Two Sons From Egypt: The Story of Thutmose III and Moses


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Thutmose’s minority

These three pharaohs the Bible refers to in connection with the Book of Exodus—and the life of Moses. Although many historians and Hollywood date the Exodus to the 13th-century BC, the Bible allows no wiggle room and offers a very specific date:. King Solomon ruled over Israel from BC, and the fourth year of his reign would have been B. So Exodus took place years earlier at BC. With that date in mind, we know that these three pharaohs in Royal Mummies Hall had a direct connection to Moses.

As such, she likely was the daughter who found Moses in the Nile and who took him to be her own son in her house Exodus ; Acts As I stared at the mummy of Hatshepsut, I looked carefully at her exposed hands and head. Those hands held baby Moses! Those lips kissed him, and Moses would also have expressed affection to this woman for years. Photo: Temple of Hatshepsut.

Reward Yourself

Courtesy of the Pictorial Library of Bible Lands. Moses and Thutmose III likely grew up together as contemporaries. His famous campaign and victory over Megiddo offers a great lesson on the strategic value of the site. Thutmose chiseled his success in the walls of the Karnak Temple in Luxor which I also saw. As is true with much of Egypt, photography especially videography is forbidden.

But the image of this pharaoh burned itself in my brain. I stood and stared into the face of Amenhotep II, the pharaoh who stood toe-to-toe with Moses. Over many days and in various ways Pharaoh had the opportunity to change. But this was the first time I saw people that our biblical greats had seen!

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Moses, Aaron, Miriam, Joshua, Caleb all would have seen these three pharaohs. It felt like standing in a bizarre time machine. But a museum official brought me back to reality. As I left, I thought about how in the future kingdom of God, when Jesus Christ rules the earth from Israel, all nations will gather to worship Him. Isaiah writes that Egypt will learn the Hebrew language, set up monuments to the Lord, and receive His blessings. After victory in battle, his troops stopped to plunder the enemy and the enemy was able to escape into Megiddo. This campaign drastically changed the political situation in the ancient Near East.

By taking Megiddo, Thutmose gained control of all of northern Canaan and the Syrian princes were obligated to send tribute and their own sons as hostages to Egypt. Thutmose's second, third and fourth campaigns appear to have been nothing more than tours of Syria and Canaan to collect tribute.

If so, no records of this campaign have been found. A survey was made of the animals and plants he found in Canaan, which was illustrated on the walls of a special room at Karnak. In Thutmose's 29th year, he began his fifth campaign, where he first took an unknown city the name falls in a lacuna which had been garrisoned by Tunip. Unlike previous plundering raids, Thutmose III garrisoned the area known as Djahy , which is probably a reference to southern Syria. Although there is no direct evidence for it, it is for this reason that some have supposed that Thutmose's sixth campaign, in his thirtieth year, commenced with a naval transportation of troops directly to Byblos , bypassing Canaan entirely.

The cities in Syria were not guided by the popular sentiment of the people so much as they were by the small number of nobles who were aligned to Mitanni: a king and a small number of foreign Maryannu. Thutmose III found that by taking family members of these key people to Egypt as hostages, he could drastically increase their loyalty to him.

With their economies in ruins, they had no means of funding a rebellion.

After Thutmose III had taken control of the Syrian cities, the obvious target for his eighth campaign was the state of Mitanni , a Hurrian country with an Indo-Aryan ruling class. However, to reach Mitanni, he had to cross the Euphrates River. He sailed directly to Byblos [39] and made boats which he took with him over land on what appeared to otherwise be just another tour of Syria, [37] and he proceeded with the usual raiding and pillaging as he moved north through the lands he had already taken. During this period of no opposition, Thutmose put up a second stele commemorating his crossing of the Euphrates next to the stele his grandfather, Thutmose I, had put up several decades earlier.

A militia was raised to fight the invaders, but it fared very poorly. Thutmose III returned to Syria for his ninth campaign in his 34th year, but this appears to have been just a raid of the area called Nukhashshe , a region populated by semi-nomadic people. By Thutmose's 35th year, the king of Mitanni had raised a large army and engaged the Egyptians around Aleppo. As usual for any Egyptian king, Thutmose boasted a total crushing victory, but this statement is suspect due to the very small amount of plunder taken.

