily because differing criteria are given significantly different weight. Both of these proposals differ not only from one another but from the common view that the synoptic gospels should be dated to the decade or two following the destruction of Jerusalem in The implications of the dates proposed by Crossley and Vinzent are profound for all discussions of the formation of the gospels and for the development of early Christianity.
I propose to use these two books as a case study of the problems of method that arise in the effort to date the documents of early Christianity. The aim is not to advocate a particular date, but to lay bare the issues at hand. This description of Moses as murderer Is problematic and the midrash prefers to depict him as a zealot acting for justice Yalkut Shim'oni.
Rashi also justifies the act by saying that he did not foresee that any of the Egyptians descendants would convert to Judaism, so he had a right to kill him Rashi on verse No one can understand why Moses had to kill the Egyptian and furthermore where did he learn how to kill. Was it a survival instinct? Does the act of his being hidden in the basket va-tizpenehu parallel his hiding va-yitmenehu the Egyptian in the sand? Did he not realize that he had sinned until the two fighting Hebrews pointed it out to him? Was Moses' true nature violent?
The tradition gives Moses a pass and sees him as one who displays moral passion and is unable to tolerate injustice. This paper argues that his action points to the fact that this is the one time in his life that he does not have the moral compass of women. A close analysis of Exodus show a preponderance of supporting female presence and activity and this presence is strikingly absent when Moses "goes out".
I argue that the phrase eyn ish means literally there was no MAN to point out there were other ways to deal with injustice; ways that did not involve murdering the perpetrator. This is the only time in his formative years that he does not have women's council, nurture or support and without that he makes the wrong choice, that of violence. In both texts there are allusions to each other. One soft allusion is the word balat which appears only twice in the bible, in Judges and Ruth Yael approaches Sisera stealthily balat before striking a pin through his head and Ruth went over stealthily balat to Boaz before lying down next to him.
Another soft allusion is the phrase that Barak utters, "If you will go with me, I will go; if not, I will not go. This phrase alludes to the famous words of Ruth to Naomi after the latter admonishes her to turn back to her home: "for wherever you go, I will go" Ruth Close readings of both texts reveal that there are many more examples of intertextuality. This paper argues that two foreigners Yael the Kenite and Ruth the Moabite , who are blessed in the tradition Jud and Ruth 4: , are agents for Israelite women Deborah and Naomi and serve as saviors under threatening circumstances external war and internal famine.
In analyzing how the two texts serve as internal commentary on each other, this paper will examine both the similarities and differences in the actions and situations of the four women who are involved in the two biblical tales. Meanwhile, the quotation from Epimenides in Tit suggests that the author of the Epistles may have also had a number of other sources to draw upon.
This paper seeks to investigate the way that the first of the Pastoral Epistles, 1 Timothy, engages with external sources.
- The Stolen Baby!
- Die Stellung des Ausländers nach § 12 AufentG/EWG (German Edition).
- Bad Boys.
- Logos 8 Tesoro Bilingüe?
- Body & Soul: Narratives of Healing from Ars Medica.
- Every Good Thing.
Particular attention will be given to the influence of both the Septuagint and the Jewish or O. Pseudepigrapha, including a comparison of the manner and extent that these two sets of documents are referenced. In this process, a distinction will be drawn between simple idioms, influences and allusions. In simple idioms, the Epistle will share vocabulary or ideas with a possible source text but there will be no apparent reason, or benefit, of referring to that text. In contrast, the source text for an influence or allusion will provide an answer to unresolved problem in the Epistle. By applying such categories consistently throughout the whole of 1 Timothy, a clear picture of the importance of these extant documents will be evident.
What is the function of the text where it stands? What does it try to communicate to the reader or hearer in terms of its final position within the book of Isaiah? There are sound arguments for regarding Isaiah 12 as a postexilic text which was deliberately composed as a colophon to chapters and as the transition to chapter 13ff. Allusions and quotations in this chapter allow us to draw conclusions regarding the origin of this passage with more confidence than that of many other texts in this book. It presupposes chapter 11, and most likely all of Isaiah close to their final form.
But it also presupposes texts from Isaiah , and even parts of Isaiah This redaction portrayed a certain understanding and vision of the prophet as well as role of Isaiah ben Amoz and had particular literary procedures and specific vocabulary at their disposal in order to do so. The final redactors used their scribal expertise to construct a sort of watchtower from which one can survey the whole book of Isaiah. Questions regarding the redaction and composition of this text will be dealt with in this paper.
