It was the second attack in five months on the same target. Witnesses claimed that body parts lay all over the area, and that bodies were piled one above another on the sidewalk before being collected. Many civilians in the vicinity of the bombing rushed to assist emergency services. Later on it was revealed that the attack was carried out by Saeed Hotari, a militant linked to the Palestinian Islamist militant group Hamas.
Sie begann Ende September, Anfang Oktober Kampfhandlungen und Terrorakte in der Konfliktregion existieren jedoch trotz Phasen wechselseitiger Ruhe weiterhin. Manche israelische Kreise bezeichnen die zweite Intifada auch als Oslokrieg, in Anspielung auf den gescheiterten Oslo-Friedensprozess. September in Begleitung von bewaffnetem Personenschutz und mehr als Polizisten den in der Jerusalemer Altstadt und unter arabischer Verwaltung stehenden Tempelberg. Oktober fielen zwei israelische Soldaten in den besetzten Gebieten einem Lynchmord zum Opfer. Israel bezeichnete den Polizeieinsatz als notwendig, um einem Landfriedensbruch vorzubeugen und das staatliche Gewaltmonopol durchzusetzen.
Auf der israelischen Seite kamen 22 Menschen durch eigenes Feuer ums Leben. Jahrhunderts ausgegraben. Danach wuchs die Stadt durch den Zuzug von Neueinwanderern erheblich. Im Jahr hatte Bet Schemesch bereits Weinberge des Klosters Cremisan. Die Stadt ist eine Hochburg des Ultraorthodoxen Judentums. Dezember in Beit Schemesch, nachdem ihre geplante Kundgebung nicht zustande kommen durfte. In , following a writeup in. He promised to rehabilitate neighborhoods and when Likud came to power that year, investment in the city increased.
In the s, the city saw a large influx of new immigrants from the former Soviet Union, Ethiopia and English speaking countries. Since the s, Beit Shemesh has become increasingly Orthodox, with a large Haredi sector. Many synagogues and yeshivas have been built in the community.
In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of English speaking Israelis who have moved to Beit Shemesh. This population tends to be Orthodox, educated and from middle income groups. Und es wird auch Kritik an der Regierung laut. Bisher hatte man das hingenommen. Seit Dienstagabend aber ist es in Beit Shemesh mit der Ruhe vorbei. Rund Sie fuhr mit, der Mann stieg aus.
Als ein Fernsehteam es filmen wollte, wurde es angegriffen. Offizielle Versuche, es abzunehmen, scheiterten ebenfalls immer wieder an den Randalierern. Israel, so scheint es, ist erst am Anfang einer Auseinandersetzung, die lange verschleppt wurde. General Edmund Allenby marschierte an jenem Tag in die Stadt ein. Am Folgetag griffen die arabischen Staaten Israel an. Dies erkannten nur wenige Staaten an. Seit akzeptierte die internationale Staatengemeinschaft die De-facto-Anwendung israelischen Rechts in Westjerusalem. Juni mit dem Artilleriebeschuss Westjerusalems begonnen hatte.
Erst nachdem Jordanien das neutrale Hauptquartier der Vereinten Nationen eroberte, entschloss man sich zu handeln. Allerdings wurden bestimmte gesetzliche Arrangements zugunsten der arabischen Bewohner der Stadt beschlossen, die im Legal and Administrative Matters Regulation Law von festgeschrieben sind. Trotzdem wurde dieser Schritt von UN-Einrichtungen kritisiert. Jerusalemgesetz und Camp David Das Jerusalemgesetz vom Status Israel beansprucht ganz Jerusalem als Hauptstadt. Die internationale Gemeinschaft erkennt dies nicht an, wie in der Resolution des UN-Sicherheitsrates sichtbar wurde.
Die Botschaften befinden sich meist in Tel Aviv. At this point, it is called Sderot Herzl, also known as Tzir Herzl Herzl Axis , the major northsouth route on the west side of the city. Along this portion of the route, tracks were laid for the Jerusalem Light Rail, which began operation in August, From Wikipedia, Die durch das Jerusalemgesetz erfolgte Annexion des im Sechstagekriegs eroberten Gebiets wurde von der internationalen Staatengemeinschaft ebenso wenig anerkannt wie die vorangegange Annexion Ostjerusalems durch Jordanien im Jahr Der Sicherheitsrat der Vereinten Nationen verabschiedete mehrere Resolutionen, die die Annexion oder die Vorbereitung auf selbige verurteilten.
Politik Der politische Status Ostjerusalems und die Siedlungsproblematik ist weiterhin ein zentraler Punkt des Nahostkonflikts. Nach dem Ende des Osmanischen Reiches und der darauffolgenden britischen Verwaltung Jerusalems sollte die Stadt unter internationale Verwaltung gestellt werden. Im Sechstagekrieg wurde Ostjerusalem nach vorangegangenen Angriffen Jordaniens auf Westjerusalem durch die israelische Armee erobert. Zudem schneidet die von Israel offiziell zur Terrorabwehr errichtete Sperranlage, die in Jerusalem auch die Form einer Mauer hat, das Westjordan-.
Nach Husseinis Tod im Jahr wurde das Orienthaus geschlossen. Sie sind damit auch sozialversichert. Die Mehrzahl tut dies aber nicht um zu zeigen, dass sie die Besatzung nicht anerkennt. Diese Verfahren wurden bereits oft von Menschenrechtsorganisationen kritisiert. Sie leben daher oft illegal weiter in der Stadt. Sie sind zwar verpflichtet, die Gemeindeabgaben Arnona zu bezahlen, verloren aber ihren Status.
Diese Linie ist 13,8 Kilometer lang und hat 23 Haltestellen. Unter Connex Jerusalem Ltd. Der Probebetrieb auf der nur teilweise fertiggestellten Strecke begann am Februar , baulich fertiggestellt wurde sie am Juni Vor der Inbetriebnahme gab es Forderungen nach Trennung der Passagiere. Einerseits gab es Juden, die Bedenken hatten mit Arabern im selben Wagen zu fahren, andererseits verlangten Haredim nach einer Geschlechtertrennung.
Die Stadtverwaltung hatte ihrerseits im Vorfeld entschieden, bis zum 1. September eine kostenlose.
