She knew this was going to happen. MAYBE we would have believed her if she was not so political but she is. She is not a victim, and the judge has been gone through 6 FBI investigations that have cleared him up. Do you know what are those investigations about? They are looking for a past that has any sexual misconduct, drinking and drug abuse, and bad conduct. You are political as well! I bet you are Leftist and you are against our President.
I bet you think that white men are to be blamed for everything. This lady forgets everything! Democrats hate to lose; want power; hate America; and in the end, waste our time and money on stupid investigations such as this one and Russia Collusion. Use your eyes and ears, and your common sense! I, too am a 61 year old female and think Ms. Ford is full of it. If a boy ever kissed you, do you consider that an attack, too? You are pathetic! The cornhole failed to erase a tweet in which she called out for someone to come forward to claim rape against Gorsuch.
Omg, someone needs to send that tweet to the FBI. I have a feeling a lot more is going to come out negative on her after this investigation is over. Polly, you are right, Rape is rape. I blame her mother, she should have told her daughter to not go to a party alone with four men, she did not really know that well. And then, she drinks at the party!! Your analogy of the boys raping boys, well, if the boys were known to be Gay, then, yes. For that, she should be sent to prison.
Women of late are finding it easy to come forward and state that they were raped, etc for a variety of reasons. I think they need to redefine the difference between rape and prostitution. Ford has stated she wants to warn people about Kavanaugh. She ran right out the door without warning her friend who is now the only female left in the house with two guys intending to rape and possibly inadvertently kill?
It seems that Ford has possibly been hijacked by Democratic operatives who have already made it clear that they will stop at nothing to prevent Kavanaugh from being affirmed. Maybe she Ford does have a story to tell, but the inconsistencies, timing and the way testifying is being handled makes her not credible. By the way, someone attempted assault on me when I was in the 10th grade.
I jumped out of the car and walked home in the dark. Did I think nobody would believe me? Now that it is Supreme Court she comes forward. Can you say Soros? She set women back years! It never happened. She needs a forensic interview by a qualified professional. Also, if you listened closely she said she answered a LOT of questions on the lie detector test, but only two questions were submitted that she passed on. Hope FBI is able to get the full, underlying test she was given, my guess is she failed miserably so they tried to narrow it to two questions about her statement. It would never even enter my husbands mind.
I do know that she had no business out wandering around at 15 and getting stinking drunk. She cant recall if it really was Kavanaugh, everything is vague and was too long ago. Polly Gregor, All women are not victims so Stop the B. The limitation here seems to be her memory. If this incident really occurred, she would remember something? If she was blindly drunk to the point of black out and memory shutdown then her mother and herself are to blame at the age of Teenaged boys are preoccupied with sex, and booze makes it worse. Every teenaged girl should know that, and keep that in mind.
You know a lot has been said about this whole matter. We have an empty house, Mom and Dad gone. Four Boys, she knows them, but is not friends with any of them, yet accepts invite to a party. A 15 year old girl hears that some boys are going to have a party that weekend, Kavanaugh not there , she approaches one of the boys and asks if she can attend.
He says sure, if she is not a prude, ie, he wants her to get Real Friendly. She is known to like booze. At the party, she goes upstairs to get friendly. Bathroom was just a story, as nearly all houses have a bathroom on the main floor. She realizes she is now expected to get friendly with two boys, and even drunk does not like the idea, so refuses and after a little scuffle, she locks herself in the bathroom. The four boys send her packing when she comes out, but many years later, she sees an opportunity to use that incident to her own agenda, that of hurting the president…..
As I said, Unprovable, but actually more believable when it comes to the idea that one girl goes to a party with four boys she does not know that well. No one is excusing anything because a rape did not occur. Are all you people living under a rock — most people, men or women back in the day told no one of rape, attempted rape or escaping dangerous situations for the same reasons as now — look at your foolish comments — who is this idiot that groped people and thought it not offensive — oh yes Trump — grab them by the pussy —.
She was on vacation to Delaware from CA when the Committee asked her to come answer questions. Should be about truth, not gender. Are you saying women should support women irrespective of the truth? I say follow the money! All the way to the democratic party. IF the Dems pull this off we as a nation are going to hell in a hand basket! I listened to Asia Argento rail on and on about metoo then it got brought out about her affair with a 17 year old and then poof it went away.
There cannot be a double standard. I do not support someone just because they are the same gender as i am. That is not the issue. The issue is truth plain and simple. Women can usually tell when another is lying. Stormy Daniels for one. Such a victim, my my! And this one? She has the morals of an alley cat, by her own admission, from HS. Let me count the reasons. Real abuse victims need protection, not to have their rights stomped on by someone who blatantly is a radical feminist.
Take also into account that her attorney is funded by George Soros. The foreclosure case was ruled in favor of her parent and Soros gives some money not much to the GOGA she is vice Chairwoman man of. You swallowed some fake news. She is hones; she has never denied what she has done for a living! Or the guy who just got released from prison after serving what 10 years for a rape that never happened???
