The ongoing meetings in Mindoro are being led by 49 Japanese pastors and laypeople who are preparing for the campaign in Japan. The nine radio stations airing Adventist World Radio programming reach nearly the entire island of 1. The programs are broadcast one to three hours daily. It was not immediately clear how many people have tuned in for the Adventist World Radio broadcasts or how many people would be baptized as a result.
McKey said he was delighted when two village chiefs contacted Adventist World Radio to request Bible studies before the evangelistic meetings even began. Two Japanese pastors now are preaching in those two lowlands villages, and several Adventist churches have sent Bible workers to help prepare the villagers for baptism later this month. Residents of a third village, located high in the mountains, contacted church leaders to request baptism after listening to several weeks of programming.
This form is either purely comic or tragic and it pictures the life of today.
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It may aim to bring about changes in the social conditions. Exercises 1. Deals with ideas, thoughts, and emotions of man. It is said to be the story of man. Three reasons why do we need to study Philippine Literature. This depicted the sad fate of slaves; this became the basis of democracy later on. This was written by Confucius of China. This became the basis of Roman Calendar. These have been the source of myths and legends of Greece.
They were written by Homer. This is a lyric poem of 14 lines dealing with an emotions, a feeling, or idea. Chapter 2 The Pre-Spanish Period Historical Background Long before the Spaniard and other foreigners landed on Philippine shores, our forefathers already had their own literature stamped in the history of our race. Our ancient literature shows our customs and traditions in everyday life as trace in our folk stories, old plays and short stories.
Our ancestors also had their own alphabet which was different from that brought by the Spaniards. The first alphabet used by our ancestors was similar to that of the MalayoPolynesian alphabet. Whatever record our ancestors left were either burned by the Spanish friars in the belief that they were works of the devil or were written on materials that easily perished, like the barks of trees, dried leaves and bamboo cylinders which could not have remained undestroyed even if efforts were made to preserve them.
Other records that remained showed folk songs that proved existence of a native culture truly our own. Some of these were passed on by word of mouth till they reached the hands of some publishers or printers who took interest in printing the manuscripts of the ancient Filipinos. The Spaniards who came to the Philippines tried to prove that our ancestors were really fond of poetry, songs, stories, riddles and proverbs which we still enjoy today and which serve to show to generations the true culture of our people.
Pre-Spanish Literature is characterized by A. Legends are a form of prose the common theme of which is about the origin of a thing, place, location or name. The events are imaginary, devoid of truth and unbelievable. Old Filipino customs are reflected in these legends.
Its aim is to entertain. Folk tales are made up of stories about life, adventure, love, horror and humor where one can derive lessons about life. These are useful to us because they help us appreciate our environment, evaluate our personalities and improve our perspectives in life.
Epics are long narrative poems in which a series of heroic achievements or events, usually of a hero, are dealt with at length. Nobody can determine which epics are the oldest because in their translations from other languages, even in English and Spanish. We can only determine their origins from the time mentioned in the said epics. Aside from the aforementioned epics, there are still other epics that can be read and studied like the following epics.
Bantugan m. Folk songs are one of the oldest forms of Philippine literature that emerged in the pre-Spanish period. These songs mirrored the early forms of culture. Many of these have 12 syllables. Here are the examples: a. Kundiman b. Kumintang o Tagumpay Epigrams Salawikain. These have been customarily used and served as laws or rules on good behavior by our ancestors. To others, these are like allegories or parables that impart lessons for the young.
Riddles Bugtong or Palaisipan. These are made up of one or more measured lines with rhyme and may consist of four to 12 syllables. Chant Bulong. Used in witchcraft or enchantment. Some are rhyming couplets with verses of 5, 6 or 8 syllables, each line having the same number of syllables.
Sayings Kasabihan. Sawikain Sayings with no hidden meanings What does Maria shouted to Ilog so that he would cut the snake? In certain wide region of Luzon, there was a village frequented by young men. This town was full of trees, beautiful flowers and a river where clear waters flowed. What attracted the young men more than the scenery?
Also known as Lullaby These have been customarily used and served as laws or rules on good behavior by our ancestors 7. Sayings with no hidden Meanings 8. Some are rhyming couplets with verses of 5,6, or 8 syllables, each lines having the same number of syllables. These are med up of one or more measured lines with rhyme and may consist of four to twelve syllables. Chapter 3 The Spanish Period Historical Background It is an accepted belief that the Spanish colonization of the Philippines started in during the time of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, the first Spanish governor-general in the Philippines.