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Nutzung des Systems anzubieten, da es Probleme mit den Fahrkartenautomaten gibt. Mittlerweile — die kostenlose Nutzung dauert nach wie vor an Stand 4. Verbleibende Probleme, wie z. The total area of Beit Hanina is 20 sq. The old village, al-Balad, is part of the Ramallah district and governed by the Palestinian National Authority. The new village, al-Jadid, is within the jurisdiction of the Jerusalem Municipality, although residents may vote in PNA elections. In , Beit Hanina had a population of over 27,, including 26, Jerusalem residents in the new village and 1, under PNA administration, and a land area of 16, dunams, of which 2, are built up.
Immediately after the war, Israel unilaterally expanded the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem to include the eastern section of Beit Hanina, now known as Beit Hanina al-Jadid, and formalized that policy in The area has sometimes been the scene of clashes between the Israeli security forces and Palestinian militant factions.
A branch of al-Quds University is also located there. The Catholic Church has a community center and a St. Sie liegt in Jerusalem und wurde am Davor befindet sich eine Steinplatte, unter der Asche aus den Konzentrationslagern begraben ist. Das Projekt wurde begonnen.
Das Denkmal ist als unterirdischer Raum angelegt, in dem Kerzen in der Dunkelheit so reflektiert werden, dass ein ganzer Sternenhimmel entsteht. In den letzten zehn Jahren haben mehr als 1. Nach eigenen Angaben handelt es sich dabei um die umfassendste Datensammlung dieser Art. In a much reported diplomatic gaffe he turned the handle the wrong way and extinguished it. Bush, who visited in January Over young people, from 62 countries and five continents gathered at Yad Vashem for a three-day Youth Congress.
Participants, ranging in age from 17 to 19, and including among them Christians, Jews, Muslims and Buddhists, and speaking some 30 different languages, studied various Holocaust-related topics, toured Yad Vashem and Jerusalem, participated in workshops, and met with Holocaust survivors. Special sessions were held with Israeli dignitaries including president Shimon Peres.
During March , German Chancellor Dr. Some 11 million visits were recorded on www. The cemetery, at the center of which lies the Mamilla Pool, contains the remains of figures from the early Islamic period, several Sufi shrines and Mamluk-era tombs. The cemetery grounds also contain the bodies of thousands of Christians killed in the pre-Islamic era, as well as several tombs from Crusader times. Its identity as an Islamic cemetery is noted by Arab and Persian writers as early as the 11th century. History Mandate Palestine period Burials in the cemetery ceased early in the period of British rule over Mandate Palestine — , following the decision by the Supreme Muslim Council, who oversaw the administration of waqf properties, to preserve it as a historic site.
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By this decision, the cemetery, its tombs, and its grounds were maintained. In , Mohammad Amin al-Husayni, the Mufti of Jerusalem, decided to build the Palace Hotel on what was assumed to be outside the border of the cemetery. While the foundations were being laid, Arab workers uncovered Muslim graves. Baruch Katinka, a Jewish contractor hired to oversee the project, wrote in his memoirs that when the Mufti was informed of the discovery, he said to quietly rebury the bones elsewhere. When it was discovered what had happened, rival factions filed a suit against Husayni in the Muslim courts, arguing that he had desecrated ancient graves.
The Islamic waqf continued to control the cemetery and in , the cemetery was designated an antiquities site by the British mandatory authorities. By the end of the war that resulted in the Israeli occupation of East Jerusalem, only a handful of broken grave markers remained standing.
A large part of the cemetery was bulldozed and converted into a parking lot in and a public lavatory was also built on the cemetery grounds. Israeli authorities bulldozed several tombs in the cemetery, including some of those identified as Frankish by Clermont-Ganneau, to establish Mamilla Park or Independence Park in Two of the largest and finest tombs survived, though the lid of one was overturned when it moved from its original spot. The other is the Mamluk era funerary chapel known as al-Kebekiyeh or Zawiya Kubakiyya , now located in the eastern end of Independence Park. In , the Custodian of Absentee Property sold the cemetery grounds to the Je-.
The Israeli Electricity Company destroyed more tombs on 15 January in order to lay some cables. Marvin Hier, head of the SWC, said his association was unaware that the site was located on a cemetery and was told by the municipality that the land was owned by the Israel Lands Administration before it was given to the SWC for the project. During excavations to prepare the ground for construction in , skeletons were found and removed.
Between November and April , crews of 40 to 70 people per shift worked in 8-hour stints, hours a day to remove an estimated 1, skeletons from the site slated for construction. Let me be clear: The Museum of Tolerance is not being built on the Mamilla Cemetery, but on an adjacent 3-acre site where, for a half-century, hundreds of people of all faiths have parked in a threelevel underground structure without any protest. And so, the Israeli authorities are basically pushing ahead with the desecration of a cemetery that they have been, unfortunately, slowly nibbling away at for over three decades.
We and other families are taking action as a group of families to try and stop this, after other families failed in the Israeli Supreme Court. There are more probably beneath those, according to his report, which was suppressed in the submissions to the Israeli Supreme Court. A new design for the museum drafted by Chyutin Architects was approved by the city of Jerusalem in June , receiving an official building permit from the Interior Ministry in July In October , eighty-four archaeologists called on the Simon Wiesenthal Center, the Jerusalem municipality and the Israel Antiquities Authority to end construction of the Museum of Tolerance.
In a letter sent to the three bodies, the archaeologists argued that the establishment of the museum on the site of the Mamilla Muslim cemetery contradicted ethical standards in the archaeological world, as well as Israeli law. A reporter from Agence France Presse witnessed the destruction of graves until the work was briefly suspended while the court heard a stop work petition it rejected, allowing demolitions to continue that same day. The judge later issued an order prohibiting harm to ancient graves and mandating that the ILA coordinate work with the Israel Antiquities Authority and representatives of the Islamic Movement.
On the night of June , , about gravestones in an intact part of the cemetery were destroyed by Israeli bulldozers. Footage filmed by local media and activists appeared on Al Arabiya and Al Jazeera and showed the bulldozers pulling out quickly after realizing they were being filmed; Israeli officials made no comment on the incident.
The news was reported in November by Agence France Presse whose photographer saw the damage. Haaretz reported that the authorities did not know exactly when the vandalism took place, nor who was responsible.