Typical come back when you have no come back. You believe her simply because A. Which is it? Even though much less credible. Much of a hypocrite? Clintons rape victim denied it happened? She speaks out about it every day yet no one listens. There can be no consent when there is that much of a power discrepancy between the participants. What equality is there between the President of the United States and an intern? Full disclosure: I did not think Clinton should have been impeached for Lewinsky.
BAck in the day you did not go to a party if you were the only girl? Why does she wait until now, why did her husband say that it did not happen the way she said it, he was there at the session. Brett has been investigated 6 times by the FBI. They do not play during these checks! The Dems are at it again.
They do not want him on the Surpreme court. He says he goes by the constution. God Bless. Oh Elsa, all your biases are showing! I work in sex crimes investigations and it is very common for females and males not to report having been sexually assaulted for a multitude of reasons. She is alleged to have been 15 years if age at the time and he is alleged to have been Further, to assume that Dr. I agree. I am hearing she has serious skeletons in her closet, maybe this FBI investigation will uncover…but watch how her attorneys will not make her available to delay all further.
Take the vote! She took polygraph and is telling the truth. He also shows a history of lies. Did you see the lie detector? I am curious what questions were asked, how they were phraised, and exactly how she answered? Please send me either a copy of the test or the link where I can read it.
I am sure you would not have claimed you know what the test said, and the results, unless you had seen it. A well-read psych professional would know how to do the same thing. I learned to do this when I was passed by on a job at 18, because the flawed lie-detector equipment claimed I lied about my age, which I did not. I proved my age with a drivers lic.
I found out that if you have to go to the bathroom, have an itch or irritation, if a question brings back a stimulating memory, lots of things will cause a false reading. So to beat the system, you just calm yourself, ease your mind, slow your breathing, and quietly and calmly answer, yes or no. Most courts will not allow lie detector test to be submitted as evidence for these reasons.
I do NOT put much confidence in lie detector tests.
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Nor does the court as they are NOT admissible. The reason being they can be beaten. People who are pathological liars often can pass the test when they believe the lies they are telling. If you know how lie detector tests work, as I am sure she does, she would know that certain drugs mute the effect that shows up with you lie on the test.
I spent 30 years working with victims of D. Someone who teaches a college course of how to ID a memory of any potential sexual abuse may just have convinced herself of once being a victim. I have seen the damage this course has done to young women. Consider mental health. But CNN said so….. It is disgusting and I wish Democrats would act more like grown ups… we struggled through 8 years of Obama without crying. He passed a paragragraph and said he did nothing of the kind at any time in his life, so he is telling the truth. Polygraphs are easily defeated and this one had nothing to do with the event in question to start with.
The questions asked had to do with a conversation. Kavanaugh has a reputation of high ethics and honesty and you are the liar. He has passed 6 FBI background checks, the real ones not the nonsense used to purchase a firearm. There has been a steady stream of men and women coming forth to testify FOR Judge Kavanaugh and his integrity. At least 65 women alone, including a couple he dated in high school. This is just another example of the low lifes in the Democratic Party.
Feinstein is dispicable and this attempt to destroy this fine man is absolutely disgusting. Kavanaugh would have raped her if Mark Judge had not knocked him off his footing. She took a polygraph which revealed only that she believes what she said at best, polygraphs are no longer considered evidence in court, they are totally unreliable at detecting lies. This is a well-known fact, and as a psychologist Christine Blasey knows this, which is likely why she agreed to take the test. Why would she take a lie detector test if she wanted to remain anonymous? This is a hit job with vengence stirred in, and those who believe it are fools.
A history of lies? I have not heard of any of them on any news program. Perhaps you can enlighten me so that I can also condemn Kavanaugh prematurely. You nitwit. The polygraph is a joke. Anyone can pass one. And rape? Sit down, your brain is fried. My daughter had lots of friends who were boys and they were true friends. So if you think a teen age girl should expect she will get attacked if she is with boys then you need a shrink.
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What history? A history of sucking up to Republican politicians? In high school he was a drunken wannabe rapist. Ha what a loser. Bad enough being a rapist, but a wannabe is just a loser version of a rapist. I like cutting down people because its helps me think I am better than other folks without being better than other folks.
Do you remember what a typical HS boy acts like? Now put 4 together with 1 girl. Chances are nothing horrible happens, but the odds that something will greatly increase. Yes, that is good to know. In all likelihood this woman got drunk and was acting a fool. Beg your pardon? I received excellent parenting by an angelic mother and much of my respect for women was because of the love for my mother. Young men that young girls are not safe to be around are masoginist in the making. I think what you are doing is disgusting. I was attacked when I was 12 years old. I am now I did not carry this with me as you say you did.