Literature started to flourish during his time. This spurt continued unabated until the Cavite Revolt in The Spaniards colonized the Philippines for more than three centuries.
During these times, many changes occurred in the lives of Filipinos. They embraced the Catholic religion, changed their names, and were baptized. Their lifestyles changed too. They built houses mad of stones and bricks, used beautiful furniture like the piano and used kitchen utensils. Carriages, trains and boats were used as means of travel. They held fiestas to honor the saints, the pope and the governors. They had cockfights, horse races and the theater as means of recreation. This gave rise to the formation of the different classes of society like the rich and the landlords.
Some Filipinos finished courses like medicine, law, agriculture and teaching. Many Filipinos finished their schooling already had been established. The teaching of the Christian Doctrine became the basis of religious practices.
The Spanish language which became the literary language during this time lent many of its words to our language. European legends and traditions brought here became assimilated in our songs, corridos, and moro-moros. Ancient literature was collected and translated to Tagalog and other dialects. Many grammar books were printed in Filipino, like Tagalog, Ilocano and Visayan 7. Our periodicals during these times gained a religious tone. This was the first book printed in the Philippines in in xylography.
It was written by Fr. Juan de Placencia and Fr. Domingo Nieva, in Tagalog and Spanish. The second book printed in the Philippines was written by Fr. It contains the biographies of saints, novenas, and questions and answers on religion. This is the first book printed in typography. Ang Barlaan at Josephat. Antonio de Borja. It is believed to be the first Tagalog novel published in the Philippines even if it is only a translation.
The printed translation has only pages. The Ilocano translation in poetry was done by Fr. Agustin Mejia. The Pasion. This is the book about the life and sufferings of Jesus Christ. It is read only during Lent. There were 4 versions of this in Tagalog and each version is according to the name of the writer. Critics are not agreed whether it is the Pilapil or the de la Merced version which is the most popular. Urbana at Felisa. These are letters between two sisters Urbana at Felisa and have influenced greatly the behavior of people in society because the letters dealt with good behavior.
A collection of songs praising the Virgin Mary. Written by Fr. Compendio de la Lengua Tagala Understanding the Tagalog language. Gaspar de San Agustin in Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala Tagalog vocabulary. The first Tagalog dictionary written by Fr. Pedro de San Buenaventura in Vocabulario de la Lengua Pampanga Pampanga vocabulary. The first book in Pampanga written by Fr. Diego in Vocabulario de la Lengua Bisaya Bisayan vocabulary.
The best language book in Visayan by Mateo Sanchez in The first Ilocano grammar book by Francisco Lopez. The first book in the Bicol language and written by Fr. Marcos Lisbon in Folk songs became widespread in the Philippines. Each region had its national song from the lowlands to the mountains of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Folk songs truly manifest the artistic feelings of the Filipinos. There are many recreational plays performed by Filipinos during the Spanish times. Almost all of them were in poetic form.
Here are examples: Tibag — the word tibag means to excavate. This ritual was brought here by the Spaniard to remind the people about the search of St. Helena for the Cross on which Jesus died. As early as April, the participating ladies are chosen and sometimes, mothers volunteer their girls in order to fulfill a vow made during an illness or for a favor received.
In some parts of Bicol, a different presentation is made but the objective is the same — praise, respect and offering of love to the Blessed Cross by St. Helen on the mound she had dug in. The Cenaculo — this is a dramatic performance to commemorate the passion and death of Jesus Christ. There are two kinds: the Cantada and Hablada. In the Hablada the lines are spoken in a more deliberate manner showing the rhythmic measure of each verse and the rhyming in each stanza and is more dignified in theme; the Cantada is chanted like the Pasion.
The Cenaculo is written in octosyllabic verse, with 8 verses to the stanza. The full length versions take about 3 nights of staging. Performers come in costumes with wigs and performers are carefully chosen for their virtuous life. One performs the role of Jesus Christ and another the role of the Virgin Mary.
Many famous Cenaculo players come from the Tagalog regions although there are also those from Ilocos, Pampanga, Bicol and both Sibulanon and Hiligaynon. Panunuluyan — this is presented before on Christmas Eve. This is a presentation of the search of the Virgin Mary and St.