From Wikipedia, Mamilla Pool is one of several ancient reservoirs that supplied water to the inhabitants of the Old City of Jerusalem. Ecosystem With the first rains, the pool hosts an ecosystem of crabs, frogs, and insects. During Spring, it becomes a haven for migrating birds. In , a previously unknown species of amphibian tree frogs was discovered in the pool. The researchers named their find Hyla heinzsteinitzi, in honor of Heinz Steinitz, a deceased Israeli marine biologist.
As of , the species is assumed to be extinct. Jahrhundert umschlossen. Geschichte Zwischen wurde eine Mauer um die Altstadt gebaut. Im Laufe des Als zentraler heiliger Ort der drei monotheistischen Weltreligionen ist er sehr umstritten. Gesondert betrachtet und genannt wird er, da er unbewohnt ist und keinem der Altstadtviertel zugeordnet ist.
Die Bezeichnungen der einzelnen Viertel stammt aus einer Zeit, als die verschiedenen Gruppen streng voneinander getrennt gelebt haben. Seit dem 4. Bis in die Zeit der Kreuzfahrer hinein war dieser Stadtteil von Juden bewohnt. Jahrhundert kamen arabische Siedler in diesen Teil der Stadt. Starken Zulauf erhielt diese Gemeinschaft nach der Vertreibung der Juden aus Spanien und seit dem Jahrhundert durch die Ausweisung von Juden aus Osteuropa. Marokkanisches Viertel Bis zum Jahr existierte in der Altstadt auch noch ein kleines marokkanischen Viertel. Im Norden sind dies das Damaskustor und das Herodestor.
Har Adar was founded in and has a population of 3, The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank illegal under international law, but the Israeli government disputes this. It was finally captured in the Six-Day War by an armored brigade, also called Harel. A monument for the fallen soldiers of the brigade stands at the top of the town. The current settlement was founded in by the Radar Hill Organization.
Har Adar lit. Mount Adar was a similar-sounding Hebrew name given to the hill and the settlement. Status under international law Like all Israeli settlements in the Israeli-occupied territories, Har Adar is considered illegal under international law, though Israeli disputes this. Israel disputes that the Fourth Geneva Convention applies to the Palestinian territories as they had not been legally held by a sovereign prior to Israel taking control of them. Demographics In , the population of Har Adar was In , the municipal surplus stood at NIS , In , there were 1, salaried workers in Har Adar.
The average salary for males was NIS 15,, and 8, for women — both higher than the national average. In addition, there were self-employed workers, with an average income of NIS 12, Some Palestinians work as day laborers in Har Adar.
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According to local council regulations they are not permitted to walk around freely, and must be driven by their employers, who are responsible for providing them with all their needs. The Association for Civil Rights in Israel sees this as a form of racism. From Wikipedia, Har Adar banning movement of Palestinians Official order forbids Arab laborers to walk around Jerusalem corridor community.
Association for Civil Rights: This is racism. They are allowed to work, but cannot simply roam the area. Some Palestinian workers arrived every morning at Har Adar, a community located beyond the Green Line which accommodates many military and security officials. The laborers are forbidden to move on foot in the community, and are even not allowed to shop at the local grocery store. They must ask their employer to take care of their needs or drive them wherever they wish to go. They are satisfied with that and so are we. This is not a ban on movement, but a need for accompaniment for understandable security reasons.
Die genaue Lage des antiken Ortes ist allerdings nicht bekannt. Dort verlaufen auch die Hauptverkehrsadern. Die ersten Siedler zogen zu; die Zielplanung sieht eine Zahl von Der Master-Plan des Bauministeriums von sieht den Bau von weiteren 1. The name derives from the green ink used to draw the line on the map while the talks were going on. In , Ehud Olmert proposed a convergence plan that called for Israel to disengage, unilaterally, if necessary, from much of the West Bank east of the Line. This plan was disrupted by the IsraelGaza conflict and the Israel-Lebanon conflict.
Overview The Green Line is not an international or permanent border. While the line is only an Armistice Demarcation Line, in practice it is used to differentiate between those areas which are administered as part of the State of Israel, and the areas outside it, which are administered by the Israeli military or the Palestinian National Authority. The extended municipality of Jerusalem constitutes one exception to this: although the parts ruled by Jordan until fall outside the Green Line, Israel has informally annexed them according to the Basic Jerusalem Law Arab population The majority of Arabs on the Israeli side of the Line fled or were expelled during the war.
To achieve this, a territorial swap was negotiated with Transjordan, giving the latter Israeli territory in the southern hills of Hebron in exchange for the Triangle villages in Wadi Ara. In the SixDay War, Israel occupied territories beyond the Green Line inhabited by over a million Palestinian Arabs, including refugees from the — war. The Green Line remained the administrative border between these territories with the exception of Jerusalem and the areas inside the Israeli side of the Green Line.
In , East Jerusalem was annexed into Israel, with its Arab inhabitants given permanent residency status. They were also entitled to apply for Israeli citizenship. Domestically, the status of East Jerusalem as part of Israel was further entrenched with the Jerusalem Law of United Nations Security Council Resolution , determined the law null and void. In , the rule of law of the State of Israel was extended to the Golan Heights with the Golan Heights Law in what can be seen as an informal annexation. Impact The sections of the Line that delineate the boundaries between Israel, the West Bank and Gaza run through heavily populated regions.
The line corresponds to the military front of the War, and while the considerations dictating its placement were primarily military, it soon became clear that in many places it divided towns and villages, and separated farmers from their fields. Consequently, the Green Line underwent various slight adjustments, and special arrangements were made for limited movement in certain areas.
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According to Avi Shlaim, in March as the Iraqi forces withdrew and handed over their positions to the Jordanian legion, Israel carried out Operation Shin-Tav-Shin which allowed Israel to renegotiate the cease fire line in the Wadi Ara area of the northern West Bank in a secret agreement that was incorporated into the General Armistice Agreement. The green line was redrawn in blue ink on the southern map to give the impression that a movement into green line had been made. Israeli-Palestinian conflict The question of whether, or to what extent, Israel should withdraw its population and forces to its side of the Green Line remains a crucial issue in some discussions surrounding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
The near-unanimous international consensus has been displayed in the yearly UN General Assembly vote on the Peaceful Settlement of the Question of Palestine. Although disputed by Israel, UN resolution has made clear the interpretation of international law regarding Palestinian Territory. The Palestinians were not party to the drawing of the Green Line and rejected UN resolution on the basis that it did not specifically call for an independent Palestinian state, but rather spoke of them as refugees.