Your field is psychology. If this really happened you should of been able to deal with this. I sincerely doubt this happened to you. How much did they pay you? You democrats will do anything to get what you want. Just think what you are doing to his little girls!!! Shame on you. Ford is a very sick woman, she needs help. How many people allow their 14 yr. She is a confused woman and should not be teaching. She should be hospitalized. The lie detector test was a scam. It was VERY craftily worded.
It does not focus on the event or details thereof. Corrector…it depends on the questions, etc. She would have to take another lie detector test, but i bet she would not. Jim, step back and rethink. No doubt in my mind this happened as she says. Been in DC too long to believe otherwise. No you need to step back! Do any of you idiots have a 15 year old daughter and or had one? If you can answer yes would you have given her permission to leave her school and go out to a party with 4 boys?
I had a 15 year old and I can say hell no! So with that in mind this bitch is lying simply to sell her next book its already in print so give it a rest! Nothing but morons. She took a lie detector with the FBI and passed and it was documented by her therapist 6 years ago.
Some people dont want there deepest pains out there for every one to know. It was conducted by a former FBI agent. And other people deliver those deepest pains to the tender mercies of a US Senator with a request for anonymity. Does she regularly ask Micheal Moore to guard her dinner? What did she expect? First, polygraphs are very unreliable. Second, the questions asked were about a conversation she had not the actual event in question. His older brother watched each incident.
This occured over 50 years ago. This man is now a prominent dentist in California. His brother is a prominent doctor in California. I have told a few psychiatrists over the years and told my partner but only one or two other people in this World know about what happened.
So yes the story is very believable! So you told your parents and they did nothing. That may be the real reason for your problems. You have about the same creditability as liberal Democratic Professor Blasey-Ford! Some of the most troubling testimony is based on her therapist notes. When she and her husband were receiving marriage counseling. Some would say anything just to get through these sessions with the intent of satisfying the therapist. Who, What Where, How and When did this affect her marriage? I was date-raped 35 years ago. I was single and I was also four months pregnant at the time.
My point is: at the time, my whole focus for that awful time was getting out of there. August, more or less. But, as it happens, in I was getting raped in Palo Alto, on Alma down in south Palo Alto, in fact, at about the same time that Dr Ford was getting her education at a prep school on the other side of the country. Why would you wait till then? The real message here should be that all people need to come forward as soon as possible. No more 30 year gotcha stories at the most politically opportune time. It is heinous that this happened to you, but it is catagegorically different from what Christine Blasey says happened to her.
Obviously; you run your morality code similar to Trump. Sorry, but her whole story sounds off. So it seems rather mean to throw off on a man who has so many women providing a positive character witnesss. No one can do that. If she would have named her accusers to therapist maybe her story would be more believable. I find it very interesting that she has decided to step forward after all of these years! He went to an all boys school, how and where did she make contact with him to have this alleged abuse take place.
No, I think it is another Democrat Scheme, to muddy the waters of a very good man who has all of the credials to be our next Supreme Court Justice. Sadly, this is what we are seeing today, since President Trump has been elected. Lies, inuendos of this or that, people in colusion with the Russians but oh, we had Russian Collusion with Hillary Clinton.
All of her crimes have been erased by the left. Look at all of the women who have come out and support Kavanaugh, that they never experienced anything but a man that supports women and shows them nothing but respect! Your ignorance is horrific and your judgementalism is disqualifying. At least hear the story before reaching a conclusion. Some of us remember the destructive process Anita Hill was put through. No woman would put herself in that position unless she had a sincere conviction of her memory.
The fact that the woman was still suffering from the event in indicated that it was a very traumatic experience for her. Anita Hill wanted anonymity as well. Again, Senate democrats had something else in mind. They put her in that uncomfortable position. You are ignorant about whether Cavanaugh was drunk, or that he was even present. I have no problem with accepting the event was very traumatic for her. Metoo or no metoo….
This is politics, not reality. Maybe she liked being there. One day I hope to live in a world where a girl can hang with 4 friends without fear or judgement. This can only happen when each occurrence of assault or harassment has meaningful consequences. No, her story makes sense completely. She never said there were 4 boys in the room. She said there were 4 boys at the party. She has no control over what the therapist wrote. However, her story has been consistent. She brought up the story because it matters who will become a Supreme court judge. She wants the public to know what happened to her.
Also, lie detector does matter. If she had failed, somebody like you would certainly use that to dismiss her allegation I am certain. Furthermore, just because a female went to a party where there are boys, does not mean she is looking to get sexually abused. And she never said how many girls were at the party. If she failed you would never have heard about it. What you heard is only what she said, and a memory rolling around in the head of a liberal anti-male pusssyhat-wearing anti-Trump activist might bear as much resemblance to reality as the game telephone bears to communication.
Polygraphs are not considered evidence by the psychology community, something Blasey must know, and only prove, if anything, that she believes she is telling the truth, with remarkable inconsistency. Not when she was younger come on. She opened up a go fund me page a couple of days ago she knows she can clean up money wise because everyone will feel sorry for her and give her money.