The details about his next two campaigns are unknown. In his 13th campaign, Thutmose returned to Nukhashshe for a very minor campaign. The location of this campaign is impossible to determine since the Shasu were nomads who could have lived anywhere from Lebanon to the Transjordan to Edom. In his 40th year, tribute was collected from foreign powers, but it is unknown if this was considered a campaign i.

Sometime before Thutmose's 42nd year, Mitanni apparently began spreading revolt among all the major cities in Syria. Thutmose moved his troops by land up the coastal road and put down rebellions in the Arka plain "Arkantu" in Thutmose's chronicle and moved on Tunip. He engaged and destroyed three surrounding Mitannian garrisons and returned to Egypt in victory. Thutmose's last campaign was waged in his 50th regnal year. He attacked Nubia, but only went so far as the fourth cataract of the Nile. Although no king of Egypt had ever penetrated so far with an army, previous kings' campaigns had spread Egyptian culture that far already, and the earliest Egyptian document found at Gebel Barkal dates from three years before Thutmose's campaign.

Thutmose III was a great builder and constructed over 50 temples, although some of these are now lost and only mentioned in written records. His reign was also a period of great stylistic changes in the sculpture, paintings and reliefs associated with construction, much of it beginning during the reign of Hatshepsut.

Thutmose's architects and artisans showed great continuity with the formal style of previous kings, but several developments set him apart from his predecessors. He built Egypt's only known set of heraldic pillars, two large columns standing alone instead of being part of a set supporting the roof. His jubilee hall was also revolutionary and is arguably the earliest known building created in the basilica style.

Thutmose dedicated far more attention to Karnak than any other site. In the Iput-isut, the temple proper in the center, he rebuilt the hypostyle hall of his grandfather Thutmose I , dismantled the red chapel of Hatshepsut, built Pylon VI, a shrine for the bark of Amun in its place, and built an antechamber in front of it, the ceiling of which was supported by his heraldic pillars.

He built a temenos wall around the central chapel containing smaller chapels, along with workshops and storerooms. East of the main sanctuary, he built a jubilee hall in which to celebrate his Sed festival. The main hall was built in basilica style with rows of pillars supporting the ceiling on each side of the aisle. The central two rows were higher than the others to create windows where the ceiling was split. East of the Iput-Isut, he erected another temple to Aten, where he was depicted as being supported by Amun.

It was not, however, erected until Thutmose IV raised it [58] 35 years later. Thutmose also undertook building projects to the south of the main temple between the sanctuary of Amun and the temple of Mut.

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Immediately to the south of the main temple, he built the seventh pylon on the north-south road which entered the temple between the fourth and fifth pylons. It was built for use during his jubilee and was covered with scenes of defeated enemies.

Seeing the Faces of Ancient Egypt in the Cairo Museum

He set royal colossi on both sides of the pylon and put two more obelisks on the south face in front of the gateway. The eastern obelisk's base remains in place, but the western obelisk was transported to the Hippodrome in Constantinople. It uses a plan which is typical of 18th Dynasty tombs, with a sharp turn at the vestibule preceding the burial chamber.


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Two stairways and two corridors provide access to the vestibule, which is preceded by a quadrangular shaft or "well". A complete version of Amduat , an important New Kingdom funerary text, is in the vestibule, making it the first tomb where Egyptologists found the complete text. The burial chamber, which is supported by two pillars, is oval-shaped and its ceiling decorated with stars, symbolizing the cave of the deity Sokar.

In the middle lies a large red quartzite sarcophagus in the shape of a cartouche.

The Warrior Pharaohs

On the two pillars in the middle of the chamber there are passages from the Litanies of Re, a text that celebrates the later sun deity, who is identified with the pharaoh at this time. On the other pillar is a unique image depicting Thutmosis III being suckled by the goddess Isis in the guise of the tree. The wall decorations are executed in a simple "diagrammatic" way, imitating the manner of the cursive script one might expect to see on a funerary papyrus rather than the more typically lavish wall decorations seen on most other royal tomb walls.