Since , most elements in the PLO have accepted the pre-June borders as a basis for the establishment of a Palestinian state. According to Noam Chomsky, claims that the Palestinian leadership reject the international consensus calling for a Palestinian state with borders along the Green Line are not consistent with the documented record. Smaller elements in the Palestinian leadership, such as Hamas, have called for a two state settlement based on the pre-June borders the Green Line.
All but a few of the Gush Etzion Defenders were massacred. The prisoners were returned to Israel after the war. From August to September , Israel imple-. It is a modern planned city with high standards of urban planning. Environmental issues and future growth were taken into consideration from the early design stages. The long term projection of the ministry of housing is for the city to be home to , residents, thus becoming one of the largest localities in Israel. However, plans approved for the city thus far are for only , residents.
The city also attracts Olim from English speaking countries. The city was planned by the well-known architect Moshe Safdie. Its physical geography: Climate, landforms, flora and fauna, all reflect this position midway between the two cities. Demographics According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, the City is rated at level 8 out of 10 on the scale of socio-economic development, with a high proportion of high school graduation, As of December , it had a total population of 46,, making it the largest Jewish community in the area.
The international community considers Israeli settlements illegal under international law, but the Israeli government disputes this. History Kiryat Sefer is mentioned in the Book of Judges, allegedly destroyed by the Romans in the first century, rebuilt, and destroyed again in the second century in the Bar Kokhba revolt. The city had an annual growth rate of The city is home to many commercial enterprises. Because of its sizable English-speaking immigrant population, it has become a center for high-quality outsourcing by American companies.
There are approximately 80 synagogues. A significant number of men study the Torah full time. It is the site of weekly protests by Palestinian villagers and their supporters against the construction of the wall and against the settlement. These protests often involve rock throwing by the Palestinians, and the firing of tear gas and rubber-coated bullets by Israeli security forces, which in one case led to death of a protester when a tear gas grenade hit him in the chest.
The IDF said that there was no intention to fire the tear gas grenade directly at any protesters. Attacks on residents On Monday morning, December 29, around 8 am, an Arab worker fixing a heating system on a 6th story apartment on Rebbi Yehuda HaNasi Street in Ahuzat Brachfeld struck his supervisor with a sledgehammer to his head. The attacker then proceeded to the street and attacked several passersby, stabbing several of them.
After he managed to stab four Jews and beat up several others, he was shot and seriously wounded by an emergency response team member. Abode of Justice is a neighborhood located in southwestern Tel Aviv, Israel. It was the first Jewish neighborhood to be built outside the walls of the ancient port of Jaffa. For years, the neighborhood prospered as Tel Aviv, the first modern Hebrew city, grew up around it. History Neve Tzedek was established in , 22 years before the founding of the City of Tel Aviv, by a group of Jewish families seeking to move outside of over-crowded Jaffa. Soon, additional small developments grew up around Neve Tzedek and were incorporated into the contemporary boundaries of the neighbourhood.
The residents preferred to construct their new neighborhoods with low-rise buildings along narrow streets. At the beginning of the s, many artists and writers made Neve Tzedek their residence. During his time in Neve Tzedek he became very close friends with many of the writers, especially Agnon. However, as Tel Aviv began to be developed away from the Jaffa core, the more affluent started to move out of the southern end of the city to inhabit the newlydeveloping northern areas. With its buildings abandoned, neglected and subjected to the unsightly corrosive effects of sea-air upon concrete and stucco, Neve Tzedek degenerated into disrepair and urban decay.
By the s, city officials deemed the neighbourhood — by this time almost a slum — incompatible with the modern image of a busy, bustling city. However, plans to demolish the historic neighbourhood to make way for high rise apartments were eventually cancelled as many Neve Tzedek buildings were placed on preservation lists.
At the same time, the old, worn-out neighbourhood was also becoming appreciated as an oasis of the semi-pastoral and picturesque amidst the modernist development of the city center. The Tel Aviv Light Rail, which is expected to pass near Neve Tzedek, will make the neighbourhood even more accessible for visitors and residents alike. Controversial plans In , the Tel Aviv municipality began to approve plans to construct a number of new highways and widened arterial roads throughout southern Tel Aviv, including the proposed railway road, which would partially encircle Neve Tzedek.
As part of these plans, the municipality approved the construction of a.
A number of parking lots would also be constructed along Rothschild Boulevard in order to handle the parking demand induced by the new road space. Opponents of this plan cited a number of concerns with the approval process and with the plan itself. First and foremost, they argue that the addition of new skyscraper-lined highways will dramatically alter the historical and social character of Neve Tzedek and its surrounding areas in southern Tel Aviv. Furthermore, many residents and environmentalists are concerned about the effects of large amounts of traffic being funneled through the area, especially in a time when other developed cities are removing highways, which are now seen as mistakes from the past.
Located near the Neve Tzedek district of the city, the tower is the eleventh tallest building in the country at meters in height over 44 floors. The tower contains apartments and was completed in It is taller than typical apartment buildings because some of the floors have loft units with greater floor-to-ceiling heights.
Each floor is approximately sqm in size and contains between three and thirteen apartments. On the tenth floor of the tower is an indoor swimming pool and a private gym. During construction, a crane at the site fell onto Eilat Street below, killing two workers and injuring eight others.
The crane also crushed a number of cars travelling below. Use: Residential. Constuction began in and ended in Jaffa way , Hated alley, Pines alley. The tower will contain apartments. Each floor will contain 3 to 13 residential units. The first 10 floors will be double-sized and 6 meters tall. The apartments in those stories will contain a gallery floor, so that each apartment will have a gallery floor above a half of its size, the remainder space of the apartment will be 6 meter tall, a giant window will extend along its height and width. The area will become a pedestrian compound free from traffic nuisances.
The plan includes a rehabilitation and renovation of 3 old building in the compound. The plan includes a construction of a park in size of 4 dunams. Total size: 6 dunams The cost of the project: 90 million dollars. From telavivinf. In , Nataf had a population of Nataf was founded in on private land purchased from residents of Abu Ghosh.
It overlooks Nataf Valley, a popular hiking destination. Nataf spring is watered all year round and has a number of small freshwater pools. The name Nataf is of biblical origins and referred to the incense Stacte. Many of the residents are Modern Orthodox. Nitaf was mostly destroyed with the exception of ONE deserted house. Ethnically cleansing by Israelis: Nitaf inhabitants were completely ethnically cleansed.