Check it out. The vote should be postponed if there is an inkling of truth to her words. He has the right to be heard, legally, and under oath. She has the right to be heard, legally, and under oath. We, Americans, have the right to know the whole story, regardless of individual opinions. Very simple, very logical and very fair to all. Allow them both their say. Such as that he atteded the party but everything else she testifies to are lies? Good idea! Chuck Schumer loves your death by delay tactic.
The woman is a con. Go to her go fund me page. She states that her husband will personally handle all the money that comes thru their page. She is no victim. How many times are we gonna fall for these smear campaigns? I noticed on Wikipedia that her birth year is circa Spoken like a man with no daughters or sisters, and probably very few friends.
Empathy deficit disorder must be a thing amongst conservatives. The article clearly states that Dr. There were four at the party, but she was ambushed and forced into a bedroom by only two, Kavanaugh and Judge. Sounds like a average party, ….. I never attended a Party drinking or other wise that the girls out numbered the guys. What the hell is wrong with you people!?!
Why did she hire a lawyer and take a lie detector case is she did not intend to come forward? No matter, the presumption of innocence remains with the accused, and if she does not appear before the Senate Committee next week, the vote should proceed. If the Dems want more witch hunting shot at Kavanagh, let them have it then, then vote Wednesday.
Before feminism wrecked the morals of the nation, good girls never went anywhere with 4 boys. Good luck trying that today, they will call you all kinds of names. But I will critique the ignorance represented by your statement. Robert White, which morals? Keeping women in their place?
Women should be barefooted and pregnant and have dinner ready by pm? Or slavery? I think dudes fought against that one during the Civil War. Or perhaps infiltrating other nations and destroying their resources and stability? Oh, wait, no…that is still going strong. I mean how far back are you going? Like settlers handing out smallpox infected blankets to native Americans or just rounding them up and slaughtering them in mass groups?
Thank ya! None of them tried to rape me. Obviously you are the loser. What if it was your sister, wife, or mother who had that experience in high school. Would your perspective be more or less insensitive??? My thought exactly. Probably a midlife crisis type deal!!!! I think she has no reason to make this up and that Kavanaugh was one of those boys who knew he could probably get away with rape but waited until he was drunk before he tried. This criminal act of his disqualifies him from being a Supreme Court Judge. It is so sad. The highly educated couple both husband and wife and the Democratic Party have no morality in their souls.
Apparently, no one today can remember back to when the members of the Duke University Lacrosse team were falsely accused by a stripper of gang raping her in their little bath room!!! The polygraph test, which is long been proven Unreliable and so much so that its not even allowed to be presented in US Courts.
Well case closed! That in itself draws negative attention from me. A competent lie detector test can detect the difference. Christine Ford was very good at that. Yep that was some real technical polygraph she took at a MD hotel. Two whole questions was this side bar style side show. For all her lies and actually middle school demeanor she displayed today. Well now Church Lady, how interesting.
I would have asked who was paying her hired lawyers who kept coaching her and why did they pay that polog. A common theme is love and its vicissitudes. Shakespeare 's famous love story Romeo and Juliet , for example, written in a variety of poetic forms, has been performed in innumerable theaters and made into at least eight cinematic versions.
Novelists write novels — stories that explore universal themes through fiction. They situate invented characters and plots in a narrative designed to be both credible and entertaining. Every novel worthy of the name is like another planet, whether large or small, which has its own laws just as it has its own flora and fauna. Thus, Faulkner 's technique is certainly the best one with which to paint Faulkner's world, and Kafka 's nightmare has produced its own myths that make it communicable.
A satirist uses wit to ridicule the shortcomings of society or individuals, with the intent of exposing stupidity. Usually, the subject of the satire is a contemporary issue such as ineffective political decisions or politicians, although human vices such as greed are also a common and universal subject. Philosopher Voltaire wrote a satire about optimism called Candide , which was subsequently turned into an opera, and many well known lyricists wrote for it.
There are elements of Absurdism in Candide , just as there are in the work of contemporary satirist Barry Humphries , who writes comic satire for his character Dame Edna Everage to perform on stage. Satirists use various techniques such as irony , sarcasm , and hyperbole to make their point and they choose from the full range of genres — the satire may be in the form of prose or poetry or dialogue in a film, for example.
It is amazing to me that Jonathan Swift , satirist . A short story writer is a writer of short stories, works of fiction that can be read in a single sitting. Libretti the plural of libretto are the texts for musical works such as operas.
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The Venetian poet and librettist Lorenzo Da Ponte , for example, wrote the libretto for some of Mozart 's greatest operas. Most opera composers collaborate with a librettist but unusually, Richard Wagner wrote both the music and the libretti for his works himself. I'm a poet. What do I do? I write. And how do I live? I live. Usually writing in verses and choruses, a lyricist specializes in writing lyrics , the words that accompany or underscore a song or opera.