The colouring is similarly muted, executed in simple black figures accompanied by text on a cream background with highlights in red and pink.

Two Sons From Egypt: The Story of Thutmose III and Moses

The decorations depict the pharaoh aiding the deities in defeating Apep , the serpent of chaos , thereby helping to ensure the daily rebirth of the sun as well as the pharaoh's own resurrection. Although Thutmose III was a co-regent during this time, early historians have speculated that Thutmose III never forgave his stepmother for denying him access to the throne for the first two decades of his reign.

This view is supported further by the fact that no strong evidence has been found to show Thutmose III sought to claim the throne. He kept Hatshepsut's religious and administrative leaders. Added to this is the fact that the monuments of Hatshepsut were not damaged until at least 25 years after her death, late in the reign of Thutmose III when he was quite elderly. He was in another coregency , this one with his son, who would become Amenhotep II , who is known to have attempted to identify the works of Hatshepsut as his own.

Additionally, Thutmose III's mortuary temple was built directly next to Hatshepsut's, an act that would have been unlikely to occur if Thutmose III bore a grudge against her. After her death, many of Hatshepsut's monuments and depictions were subsequently defaced or destroyed, including those in her famous mortuary temple complex at Deir el-Bahri. Traditionally, these have been interpreted by early modern scholars to be evidence of acts of damnatio memoriae condemning a person by erasure from recorded existence by Thutmose III. However, recent research by scholars such as Charles Nims and Peter Dorman has re-examined these erasures and found that the acts of erasure which could be dated only began some time during year 46 or 47 of Thutmose's reign c.

The monuments of her chief steward, Senenmut , who was closely associated with her rule, were similarly defaced where they were found.

history - Who was Pharaoh when Moses lived in Egypt? - Christianity Stack Exchange

Currently, the purposeful destruction of the memory of Hatshepsut is seen as a measure designed to ensure a smooth succession for the son of Thutmose III, the future Amenhotep II, as opposed to any of the surviving relatives of Hatshepsut who had an equal or better claim to the throne. It also may be likely that this measure could not have been taken until the deaths of powerful religious and administrative officials who had served under both Hatshepsut and Thutmose III. Thutmose III died one month and four days shy of the start of his 54th regnal year.

It was unwrapped soon after its arrival in the Boulak Museum while Maspero was away in France, and the Director General of the Egyptian Antiquities Service ordered the mummy re-wrapped. So when it was "officially" unwrapped by Maspero in , he almost certainly knew it was in relatively poor condition. The mummy had been damaged extensively in antiquity by tomb robbers and its wrappings subsequently cut into and torn by the Rassul family, who had rediscovered the tomb and its contents only a few years before.

Maspero was so disheartened at the state of the mummy and the prospect that all of the other mummies were similarly damaged as it turned out, few were in so poor a state that he would not unwrap another for several years. Unlike many other examples from the Deir el-Bahri Cache, the wooden mummiform coffin that contained the body was original to the pharaoh, though any gilding or decoration it might have had had been hacked off in antiquity.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the name Thutmose Thutmosis , see Thutmose. Royal titulary. Further information: Djehuty general and The Taking of Joppa. Hilton, Dyan.

Two Sons From Egypt: The Story of Thutmose III and Moses Two Sons From Egypt: The Story of Thutmose III and Moses
Two Sons From Egypt: The Story of Thutmose III and Moses Two Sons From Egypt: The Story of Thutmose III and Moses
Two Sons From Egypt: The Story of Thutmose III and Moses Two Sons From Egypt: The Story of Thutmose III and Moses
Two Sons From Egypt: The Story of Thutmose III and Moses Two Sons From Egypt: The Story of Thutmose III and Moses
Two Sons From Egypt: The Story of Thutmose III and Moses Two Sons From Egypt: The Story of Thutmose III and Moses
Two Sons From Egypt: The Story of Thutmose III and Moses Two Sons From Egypt: The Story of Thutmose III and Moses

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