From www. Modern Orthodoxy draws on several teachings and philosophies, and thus assumes various forms. In Israel, Modern Orthodoxy is dominated by Religious Zionism; however, although not identical, these movements share many of the same values and many of the same adherents. Thus, Modern Orthodoxy holds that Jewish law is normative and binding, while simultaneously attaching a positive value to interaction with the modern world.
Die Gruppierungen unterscheiden sich nicht in erster Linie, aber auch in Hinblick auf Gottesvorstellungen und Glauben. Eine Mittelstellung zwischen Orthodoxie und dem liberalen Judentum nimmt das im Jahrhundert sich formierende konservative Judentum ein. Das nicht-orthodoxe Judentum versteht diese Offenbarung nicht als absolut, sondern als einen fortdauernden Prozess des Dialoges Gottes mit seinem Volk, in der Zeit und in den Kulturen.
Seit Anfang des Jahrhunderts hat sich der Schwerpunkt der wissenschaftlichen und theologischen Entwicklung des Judentums in die USA verlagert. In diesen rechtlichen Auslegungen des schriftlichen Kanons der Tora spiegeln sich die unterschiedlichen Meinungen der Rabbiner, Weisen und Gelehrten wider. Historisch ist die Halacha ein Teil des Talmuds. Manche sind sinajitischen, manche sind rabbinischen Ursprungs.
Bush kritisiert. Scharon hatte deswegen auf die Bebauung verzichtet. Das Zollamt Hamburg verweigerte dies, Brita zog dagegen erfolglos vor Gericht. In , the population was 39, The city is located along Highway 1, which connects it to Jerusalem and the Tel Aviv area. The international community considers Israeli settlements illegal under international law , but the Israeli government disputes this.
It was designed as a planned community and suburban commuter town to nearby Jerusalem, to which many residents commute daily. The group was evicted several times. Due to its strategic location between the northern and southern parts of the West Bank, Palestinians see this as a threat to the territorial continuity of a future Palestinian state. Israeli drivers use a bypass road that exits the city to the west, entering Jerusalem through the French Hill Junction or a tunnel that goes under Mt. These routes were built in the wake of the First and Second Intifadas when Palestinian militants shot at motorists and cars were stoned.
The previous road passes through Azariya and Abu Dis. After Peace Now petitioned the Israeli courts to have the official data released, the group revised the figure to 0. According to the municipal spokesman, the overwhelming majority moved to the city not for ideological reasons but for lower-cost housing and higher living standards. In , 48 percent of residents were under the age of Schools offer after-school. A special program has been developed for new immigrant children. Additional resources are invested in special education and classes for gifted children, including a special after-school program for honors students in science and math.
Religious high schools are Yeshiva Tichonit, Tzvia and Amit. The city has over 40 synagogues and several yeshivas, among them Yeshivat Birkat Moshe. It has also won the national prize for environmental quality in recognition of its emphasis on urban planning, green space, playgrounds and outdoor sculptures. Israeli Foreign Ministry spokesman Mark Regev denied the 07 extension plan is a violation of the roadmap peace plan, under which Israel agreed to freeze all building in the settlements.
As a result, a plan for 3,, homes in Mevaseret Adumim was frozen. The new Judea and Samaria District police headquarters, formerly located in the Ras el-Amud neighborhood of Jerusalem, was completed in May Israel maintains that international conventions relating to occupied land do not apply to the West Bank because they were not under the legitimate sovereignty of any state in the first place.
Although the municipal boundaries cover 48, dunams, the city has been suffering from an acute housing shortage since due to the freeze on new construction. Most of the real-estate market in is in second-hand properties. Euthymius built in the 5th century and destroyed by the Mamluk sultan Baybars. Khan alAhmar is a 13th century travelers inn for pilgrims on the route between Jerusalem and Mecca via Nabi Musa. In der Vergangenheit hatte er eine strategische Bedeutung hinsichtlich der Verteidigung der Stadt. The dedication ceremony was held in in the presence of many dignitaries.
This garden contains one of the largest collections of Israeli uncultivated plants. The cave is included now in the Hebrew University campus. The cemetery is located on Mt. Total, fallen soldiers were not identified. Another was placed in the cemetery a memorial to unknown soldiers burial place in Israel were killed and Egypt.
All in all, immortalized in the military cemetery in Jerusalem, Spatial memory of the First World War. No casualties were killed in the cemetery after the war. In , when the Jordanians occupied East Jerusalem and blockaded the road to Mount Scopus, the hospital could no longer function. On April 13, , a civilian convoy bringing medical supplies and personnel to Hadassah Hospital on Mount Scopus was attacked by Arab forces.
It serves as home. It also includes the National Headquarters of the Israel Police. The construction of the Brigham Young University Jerusalem Center, owned and operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on Mount Scopus initially sparked controversy due to concerns that the Mormons would engage in missionary activities.
After the Mormons pledged not to proselytize in Israel, work on the building was allowed to proceed. The Mormon University, as it is commonly known, commands a panoramic view of Jerusalem and has won awards for its stunning architecture. It would bear the names of all 6,,, including the soldiers, partisans, and ghetto fighters. Er legte diese Professur , nach der Machtergreifung, nieder, bevor sie ihm aberkannt wurde. Aus der nationalsozialistischen Reichsschrifttumskammer wurde er ausgeschlossen. Martin Buber starb in Jerusalem. Das trug ihm viel Widerspruch und Feindschaft ein. In den dort versammelten Dokumenten, aus denen insbesondere seine entstandene Schrift Zwei Glaubensweisen herausragt, zeigt Buber in paradigmatischer Weise das Trennende, gleichzeitig aber auch die enge theologische Verbindung zwischen Judentum und Christentum auf.
Geschichte Am Der unter Salomo gebaute erste Tempel war bereits v. Nach der Besetzung Jerusalems durch die Perser konnte an derselben Stelle um v. Der Platz vor der Klagemauer wurde durch die Schleifung des sogenannten marokkanischen Viertels nach der israelischen Eroberung Jerusalems im Jahre gewonnen. Sie ist 48 Meter lang und 18 Meter hoch. Viele stecken auch aufgeschriebene Gebete in die Ritzen und Spalten der Mauer. Die Klagemauer hat ein eigenes Rabbinat. Ein extra abgegrenzter Bereich direkt vor der Klagemauer gilt als Freilichtsynagoge. Theology and ritual Judaism: Jewish tradition teaches that the Western Wall was built by King Solomon and that the wall we see today is built upon his foundations, which date from the time of the First Temple.