Lyricists also write the words for songs. In the case of Tom Lehrer , these were satirical. Writers of lyrics, such as these two, adapt other writers' work as well as create entirely original pieces. Making lyrics feel natural, sit on music in such a way that you don't feel the effort of the author, so that they shine and bubble and rise and fall, is very, very hard to do. Stephen Sondheim , lyricist . A playwright writes plays which may or may not be performed on a stage by actors.
A play's narrative is driven by dialogue. Like novelists, playwrights usually explore a theme by showing how people respond to a set of circumstances. As writers, playwrights must make the language and the dialogue succeed in terms of the characters who speak the lines as well as in the play as a whole.
Since most plays are performed, rather than read privately, the playwright has to produce a text that works in spoken form and can also hold an audience's attention over the period of the performance. Plays tell "a story the audience should care about", so writers have to cut anything that worked against that.
Playwrights also adapt or re-write other works, such as plays written earlier or literary works originally in another genre. Famous playwrights such as Henrik Ibsen or Anton Chekhov have had their works adapted many times. The plays of early Greek playwrights Sophocles , Euripides , and Aeschylus are still performed. Adaptations of a playwright's work may be faithful to the original or creatively interpreted. If the writers' purpose in re-writing the play is to produce a film, they will have to prepare a screenplay. Shakespeare's plays, for example, while still regularly performed in the original form, are often adapted and abridged, especially for the cinema.
An example of a creative modern adaptation of a play that nonetheless used the original writer's words, is Baz Luhrmann 's version of Romeo and Juliet. Tom Stoppard 's play Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead is a play inspired by Shakespeare's Hamlet that takes two of Shakespeare's most minor characters and creates a new play in which they are the protagonists. Player : It's what the actors do best. They have to exploit whatever talent is given to them, and their talent is dying. They can die heroically, comically, ironically, slowly, suddenly, disgustingly, charmingly or from a great height.
Screenwriters write a screenplay — or script — that provides the words for media productions such as films, television programs and video games. Screenwriters may start their careers by writing the screenplay speculatively ; that is, they write a script with no advance payment, solicitation or contract. On the other hand, they may be employed or commissioned to adapt the work of a playwright or novelist or other writer.
Self-employed writers who are paid by contract to write are known as freelancers and screenwriters often work under this type of arrangement. Screenwriters, playwrights and other writers are inspired by the great themes and often use similar and familiar plot devices to explore them. For example, in Shakespeare's Hamlet is a "play within a play", which the hero uses to demonstrate the king's guilt.
Hamlet gains the co-operation of the actors to set up the play as a thing "wherein I'll catch the conscience of the king". A speechwriter prepares the text for a speech to be given before a group or crowd on a specific occasion and for a specific purpose. They are often intended to be persuasive or inspiring, such as the speeches given by skilled orators like Cicero ; charismatic or influential political leaders like Nelson Mandela ; or for use in a court of law or parliament.
The writer of the speech may be the person intended to deliver it, or it might be prepared by a person hired for the task on behalf of someone else. Such is the case when speechwriters are employed by many senior-level elected officials and executives in both government and private sectors. Biographers write an account of another person's life. Richard Ellmann — , for example, was an eminent and award-winning biographer whose work focused on the Irish writers James Joyce , William Butler Yeats , and Oscar Wilde.
For the Wilde biography, he won the Pulitzer Prize for Biography. Critics consider and assess the extent to which a work succeeds in its purpose. The work under consideration may be literary, theatrical, musical, artistic, or architectural. In assessing the success of a work, the critic takes account of why it was done — for example, why a text was written, for whom, in what style, and under what circumstances.
After making such an assessment, critics write and publish their evaluation, adding the value of their scholarship and thinking to substantiate any opinion. The theory of criticism is an area of study in itself: a good critic understands and is able to incorporate the theory behind the work they are evaluating into their assessment. For example, they might be novelists or essayists.
Some critics are poor writers and produce only superficial or unsubstantiated work. Hence, while anyone can be an uninformed critic, the notable characteristics of a good critic are understanding, insight, and an ability to write well. We can claim with at least as much accuracy as a well-known writer claims of his little books, that no newspaper would dare print what we have to say. Are we going to be very cruel and abusive, then? By no means: on the contrary, we are going to be impartial. We have no friends — that is a great thing — and no enemies.
Charles Baudelaire , introducing his Review of the Paris Salon of . An editor prepares literary material for publication. The material may be the editor's own original work but more commonly, an editor works with the material of one or more other people. There are different types of editor. On the other hand, an editor may suggest or undertake significant changes to a text to improve its readability, sense or structure.
This latter type of editor can go so far as to excise some parts of the text, add new parts, or restructure the whole. The work of editors of ancient texts or manuscripts or collections of works results in differing editions. For example, there are many editions of Shakespeare 's plays by notable editors who also contribute original introductions to the resulting publication. Encyclopaedists create organised bodies of knowledge. Essayists write essays, which are original pieces of writing of moderate length in which the author makes a case in support of an opinion.