Some draw attention to evidence for exploitative practices by agrarian elites that lead them to conclude commoners widely felt oppressed. Others point to evidence suggesting a sustained economic growth, particularly in Galilee, that would have impacted positively most villagers. This paper will make three arguments. First, evidence for the economic agricultural activity in Palestine favors the impression of wide-spread unjust practices by rulers and landowners. However, the evidence does not support the conclusion that villagers would have overwhelmingly felt oppressed and had little to no experience of prosperity.
The Marcan Jesus does not charge landowners in parables as guilty of any unjust economic practices. The Lucan Jesus much more frequently points to rich farmers and landowners in parables as guilty of economic manipulation and exploitation. The Matthean Jesus offers a less harsh depiction of the agrarian elite than the Lucan Jesus. Some landowners are depicted as quite benevolent while others are known as harsh. Third, the Synoptic evidence points to a historical Jesus who, as an agrarian Galilean commoner himself, was aware of harsh, even exploitive, landowners but Jesus did not engage in consistently characterizing Palestinian landowners as economically unjust.
The evidence of the parables in the Synoptics favors that landowners' economic practices in Galilee were not as universally oppressive as some reconstructions suggest. These three texts have often been used as evidence of a continuing line of Jewish-inspired persecution that traversed three centuries, as if the situations mirrored in them were roughly parallel cf. Lightfoot, Lane Fox, Hemer. On the one hand, the MartPion sought to remove Jewish worship as a religious option for those Christian lapsi seeking an alternative. The resultant depiction of Jewish views concerning Jesus resembles Talmudic materials, while acknowledging the Jewish worship of the one creator God and the Jewish refusal to participate in pagan sacrifice and even the consumption of sacrificial food cf.
In sum, both martyr texts reflect concerns for the socio-communal identity formation and conservation of the Smyrnaean Christians, but their distinctive depictions of Jewish-Christian tension should not be merged in simplistic fashion but rather contrasted in historical context, authorial purpose, and literary construction.
Who Killed Ahaziah in the Book of Chronicles? By comparing between the descriptions in the Masoretic, Septuagint, and the Antiochian texts of 2 Chr a, which show some inconsistencies in terms of contents of the story, this paper seeks to suggest a possible reconstruction of the Urtext of the Hebrew manuscript of 2 Chr a as well as to identify the person who killed Ahaziah as described in the Urtext.
While the rationale for the Lowthian 'synonymous, antithetic, synthetic' terminology has been questioned in the recent past Kugel , a demonstrable difference may be discerned between examples of parallelism described as synonymous as opposed to those described as antithetic.
Using the linguistic categories developed by Adele Berlin, this study examines and evaluates examples of so-called synonymous parallelism from the Royal Psalms, proposing that each may be viewed as a literary 'stereogram' that creates a depth of vision in the mind of the reader as a result of cognitive processing.
Consequently, the first is stipulated for specific occasions, but not the second. The lack of such distinctions in the vocabularies of Greek and English misled scholars to fail to distinguish between the two different types of prayers. The performance of fixed text supplication prayers at fixed times are not mandated by Scripture because they are situation specific. The paper challenges the scholarly conjecture that communal obligatory fixed text prayers were performed at Qumran. The utter lack of instructions when and by whom these liturgical style writings must be recited casts serious doubt of the presumed obligatory character of Qumran prayers, and points to the opposite.
The paper disputes the scholarly interpretations of Qumran writings in this regard and also suggests the quoted testimonies of rabbinic narratives of Second Temple prayer rituals are unreliable. It contends the presumed recital of the shema at Qumran, unknown in that community, and demonstrates that its recital was not classified as prayer by the rabbis. The paper contests the opinion that communal prayer substituted sacrifices in Qumran theology, and proffers explanations of the motives that initiated this process. Finally, it disputes the conjecture of continuity of prayer traditions between the Qumran community and later rabbinic prayers.
In so doing, he broke multiple taboos in Ancient Israel: Socializing with people that were considered impure and therefore outcasts of society and, above all, blasphemy, as only God could forgive sins. However, as revolutionary as these acts of healing may have been, they did not necessarily result in an improved treatment of people with disabilities in early Christianity.