Others believed that the wall still stood and was actually a surviving wall of the Temple courtyard. However, today there is no doubt that the wall is the western retaining wall of the Temple Mount and the Midrash refers to the Temple in its broader sense, that is, the Temple Mount. When asked by Titus why he did not destroy it, Pangar replied that it would stand as a reminder of what Titus had conquered. He was duly executed. There is a tradition that states that when water starts trickling through the stones of the Wall, it is a signal of the advent of the Messiah.
They then began calling it the Al-Buraq Wall. The tradition is first referred to in a manuscript by Ibn Furkah d. Other sources which referred to this tradition date from the 19th century and include the deliberation refusing the Jews the right to pave the area in front of the wall and the map of Jerusalem by Wilson that names the area around the Wailing Wall Hosh al-Buraq. The second factor is the claim that it is waqf property and a part of the Noble Sanctuary.
However, the actions of many modern Christian leaders, including Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict XVI, who visited the Wall and actually left prayer messages in its crevices, has symbolized for many Christians a restoration of respect and even veneration for this ancient religious site. Some extreme Christian Zionists go further, claiming that the Third Temple must be rebuilt as part of the groundwork for the Second Coming.
A small group of extremists even advocate the destruction of the Muslim Dome of the Rock to hasten the new Temple construction. Views Jewish: Most Jews, religious and secular, consider the wall to be important to Judaism since it was originally built to hold the Second Temple.
They consider the capture of the wall by Israel in as a historic event since it restored Jewish access to the site after a 19 year gap. There are, however, some haredi Jews who hold opposing views. Most notable are the adherents of the Satmar hasidic sect who retain the views expoused by rabbi Joel Teitelbaum who would not approach the Wall.
Our holy places, the Temple Mount - will remain under Israeli sovereignty forever. The Jews, he maintained, had no rights there at all. The Jews began praying at this wall only in the nineteenth century, when they began to develop [national] aspirations. The Jews cannot legitimately claim this wall, neither religiously nor historically.
The Committee of the League of Nations recommended in , to allow the Jews to pray there, in order to keep them quiet. But by no means did it acknowledge that the wall belongs to them. Ende hatte die Stadt At the end of , it had a total population of 38, consisting of over families.
By , the population is expected to reach , Beitar Illit was established in and initially settled by a small group of young families from the religious zionist yeshiva of Machon Meir, including that of Rabbi Reuven Hass now of Beit El. As Beitar Illit began to grow, an influx of Haredi Jewish Bobov families came to predominate while the original group moved on. The city has since expanded to three adjacent hills. It is named after the ancient Jewish city of Betar, whose ruins lie 1 km away.
Demographics Beitar Illit is a fast-growing settlement, with a higher birthrate than any other habitation in the West Bank or Israel. According to the statistics from the Ministry of Interior, the population figures for January there are 34, members listed on their computers and 29, citizens that are listed as active. The town is reported to have almost 20, schoolchildren. According to former mayor Yitzchak Pindrus, the population is expected to reach , by , based on population growth and the building of new apartments to attract more Haredim from older Haredi cities such as Bnei Brak and parts of Jerusalem.
A significant. Geography Beitar Illit is in the northern Judean Hills at about m above sea level. It is located just west of the intersection of Route 60, the north—south artery which roughly follows the watershed from Nazareth through Jerusalem to Beersheba, and Route , which descends west into the Elah Valley to the coastal plain and Tel Aviv area. It takes about 10 minutes to get to Jerusalem and Tel Aviv is around 60 minutes away.
Status under international law Like all Israeli settlements in the Israeli-occupied territories, Beitar Illit is considered illegal under international law, though Israel disputes this. Education There are dozens of pre-schools, 50 elementary schools, 2 girls high schools, 3 yeshiva ketanahs, 2 yeshiva gedollahs, and 2 English kollels in Beitar Illit. The resulting flooding with wastewater is said to endanger the water table as well as cause health problems for the nearby villagers.
Media reports also say it ruins surrounding crops, vineyards, and almond orchards. Since , it has led the nation in environmental action, striving to fulfill its vision of a truly beautiful country. CBI is a public organization, under no governmental auspices. Its operations are funded mainly by philanthropic donations, through fund-raising events in Israel and abroad. Additional revenues come from strategic collaboration with leading companies in the industrial, financial and hi-tech sectors, social and community organizations, and from cooperation with governmental bodies such as the Ministry of Education and with the Israel Defense Forces IDF.
In accordance with this belief, CBI works through education, media campaigns, competitions and exemplary projects to inspire citizens and organizations in Israel to actively seek a greener, cleaner environment. This attitude allows CBI to gain wide public support for its initiatives and carry its messages through all parts of Israeli society.
The Council is also escorted by leading public figures and top professionals who voluntarily give their time and expertise. The Council for a Beautiful Israel has 2, dedicated longtime volunteers coming from and working for all sectors of the Israeli society: Secular, Religious and Haredi Jews, Arabs, Bedouins, and Druze.
Activity Environmental Education The most profound, long-lasting changes are made through education. Therefore, the Council for a Beautiful Israel has made environmental education a major focus in its activities. This includes periphery towns, non-Jewish communities and major cities. CBI is selected once and again by the Ministry of Education for developing and implementing environmental education programs, making them a household name.
Media Campaigns In many cases, Media Campaigns are the most efficient way to have a de facto influence on public matters concerning the environment. The Council for a Beautiful Israel uses this outlet to address issues in cases where the involvement and awareness of the general public is critical: consumption of plastic bags, using energy efficient light bulbs, litter-free elections and so on. Competitions, Awards and Prizes Since , the Council for a Beautiful Israel has initiated and operated a series of unique national competitions. These competitions grant recognition to organizations that strive toward excellence in environment and aesthetics, setting new standards in various fields and sectors.