They are usually in prose , but some writers have used poetry to present their argument. A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it. Professional historians typically work in colleges and universities, archival centers, government agencies, museums, and as freelance writers and consultants. Writers who create dictionaries are called lexicographers. One of the most famous is Samuel Johnson — , whose Dictionary of the English Language was regarded not only as a great personal scholarly achievement but was also dictionary of such pre-eminence, that would have been referred to by such writers as Jane Austen.
Researchers and scholars who write about their discoveries and ideas sometimes have profound effects on society. Scientists and philosophers are good examples because their new ideas can revolutionise the way people think and how they behave. Three of the best known examples of such a revolutionary effect are Nicolaus Copernicus , who wrote De revolutionibus orbium coelestium ; Charles Darwin , who wrote On the Origin of Species ; and Sigmund Freud , who wrote The Interpretation of Dreams These three highly influential, and initially very controversial, works changed the way people understood their place in the world.
Copernicus's heliocentric view of the cosmos displaced humans from their previously accepted place at the centre of the universe; Darwin's evolutionary theory placed humans firmly within, as opposed to above, the order of nature; and Freud's ideas about the power of the unconscious mind overcame the belief that humans were consciously in control of all their own actions.
Translators have the task of finding some equivalence in another language to a writer's meaning, intention and style. Difficulties with translation are exacerbated when words or phrases incorporate rhymes, rhythms, or puns ; or when they have connotations in one language that are non-existent in another. For example, the title of Le Grand Meaulnes by Alain-Fournier is supposedly untranslatable because "no English adjective will convey all the shades of meaning that can be read into the simple [French] word 'grand' which takes on overtones as the story progresses.
It is highly critical for the translator to deliver the right information as a drastic impact could be caused if any error occurred. Even if translation is impossible — we have no choice but to do it: to take the next step and start translating. The translator's task is to make us either forget or else enjoy the difference. Robert Dessaix , translator, author . Writers of blogs, which have appeared on the World Wide Web since the s, need no authorisation to be published. The contents of these short opinion pieces or "posts" form a commentary on issues of specific interest to readers who can use the same technology to interact with the author, with an immediacy hitherto impossible.
The ability to link to other sites means that some blog writers — and their writing — may become suddenly and unpredictably popular. Malala Yousafzai , a young Pakistani education activist, rose to prominence because of her blog for BBC. A blog writer is using the technology to create a message that is in some ways like a newsletter and in other ways, like a personal letter.
Columnists write regular pieces for newspapers and other periodicals, usually containing a lively and entertaining expression of opinion. Some columnists have had collections of their best work published as a collection in a book, so that readers can re-read what would otherwise be no longer available. Columns are quite short pieces of writing so columnists often write in other genres as well.
An example is the columnist Elizabeth Farrelly , who besides being a columnist, is also an architecture critic and author of books. Writers who record their experiences, thoughts or feelings in a sequential form over a period of time in a diary are known as diarists. Their writings can provide valuable insights into historical periods, specific events or individual personalities. Examples include Samuel Pepys — , an English administrator and Member of Parliament, whose detailed private diary provides eyewitness accounts of events during the 17th century, most notably of the Great Fire of London.
Anne Frank — was a year-old girl whose diary from to records both her experiences as a persecuted Jew in World War II and an adolescent dealing with intra-family relationships. Journalists write reports about current events after investigating them and gathering information. Some journalists write reports about predictable or scheduled events such as social or political meetings. Others are investigative journalists who need to undertake considerable research and analysis in order to write an explanation or account of something complex that was hitherto unknown or not understood.
Often investigative journalists are reporting criminal or corrupt activity which puts them at risk personally and means that what it is likely that attempts may be made to attack or suppress what they write. An example is Bob Woodward , a journalist who investigated and wrote about criminal activities by the US President.
Geoffrey Barker, journalist. Writers of memoirs produce accounts from the memories of their own lives, which are deemed unusual, important, or scandalous enough to be of interest to general readers. Although intended to be factual, readers are alerted to the likelihood of some inaccuracies or bias towards an idiosyncratic perception by the choice of genre. A memoir, for example, is allowed to have a much more selective set of experiences than an autobiography which is expected to be more complete and make a greater attempt at balance.
Ghostwriters write for, or in the style of, someone else so the credit goes to the person on whose behalf the writing is done. Writers of letters use a reliable form of transmission of messages between individuals, and surviving sets of letters provide insight into the motivations, cultural contexts, and events in the lives of their writers. The letters or epistles of Paul the Apostle were so influential that over the years of Christian history, Paul became "second only to Jesus in influence and the amount of discussion and interpretation generated". Report writers are people who gather information, organise and document it so that it can be presented to some person or authority in a position to use it as the basis of a decision.