The stigma of imperfection and alleged sinfulness remained throughout Christianity and were carried through the various schisms. This paper follows up on an earlier paper Salzburg, and tries to examine some of those attitudes from the first few centuries C. Augustine, Galen etc. Lastly, this paper concludes with a few broader observations and comments on the anti-imperialist nature of the depiction of Assyria in Genesis and Numbers. Despite its literary importance, the nature of his test has remained largely unexplained in scholarly literature.
The first part of this study establishes a distinction between a law-observing minority primarily represented by Tobit, his family, and some of his relatives, and the law-breaking people represented by the tribe of Naphtali in the Northern Kingdom and the Jewish community in Nineveh.
I will argue that the story depicts consistently the religious chasm between those two groups. While previous studies of the book of Tobit have acknowledged its Deuteronomic features, they have neglected how a divine test as part of Deuteronomic theology functions in the story. What happens, my paper queries, when these two divergent approaches yield identical results? For this is exactly the situation that arises with respect to the theology of the book of Esther, and the point I hope to draw out.
A diachronic approach to Esther notes the overwhelming similarities of language, theme, and genre between Esther and the Joseph story. This betrays a meaningful relationship between the two texts, one that was intended by the author of Esther himself. This in turn has large implications for the theology of Esther, where this comparison is still instructive. However, from a synchronic perspective, this conclusion is not the result of historical inquiry, but rather the natural outcome of reading Esther in its biblical, canonical context, where Joseph and other texts ring so loudly.
How then are we supposed to understand this overlap when these two approaches are so often pitted against each other in such stark terms? This example suggests what Childs himself seemed to understand best: sometimes these approaches are not nearly as antithetical as they are often understood to be. Even though Childs has been taken to task on this point, I think this one example is a strong defense for the sort of intricate reading, one that presses beyond this theoretical impasse, that Childs forwarded.
The proposal for this paper utilizes the method analogia scripturae. Essentially, the thesis concerns the grounding of the Pneumatology of Paul with his Christology in 1 Corinthians. The Corinthian church required clarification and pastoral wisdom with their pneumatic experiences; thus, Paul recognized that a strong theology of the cross complemented their encounters with the Spirit. The question for biblical studies involves a lively tension of the Pneumatology of the Spirit with a robust Christology.
For this reason, a strong Christology must ground the Pneumatology of the Pauline corpus. This study in biblical literature commences a new discussion in ecumenical dialogue between pneumatic experiences in the church and christological issues in scripture. Both often involve specialists who perform ritual activities and make ritual utterances, which are both complex and mysterious. Through a series of mundane words and actions whose effects transcend normal cause-effect relationships, both bring the divine or supernatural to bear on the mundane, achieving what can be accomplished in no other way.
The often abstract results of ritual and magic may also be unverifiable. For example, it is difficult to prove that an individual has been forgiven or cursed. Given these and other commonalities, it is difficult to decide whether an activity should be defined as ritual, magic or a combination of both.
This presentation will explore this complicated interplay between ritual and magic by comparing select biblical and ancient Near Eastern ritual texts. One of the features of Ruth is that direct character speech takes up more than two-thirds of the story. This particular structure makes the narrator of Ruth more hidden than in other biblical narratives. In narration, the voice of the narrator is heard clearly; in the speeches of characters, the voice of narrator is covert. To understand the narration more deeply, the paper will focus on its usage within the over-arching story.
Most narrations are brief and essential to plot. This examination shows that the last narration, the genealogy of Ruth , is the starting point to understand this narrative. The narrator also describes the prosperity of the house of Boaz and its descendants through the blessings of minor characters surrounding the three main characters: Ruth, Boaz, and Naomi. They were depicted as those to whom God was covenanted to fulfil promises, and as Calvert-Koyzis notes, they were also models of the behaviour to emulate or avoid.
They occupy an important place as exemplars and therefore play an important role especially in New Testament writings. In Hebrews 11 and 12, the author focuses attention on the ancestors. By placing toigapoun therefore along with nephos martyron cloud of witnesses at the beginning of , the author effectively links the discussion in to the previous section with the list of names in chapter This establishes the nephos martyron as referring to the listed ancestors in chapter These passages contribute to an understanding of the place and function of ancestors in very important ways especially within interpretative approaches in African theology.