Among them are municipalities, industrial plants, IDF camps, hospitals and hotels. Through these awards and prizes, CBI not only recognizes but also rewards individuals and organizations whose contribution in creating a truly beautiful Israel is ground-breaking. As the soldiers of today are the citizens of tomorrow, CBI sees environmental education within the armed forces as both influential and effective in introducing core values, which the soldiers will carry with them throughout their lives. Er grenzt an Bait Sahur. Im Jahr hatte Har Choma Jedoch fing die Grundsteinlegung unter der Regierung des Premierministers Benjamin Netanjahu nicht vor an.
Diese Jerusalemer Stadtgrenze wurde einseitig von Israel nach gezogen und ist international nicht anerkannt. In March , the Israeli government announced it would build 6, Jewish homes, expected to accommodate 30,, Israelis, at Har Homa. This announcement led to Palestinian riots and a breakdown in the peace talks. Following these events and heavy international pressure, construction was frozen. In May , the Israeli government announced plans for the construction of 3, new apartments and government financed housing units in the Arab neighborhood of Sur Bahir, which faces Har Homa.
Position of Palestinian Authority The Palestinians denounced the project as a Jewish settlement, stating that it will complete a ring of Jewish settlements around Jerusalem and seal off the city from the Palestinians Applied Research Institute of Jerusalem Website. The PA views the project as a violation of the peace agreements because it creates facts on the ground which predetermine final status negotiations Palestinian National Authority Official Website.
Position of U. Government The U. The U. In a vote of to 3, the United States, along with Israel and Micronesia, were the only countries among the members in the UN General Assembly to vote against an April resolution demanding an immediate halt to construction at Har Homa.
The previous month, a similar resolution condemning Israeli activity at Har Homa was passed to 2, with only the U. The Clinton Administration cautioned that while its UN votes do not indicate support for the project, the U. Built on land annexed to the Jerusalem municipality by Israel after the Six-Day War, it is considered by much of the world an illegal Israeli settlement, although Israel disputes this. The neighborhood was officially renamed Homat Shmuel in after Shmuel Meir, a former deputy mayor of Jerusalem, who played an active role in its development before he was killed in a car accident in In , Har Homa had a population of 20, Following the war, the Jordanian Custodian of Enemy Property planted a pine forest there to prevent misuse of the land by local Jordanian residents.
Since , the forest has been maintained by the Jewish National Fund. Plans for residential development were drawn up in the s, but were opposed by Israeli environmental groups working to preserve the open areas in Jerusalem. Prime Minister Shimon Peres initially approved construction plans for Jewish homes on the site, but postponed the groundbreaking ceremony to avoid conflict with Palestinians who were seeking to overturn the decision in the Israeli courts. Controversy Israeli officials acknowledge that some Palestinian land was expropriated for the Har Homa neighborhood, but say that nearly 80 percent of the land taken for the project belonged to Jews.
Israel says Har Homa is within the city limits of Jerusalem and most of the land was owned by Jews prior to its conquest by Jordan in Furthermore, the land was unoccupied and undeveloped prior to the current construction; both Jewish and Arab landholders were compensated for the land; and residents of Beit Sahour would not be able to develop the land in any event as the Oslo agreements specifically barred Palestinian jurisdiction over Jerusalem for the time being, and also excluded settlements as an issue, leaving it for permanent status negotiations.
Most of the residents of Har Homa today are young families who moved there in search of affordable housing. When the Jerusalem Municipality approved the initial 2, housing units in Har Homa, it also approved 3, housing units and government financed housing units in the Arab neighborhood of Sur Baher, which faces Har Homa. The plans were drawn up in , but the approval process was stepped up in May as a counterbalance to Jewish development at Har Homa Palestinian officials dismissed the project as a ploy aimed at deflecting international criticism.
After failing to stop the development of the site, the residents of Beit Sahour have petitioned Israeli Supreme Court to return the undeveloped land between Beit Sahour and Har Homa to the Palestinian municipality, and to move the security fence to reflect their ownership of this land. Views of U. While the United States has traditionally refrained from describing Jerusalem neighborhoods as settlements, in , Condoleezza Rice was critical of building tenders in Har Homa announced after the Annapolis meeting.
Zurzeit gibt es rund Die Zentrale ist in Washington, D. Im Februar wurde in Frankreich die Pariser Loge nach ihm benannt. It was one of the many fraternities that were founded in the United States during that period. In , for example, it circulated petitions urging Secretary of State Daniel Webster to demand the end of Jewish disabilities in Switzerland, during on-going trade negotiations. The spread of the organization around the world, first to Germany in and then to Palestine, Romania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, France, England and elsewhere, made it a nerve center of intra-Jewish communication and mutual endeavor.
Its ultimate purpose is to secure justice and fair treatment to all citizens alike and to put an end forever to unjust and unfair discrimination against and ridicule of any sect or body of citizens. Kennedy, George H. Bush, Stephen Harper and Golda Meir. It was part of the Jaffa—Jerusalem railway until its closure in The station today is also known as the Khan station for the old caravanserai building located across the road from its site now The Jerusalem khan Theater. The station was opened in as a terminus of the Jaffa—Jerusalem line, at the In the railway line to Jerusalem was closed and the station has been decaying since.
It was not included in the restoration of the Tel Aviv — Jerusalem line, completed in Plans exist to renovate it as an entertainment venue, similarly to the Jaffa Railway Station. History The idea to build a railway linking the coast with the Jerusalem was first raised in the middle of the 19th century by Dr. Conrad Schick, Moses Montefiore and others. Among those present at the ceremony was Eliezer Ben Yehuda, the reviver of the Hebrew language, which gave the train the literal name of — horse of the steel in Hebrew as the word Rakevet had not yet been created.
The station operated almost continuously until , when traffic stopped on the Jaffa—Jerusalem line due to the Arab—Israeli War. At the end of the war a section of the track near Beit Safafa, an Arab neighborhood in southeastern Jerusalem, remained under the control of the Jordanian Arab Legion. Following the Rhodes armistice agreement, it was agreed that Jordan will hand the control of this section of the track to Israel, in order to enable Israel Railways to restart the service to Jerusalem.
As a result, between to the Beit Safafa neighborhood was divided; the area south of the railway line was part of the Jordanian controlled West Bank and the railway line itself and small area to the North part of the Israeli controlled section of Jerusalem. Das kirchliche Lehramt hat eine Reihe von Dokumenten herausgegeben Gerade sie raten uns an, euch Oktober AAS.
Vatikanischen Konzils G. August AAS.