Well-written reports influence policies as well as decisions. For example, Florence Nightingale — wrote reports that were intended to effect administrative reform in matters concerning health in the army. She documented her experience in the Crimean War and showed her determination to see improvements: " This extraordinary composition, filling more than eight hundred closely printed pages, laying down vast principles of far-reaching reform, discussing the minutest detail of a multitude of controversial subjects, containing an enormous mass of information of the most varied kinds — military, statistical, sanitary, architectural" became for a long time, the "leading authority on the medical administration of armies".
A scribe writes ideas and information on behalf of another, sometimes copying from another document, sometimes from oral instruction on behalf of an illiterate person, sometimes transcribing from another medium such as a tape recording , shorthand , or personal notes. Being able to write was a rare achievement for over years in Western Europe so monks who copied texts were scribes responsible for saving many texts from classical times.
The monasteries, where monks who knew how to read and write lived, provided an environment stable enough for writing. He then casts a blank vote after showing it to them, which annoys Kanzai. After that he sits there scouting out the crowd. While sizing up the pro-Hunters present at the election site, Hisoka is disappointed by their power levels and thinks to himself that if they are this weak, he might consider fighting the Zodiacs next. Suddenly he feels the presence of someone strong, who turns out to be Illumi. Illumi then tells Hisoka about what happened during the Chimera Ant crisis, the death of Chairman Netero, Alluka —his younger sister, and the current situation with Gon and Killua.
Hisoka and Illumi are next seen talking to each other in an airship bar. Illumi explains the rules related to Alluka's ability to him and tells him if Killua dies from Alluka's power while trying to heal Gon, a lot of people, including the Zoldycks, Gon, and even Hisoka, will die as well.
Fearing that Killua will do it wrong, Illumi asks Hisoka to help him kill Alluka. Watching from a distance, Illumi tells Hisoka to eliminate the butlers but Hisoka asks if he can kill Killua. Illumi suddenly releases a murderous aura and warns him. Hisoka says he is just kidding. It is then revealed that he provoked Illumi on purpose to let Killua know his location because he too wants Gon to be saved. He then confronts Gotoh , Amane , and Canary , who are left behind after Killua uses his Godspeed ability to escape with Alluka.
Gotoh tells the other butlers to go ahead and let him deal with Hisoka. At first, his Bungee Gum ability seems to be neutralized by Gotoh's ability to fire coins with power superior to bullets, but Hisoka manages to adapt quickly and uses his Bungee Gum to fire the coins back, forcing him to shoot more coins to deflect them, with that distraction Hisoka is able to drop in on him and slit his throat. Hisoka and Illumi meet up again in an airport where Killua used an airship as transportation and to escape them.
Hisoka suggests that they should ambush Killua in the hospital, but Illumi claims the assassination will fail if they do so because Killua's friends are there. Illumi thinks of asking for help, prompting Hisoka to ask if he has any other acquaintances. Illumi instead reveals an ability to manipulate a person's actions through a nen-imbued needle.
Illumi asks Hisoka if he could hunt the "misses" for him and Hisoka gladly accepts. Hisoka and Illumi talk over the phone after killing their attackers. Hisoka informs Illumi that he has found a map detailing the aircraft's paths and destinations. He offers to send Illumi a copy, albeit one that is altered by his Texture Surprise. Unfortunately, Illumi says that he also have a map from one of the attackers and that he already knows which aircraft Killua and Alluka are.
Although he is shown to be Illumi's comrade his bloodlust seems to get the better of him, this is shown when Illumi finds Killua, Hisoka is seen hiding in the trees trying to decide who to kill, if to kill Alluka and gain Killua's hatred or leave Alluka alive save Gon and make Illumi his enemy. He then questions himself by thinking that maybe he should kill Alluka which would make Killua hate him, or kill Killua and have Illumi hate him is the best plan of action.
Hisoka is next seen exiting an elevator and going into the room where Teradein Neutral is staying, Hisoka then kills him. Chrollo finally accepts to fight Hisoka in a death match at Heavens Arena. As soon as the fight begins, Chrollo activates Shalnark's ability and takes control of the referee, using him to attack Hisoka while, the latter reckons, preparing to stick the second antenna in him. However, the second antenna was a feint and Chrollo kicks down Hisoka, then proceeds to stomp on him.
Hisoka frees himself by hurling the referee at him. Chrollo then commands the referee to attack Hisoka again, but explodes before the two can make contact thanks to a new ability stolen by Chrollo, who is now also capable of using two abilities at the same time or one without needing to touch his book. Hisoka gets more and more excited as the fight progresses, but feels Chrollo is still holding back.
The two then briefly discuss the latter's new abilities, with Hisoka rejoicing due to his opponent's power. Chrollo combines two abilities, Order Stamp and Kortopi 's Gallery Fake , to attack Hisoka with a copy of the referee. However, thanks to Chrollo's explanation, Hisoka easily deactivates Order Stamp by beheading the puppet.