Prevalent understandings in the said approaches have shaped the conceptualisation of ancestor Christology. Ancestor Christology is been identified as a widely accepted paradigm in present day efforts towards contextual Christology in Africa. This new understanding challenges the conceptual basis of ancestor Christology. The church conserves one of the oldest mural painting from medieval period. The scenes reflect the understanding of the apocalyptic eschatology mixed with contemporary social issues the conflict with Islamic world, Armenian church, etc.
Intertextual elements of OT history and literature complete some parts of the scene. The mural is a synthesis of theological tradition of Eastern Orthodox Church, as can be seen in the central axis of the painting. The heavenly and earthly hierarchy that was frescoed on the wall provide an interesting perspective about the medieval interpretation of the book of Revelation. What we find instead is that at pivotal moments in his life Jesus goes away to pray alone. The special material on prayer in Luke may provide us with greater insight about what Jesus prayed and how he used prayer to ignite early followers.
The special material in Luke begins with attention to prayer. This is the case as we consider 1. I am particularly interested in how Baldwin used biblical texts to convey power to his female characters, moving them from weak, powerless victims of layers of dominance home, society, culture to formidable pillars of resistance. This study makes use of synoptic references to dying and death as well as many stories and customs from the African countries of Cameroon, Burundi, Malawi, Botswana, Kenya, and Zimbabwe.
I have long argued that Africans know more about religious and spiritual matters than we Westerners do because they experience it differently and, therefore, two of my postulations are that 1 humanity began on the African continent where the evolution of the ideas of the supernatural and afterlife originated, and 2 Africans, especially those still living in the rural areas, have remained in closer contact with the earth and all of its creatures. This study is both academic and experiential. The mention of the disabled forms the conceptual frameworks of acceptability, care and restoration. While some laws have the protection of disabled persons in view other laws exclude such persons e.
These depictions normalize trauma as part of the corporate and retributive view of divine judgment. Through examination of selected texts this paper presents images of the disabled and thus proposes a reading of those images through the contemporary lenses of acceptability, care and restoration. Assumptions regarding the metaphor of the female accused and the male accuser may have facilitated reception of the description. This paper examines Jeremiah as one among many texts that shape and transmit views about gender identity.
It examines the relational and behavioral attributes as means of transmitting views about gender roles and proposes that shaping views about identity is achieved through representation of roles, behaviors, and evaluative comments. Accordingly, understanding the dialectical process of identity construction necessitates engaging how the text constructs its views about the male voice, actor, or narrator.
The first few generations of Christians had to engage with this reality and locate Jesus in a theological landscape dominated by the figure and the legacy of Moses. This paper will map some of the ways in which different Christian authors during the first years after Easter configured Moses to serve their own purposes of promoting Jesus as the eschatological prophet. This study is not concerned with the historicity of either Moses or Jesus, but rather seeks to explore how the early Jesus communities engaged with the legacy of Moses in the first hundred years of Christianity.
While substantial built structures at et-Tell are more commonly associated with the Iron Age, Hellenistic and Early Roman periods, it is becoming increasingly clear that there was a significant presence in the Mamluk period.
Hechos 9 – La Conversión de Saulo de Tarso by David Guzik
In this presentation the evidence for a Mamluk settlement at et-Tell will be reviewed, and preliminary comparisons made with Mamluk settlements in nearby Jordan. Key evidence for Mamluk occupation of the site includes coins, pottery and distinctive stone houses. A Source of P? The Priestly commissioning of Moses Exod. Focusing on these literary similarities, as well as differences, this paper will investigate the literary relationships between these two texts, including the possible direction of influence, and such implications for the composition of the Priestly Exodus account in its literary and socio-historical contexts.
In addition, the peculiarities of P will be highlightened in comparison with the parallel non-Priestly Commissioning Exod. In recent Pentateuch scholarship, the influence of Ezekiel is discussed primarily regarding later literary layers with priestly flavor, such as H S or Pentateuch Redaction PentRed. Against this backdrop, this paper will extend this discussion to the significance and implications of the literary correspondence to Ezekiel in the text classically assigned to PG.
Her hand had to be cut off without any pity. We can find a similar law to Deut in the Middle Assyrian Law. With a similar offense or self-defense, the Assyrian women would lose only one finger; but the Israelite women seem to have lost their entire hand. Therefore, I would like to reinterpret this questionable text with a more care.