Enzyklika Sacerdotalis caelibatus Juni AAS. Die Abschnitte sind dem 2. Wenn einmal die Eignung des betreffenden Kandidaten feststeht Eine strenge April AAS. Aufgabe der Katechese ist es, die Christen zur Unterscheidung von Natur und Werte dessen anzuleiten, was durch die Massenmedien angeboten wird. April Enchiridion Vaticanum , II, , :. Jahrestag der Enzyklika Rerum novarum Mai AAS. Nur dann entfalten die Kommunikationsmittel ihre volle Wirksamkeit. Dabei darf der gesamtgesellschaftliche Bezug nicht fehlen. Das setzt eine gewisse Vertrautheit und einen direkten Umgang mit den Kommunikationsmitteln voraus.
Weiterhin sollen Priester und Ordensleute die Prozesse der Meinungsbildung genau kennen und sich den Gegebenheiten unserer Zeit anpassen. Sacerdotalis caelibatus April Enchiridion Vaticanum , V, , S. Die sozialen Kommunikationsmittel oder Massenmedien spielen eine wichtige Rolle in der Formung des heutigen Menschen, auch des Priesters.
Vatikanisches Konzil, Dekret Inter mirifica, passim. Notwendig ist hier eine positive Erziehung, eine Reflexion auf die sozialen Probleme, in die wir hineingestellt sind. Es ist auch ein Problem der leitenden Personen des Seminars, die fachlich hinreichend ausgebildet sein sollen, um auch diesen Bereich der Erziehung in der rechten Weise zu ordnen.
Botschaft zum VIII. Welttag der Massenmedien Mai L'Osservatore Romano , Unsere Aufgabe ist eine Erneuerung der Methoden des Apostolats. Ansprache Juni L'Osservatore Romano , Geistliche Fortbildung Oktober Enchiridion Vaticanum V, , Nr. Die Vermittlung des Evangeliums Unter den Informationsmedien haben besondere Bedeutung XX der Propositiones , vorgetragen in der XV. Vollversammlung am Oktober und approbiert in der XVI. Botschaft zum XII. Dekret Inter Mirifica , Nr. Johannes Paul I. September L'Osservatore Romano , 1.
Oktober :. Ich trenne mich von euch, um mich mit Gott zu vereinigen'. Oktober L'Osservatore Romano , Die Erfahrung zeigt z. Die Kirche hat heute viele Gelegenheiten, diese Probleme zu behandeln - darin eingeschlossen auch Tage der Sozialen Kommunikationsmittel". Messe Codex Juris Canonici, Vatikanische Buchhandlung, Januar durch die Apostolische Konstitution Sacrae disciplinae leges , und in Kraft getreten am November des gleichen Jahres.
Von den 9 Callones, die von den Medien der sozialen Kommunikation handeln - , , , , , , , und - werden hier nur jene 5 gebracht, die irgendwie die besondere Ausbildung des Klerus behandeln. Die Kirche Botschaft zum XIX. Welttag der sozialen Kommunikationsmittel April L'Osservatore Romano , Inter mirifica , Nr. Communio et progressio , Nr. Vorbemerkung - Die scheinbare Kompliziertheit dieses Themenkatalogs darf nicht verwirren. Leitlinien Nr. Praktisch wird man bei der integralen Bildung auf der ersten Ebene, bzw.
Entwicklung in der Zeit. Von der durch Gesten vermittelten zur worthaften-gesprochenen, zur worthaft-geschriebenen-ideographischen, zur Buchstabenschrift und zur gedruckten Schrift. In der heutigen Epoche: Die Medienkommunikation. Zur Informatik und Telematik. Gegenseitige Beeinflussung von technologischer Entwicklung, Energiequellen und sozio-kultureller Entwicklung.
Ursprung und Entwicklungen. Gesamtbewertung der erreichten Ergebnisse. Einige klassische Werke: H. Lasswell und seine Schema-Formel; C. Shannon - W. Weaver und die Informationstheorie ; H. Lasswell, B. Berelson, A. Moles, E. Katz - P. Lazarsfeld, R. Innis und M. McLuhan; Der Zukunftsshock von A. Die psychisch-sozialen mit den Massenmedien verbundenen Probleme. Gesamtinformelle Akkulturation. Die Gesellschaft der pluralistischen Meinungen. Die Frankfurter Schule: T. Adorno, M. Horkheimer, H. Die einzelnen Massenmedien: Die Presse.
Die journalistische Organisation: auf nationaler und Weltebene. Wie "liest" man eine Zeitung? Die einzelnen Massenmedien: Das Kino. Technische Entwicklung. Das Kino als Darbietung zwischen Kunst und Ideologie. Elemente der filmischen Kommunikation. Entstehung des Filmes.
Wirtschaftlich-soziale Strukturen in der eigenen Nation und in der Welt. Wie soll man einen Film "lesen". Teilweise und totale Filmkritik. Die einzelnen Massenmedien. Das Radiofernsehen. Technische Begriffe: Entwicklung und Standard. Kritische Aufnahme von Radio- und Fernsehsendungen. Die Zukunft hat begonnen. Kybernetik, Elektronik, Informatik und Telematik sind da. Vom Transistor ist man zur Miniaturisierung und zum Laser fortgeschritten.
Es gibt neben den Schallplatten Audio- und Videokassetten. Es gibt Computer, Speicheranlagen, Datenbanken und Satelliten. Wir bewegen uns auf die augenblickliche Kommunikation zu jedem beliebigen Punkt der Erde hin. Die Funktionen: Zerstreuung. Direkte Beteiligung Sport, Tourismus und Ersatzerfahrungen. Die Funktionen: Information. Quellen und Werkzeuge. Die Agenturen: in der eigenen Nation und international. Heutige Lage und ihre soziale Funktion. Die neue "Weltordnung der Information".
Die beiden Berichte: S. Nora - A. Minc und S. Mac Bride. Die Funktionen: Propaganda und Werbung. Das Plakat. Entwicklung in der Zeit: von gelegentlicher zu dauernder. Ideologische Propaganda und Massenmedien bei den neueren Regimen. Der Slogan. Entwicklung in der Zeit und der psychisch-soziale Raum heute. Elemente der Meinungsforschung.
Related Der Einfluss religiöser Gruppen auf die öffentliche Meinungsbildung (German Edition)
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