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Joseph for an inn wherein to deliver the baby Jesus. It is still presented in many Philippine towns. Carillo Shadow Play — this is a form of dramatic entertainment performed on a moonless night during a town fiesta or on dark nights after a harvest. This shadow play is made by projecting cardboard figures before a lamp against a white sheet. The figures are moved like marionettes whose dialogues are produced by some experts. The dialogues are drawn from a Corrido or Awit or some religious play interspersed with songs. These are called by various names in different places: The Sainete — this was a short musical comedy popular during the 18th century.
They were exaggerated comedies shown between acts of long plays and were mostly performed by characters from the lower classes. Themes were taken from everyday life scenarios. Like the Cenaculo, the Moro-moro is presented also on a special stage. This is performed during town fiestas to entertain the people and to remind them of their Christian religion.
The father organizes a rescue party where fighting between the Moros and the Christians ensue. The Mohammedans are defeated by some miracle or Divine Intercession and the Mohammedans are converted to Christianity. In some instances, the whole kingdom is baptized and converted. One example of this is Prinsipe Rodante.
This is a poetic vehicle of a socio-religious nature celebrated during the death of a person. In this contest, more or less formal, a ritual is performed based on a legend about a princess who dropped her ring into the middle of the sea and who offered here hand in marriage to anyone who can retrieve it. A leader starts off with an extemporaneous poem announcing the purpose. The Duplo replace the Karagatan. This is a poetic joust in speaking and reasoning.
The roles are taken from the Bible and from proverbs and saying. It is usually played during wakes for the dead. This is a poetic joust or a contest of skills in debate on a particular topic or issue. This is a chant in free verse by a bereaved person or his representative beside the corpse of the dead. No definite meter or rhyming scheme is used. The person chanting it freely recites in poetic rhythm according to his feelings, emotions and thoughts. It is personalized and usually deals with the life, sufferings and sacrifices of the dead and includes apologies for his misdeeds.
Some use these two interchangeably because distinction is not clear. The first spanish governor-general in the Philippines. The first Filipino Alphabet. This is a book about the life and sufferings of Jesus Christ. Joseph for an inn therein to deliver the baby Jesus 9. This is a short musical comedy popular during the 18th century.
It is a personalized and usually deal with the life, sufferings and sacrifices of the deed and includes apologies for his misdeeds Chapter 4 The Period of Enlightenment Historical Background After years of passivity under Spanish rule, the Filipino spirit reawakened when the 3 priests Gomez, Burgos and Zamora were guillotined without sufficient evidence of guilt. This occurred on the 17th of February. This was buttressed with the spirit of liberalism when the Philippines opened its doors to world trade and with the coming of a liberal leader in the person of Governor Carlos Maria de la Torre.
The Spaniards were unable to suppress the tide of rebellion among the Filipinos. The once religious spirit transformed itself into one of nationalism and the Filipinos demanded changes in the government and in the church. Panganiban, and Pedro Paterno. The objectives of this movement were to seek reforms and changes like the following: To get equal treatment for the Filipinos and the Spaniards under the law. To make the Philippines a colony of Spain. To restore Filipino representation in the Spanish Cortes.
To Filipinize the parishes. To give the Filipinos freedom of speech, of the press, assembly and for redress of grievances. Highlights of the Propaganda Movement There were three principal leaders of the Propaganda movement.
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They were Jose P. Rizal, Marcelo H. Here are highlights about them and what they have done for our country. JOSE P. His first teacher was his mother Teodora Alonozo. He also studied at the University of Berlin, Leipzig and Heidelberg. He died by musketry in the hands of the Spaniards on December 30, on charges of sedition and rebellion against the Spaniards. His pen-name was Laong Laan and Dimasalang. His books and writings: 1. This was the novel that gave spirit to the propaganda movement and paved the way to the revolution against Spain. In this book, he courageously exposed the evils in the Spanish-run government in the Philippines.
The Spaniards prohibited the reading of this novel but a lot of translations were able to enter stealthily in the country even if it means death to those caught in possession of them. This is a sequel to the NOLI. This was a poem by Rizal while he was incarcerated at Fort Santiago and is one that can compare favorably with the best in the world. It was only after his death when his name was affixed to the poem. An essay on the so-called Filipino indolence and an evaluation of the reasons for such allegations. An essay predicting the increasing influence of the US in the Philippines and the decreasing interest of Europe here.