To support my opinion, firstly, I will compare this law to other similar Ancient Near Eastern laws. Secondly, I will discuss the literary structure of Deut 25 in a large and a small literary unit. I believe that there are certain hints hidden in the structure that can be used in interpreting this law to go in the right direction. Thirdly, I will examine the usage of several words of Deut in the Hebrew Bible, because the words have different meanings in other texts. Also, these various meanings about the words can help us understand the law as not a brutal punishment to the criminal, but as a means of continuing to feel sense of shame to the women.
Why did the author of EN repeat these lists in the single book? What is their function? In this presentation, I will mention the literary role of the lists as a basic function composing EN. When humans were in the garden, the relation between God and them was proximity. However, when the humans were expelled from the garden, the relation between them became less close. That the first man and Eve could speak to God directly is one aspect that reflects the proximity between God and humans. My presentation discusses by what rhetorical means the speeches in Genesis can reflect the distance between God and humanity.
My focus is on Gen , Gen , two passages engaging God speeches. At the same time, the physical distance is usually very short between God and the listener. This paper deals with how in Isaiah , the figure of Cyrus challenges a dichotomized view of power relations as well as the characterization of the other. These poetic texts depict how YHWH calls the figure of Cyrus by name , , as well as labelling him shepherd and anointed In Isa. The paper shows this complexity by a close reading of relevant texts as well as within the broader context of the Achaemenid Empire.
In orally-focused societies, it is not the written text, but the oral message that is primary, precisely the inverse roles that are acknowledged in current Western culture. With this view in mind, more focus needs to be put upon the actions of the couriers who presented the contents of the letters, interpreted ambiguous or troublesome sections, responded to questions from the listening community, and attempted to mollify passionate audience members.
These two churches are selected because they stand as examples of a successful letter 2 Corinthians and an unsuccessful letter Galatians. This paper explores the role of the courier in the delivery, performance, and aftermath of the performance, and will envision the respective responses of receptive and recalcitrant audiences to various passages in the letters. The paper suggests that notwithstanding theories or evidence? For instance, some regard the sentences in Lk , as quotations, others as allusions; still others consider vv. Schnabel This illustrates the confusion on the delineation of the terms.
I will attempt to delineate three terms, i. With the definitions, I will scrutinize two instances in Lk and 24 to demonstrate that such delineations are valid for the further study. However, if Israel as a people emerged in Canaan, how does one understand the liberation from the Egypt tradition?
The paper tries to show that the Exodus tradition was formed within Northern Israel, maybe during the Egyptian domination of Sheshong I , a campaign that is registered in the temple of Karnak, in Egypt, that defeated the fragile rein of Saul. The paper tries to show also, that in the sanctuaries of Betel, Shechem, Dan and Samaria existed a cult to a deity represented by a bull image, to whom was attributed the liberation from Egypt. At the beginning this deity was the God El, but later, it passed to be the God Yahweh, who absorbed the attributes of El, including the bull cult.
The wandering through the desert is an independent tradition, and it was attached to the liberation tradition only later. This paper presents an overview of his role in the Islamic text, with particular attention paid to stories that have biblical parallels. This being the case, there seems to be a constitutive relationship between violence and the city, for Cain builds the first city only after committing the first homocide.
Reminiscent of Hobbes, the Yahwist J sees the city as originating in the domestication of the violent impulses of its citizens. Hence the mark of Cain: it is the threat of reprisal that enables Cain to overcome his fear of the Other. But vengeance is not enough, as we learn from the example of his descendant, Lamech. It is, rather, hospitality that provides a stable foundation for civilization. This is the lesson of the story of Sodom, in which J juxtaposes the hospitality of Abraham and Lot to the violent barbarism of the men of Sodom.
The story had a long and fruitful retelling well into the Middle Ages, but less attention has been paid to earlier retellings of the narrative in the Testament of Joseph and in the works of Philo. It will follow with explorations of the forms of the story in both The Testament of Joseph and in the numerous works of Philo in which the story is mentioned.
- Archivo del blog.
- Comentario MacArthur del Nuevo Testamento: Marcos (MacArthur New Testament Commentary: Mark)?
- Filología Neotestamentaria (22 vols.).
- ¿Por qué la Traducción del Nuevo Mundo Omitir versos en Juan?;
Finally, it will conclude with a look at the implications of what these retellings of the story have for understanding issues of gender and the body faced by the Hellenized diaspora communities that rewrote them. This exceptional discovery raises a host of questions.
Related Evangelio de Marcos (Comentario para exégesis y traducción nº 2) (Spanish Edition)
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