Rizal predicted that if there is any other colonizer of the Philippines in the future, it would be the US. An allegorical play manifesting admiration for Cervantes. Written by Rizal when he was 14 years of age. Antonio de Morga : Jacinto: Memoirs of a Student of Manila His parents were Julian H. His brother was the priest Fr.
Toribio del Pilar who was banished to Marianas in Because there were many children in the family, Marcelo gave up his share of his inheritance for his other brothers and sisters. Marcelo started schooling at the school of Mr. His last year in law school was interrupted for 8 years after he had quarrel with the parish priest during a baptism at San Miguel, Manila in He established the Diariong Tagalog in where he exposed the evils of the Spanish government in the Philippines and in order to avoid the false accusations hurried at him by the priests.
To avoid banishment, he was forced to travel to Spain in He was assisted by Fr. Serrano Laktaw in publishing a different Cathecism and Passion Book wherein they made fun of the priests.
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This did not last long for he got sick and even to reach Hong Kong from where he could arouse his countrymen. Plaridel has truly earned a niche in the history of our nation. Even today, countless streets have been named after him. Writings of Marcelo H. A humorous and sarcastic dig in answer to Fr. He used Dolores Manapat as pen-name here. Similar to a cathecism but sarcastically done agains the parish priests, published in Barcelona in Published in Barcelona, it was also like a cathecism sarcastically aimed against the parish priests but also contains a philosophy of the power and intelligence of God and an appreciation for and love for nature.
A poem pleading for change from Spain but that Spain is already old and weak to grant any aid to the Philippines. A compilation of poems on the oppression by the priests in the Philippines. This shows the injustices of the friars to the Pilipinos. The pride of Jaro, Iloilo, he won the admiration of the Spaniards and Europeans. He is a known writer and orator in the Philippines. He wrote speeches which were published by Remigio Garcia, former bookstore owner in Manila Filatica and which are still read up to no by modern Filipinos. Lopez Jaena left the Philippines in with the help of Don Claudio Lopez, a rich uncle, in order to escape punishment form his enemies and arrived at Valencia, the center of the Republican movement of the Spaniards.
This later became the official voice of the Association Hispano de Filipinas a Filipino-Spanish Association composed of Filipinos and Spaniards who worked for reforms in the Philippines. Because of this, Jaena successfully showed the Spaniards and the people of the world how a newspaperman can introduce changes in law and reforms towards a better life and progress. He sided with Rizal in the controversy between Rizal and del Pilar over who should head the Association Hispano de Filipinas in Madrid.
He returned to the Philippines to ask for donations to continue a new government called El Latigo Nacional or Pambansang Latigo. He sold the rights of La Solidaridad ot del Pilar who had become a lawyer and had brought in money from his sojourn in Spain. Graciano Lopez Jaena died in a charity hospital in Barcelona on January 20, , eleven months before his best friend Rizal was shot at the Luneta on December 30, The Works of Graciano Lopez Jaena 1.
One of his works written in Jaro, Iloilo in , six years after the Cavite Revolt attacking the friars in the Philippines. He exposed how some of the friars were greedy, ambitious and immoral. Here Jaena explains the tragedy of marrying a Spaniard. A speech he delivered in Madrid on the 39th anniversary of the discovery of America Here he praised Gen. Morayta for his equal treatment of the Filipinos. A sincere expression of praise for the paintings of Hidalgo on the condition of the Filipinos under the Spaniards.
The theme is about how girls were taught Spanish in schools and whose teachers were the governors-general of the place. Jaena refuted the existence of banditry in the Philippines and of how there should be laws on robbery and other reforms. The triumphant exposition of Luna, Resurrecion and Pardo de Tavera of the thesis that intellect or knowledge gives honor to the Philippines.
Jaena refers here to the wrong management of education in the Philippines Most of his works dealt with Filipino customs and others were accusations about how the Spaniards ran the government. His pen name was Tagailog. He died at the age of 33 in June He was put to death by the soldiers of Aguinaldo because of his instant rise to fame which became a threat to Aguinaldo.
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Short Stories. About N. Gonzalez Nestor Vicenti Madali Gonzalez b. Romblon, Romblon 8 Sept Fictionist, poet, essayist. He was the son of Vicente Gonzalez, a school supervisor, and Pastora Madali, a teacher. He was married to Narita Manuel with whom he had four children. When he was four, his family migrated to Mindoro and settled in barrio of Wasig. Gonzalez had his early schooling in Romblon and later a N. Gonzalez had his early schooling in Romblon and later attended Mindoro High School.
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