Chrollo finally shows the last ability he has prepared, Convert Hands. Much to Hisoka's annoyance, before the two can trade blows again, Chrollo reveals that one of his abilities belongs to someone who is already dead. Hisoka instantly realizes it is because the user's Nen has become stronger after his death , and improves his guard. When he learns that, thanks to the creator's resolve, once affixed, the marks of The Sun and Moon will never disappear unless they explode, Hisoka smiles, thinking that could indeed prove problematic.
Despite Chrollo claiming that his victory is certain, Hisoka is willing to keep fighting and attacks him. The two end up in the audience, which Chrollo manipulates with Black Voice to attack Hisoka while disguising himself with Convert Hands. Hisoka notices the antennae have disappeared and that Chrollo has already created copies with Gallery Fake. Then, around thirty copies controlled with Order Stamp start attacking him, forcing him to use Bungee Gum to retreat, but the puppets climb on top of each other and reach him.
As he retaliates, Chrollo, having stolen someone else's clothes, maneuvers behind Hisoka, who prepares to counter, but is tricked by the opponent's feint and kicked in the nape. As he falls into the crowd of puppets, Hisoka is ecstatic. Struggling not to be overwhelmed, Hisoka begins dispatching the puppets, all the while taking damage from Chrollo's hit-and-run tactic. He manages to anticipate the latter's next move, flinging a severed head at him, but Chrollo dodges and kicks Hisoka, claiming he had seen him prepare the attack.
However, Hisoka manages to hit him with a second projectile attached to his foot, replying he knows while coughing up blood. He lands one more hit with the other head, forcing Chrollo to retreat. Unable to give chase, Hisoka disables more puppets and tries to figure out Chrollo's next move basing on whether Order Stamp and Gallery Fake are deactivated. When the stamp disappears from the head of a puppet, Hisoka manages to track down Chrollo in the audience, immobilizing him with Bungee Gum.
However, he notices something is off and swiftly attacks him with the head. It is revealed the one he killed was a spectator Chrollo had been controlling with Black Voice and to whom he had given his appearance with Convert Hands. However, as Gallery Fake is still active, Hisoka realizes that the copies on which The Sun and Moon has been affixed will not disappear even if Chrollo is using other abilities. In fact, Chrollo steals the announcer's microphone and orders to "break Hisoka", causing all the puppets with the stamp to rush at Hisoka, who proceeds to destroy them using the head as projectile and by attaching Bungee Gum to multiple puppets and using them as a hammer.
Suddenly, however, the head he was gripping explodes in his hand, heavily injuring it and obliterating four of his fingers. Hisoka understands how Chrollo managed to make the head explode and quickly decapitates another puppet. Using Bungee Gum through his legs, he starts walking on the sides of a stand, destroying more puppets from that position before running away. However, he finds multiple explosive puppets waiting for him. Although he survives the explosion, he is blasted in the air towards another stand filled with Chrollo's explosive puppets.
The loss of a leg prevents him from escaping to the ceiling, but before he can project Bungee Gum from his other leg, Chrollo throws two spectators at him, causing him to fall back into the ring. As the puppets prepare to attack him, Hisoka prepares for his death and is soon engulfed in an explosion. The next time Hisoka is seen he is by all means dead, presented before Kortopi, Shalnark, and Machi; his face is extremely disfigured by the explosion, with one of the three wondering why he did not suffer more damage.
Shalnark explains that he used a large portion of the puppets as a "meat shield" so to speak, protecting his from the bulk of the explosion, but ultimately causing him to die from suffocation. Shalnark and Kortopi leave after Machi says that she'll stay to tend to his wounds. Closing his eyes before attempting to stitch up his neck, Machi is shocked to see his aura re-emerge from his body; she mistakenly believes this to be his Nen preserving after his death, before it is revealed that he used Bungee Gum to restart his heart and lungs after his demise.
Greeting her rather cheerfully after coming back to life, she confirms that he was indeed dead for some time, after which Hisoka admits that fighting someone of Chrollo's league and hundreds of Nen puppets at the same time was more than he could chew, referring to the experience as a "wake up call" as a result. He then proceeds to mend and hide his wounds, whilst simultaneously replacing his missing arm and leg using Bungee Gum and Texture Surprise.
After saying that his next opponents won't have a choice in where and who they fight, he restrains Machi using Bungee Gum before he leaves, telling her that he shall kill all members of the Phantom Troupe. Struggling to get out, she shouts and swears at Hisoka, saying she'll kill him herself, before Hisoka makes his exit. The next time Hisoka is seen, Shalnark had just come off of the phone with Chrollo, discussing plans to board the Kakin Empire Royal Family's ship and steal their valuables.
While Shalnark is wondering what's taking Kortopi so long in the bathroom, Hisoka walks out instead. Shocked, Shalnark runs towards him before Hisoka throws Kortopi's severed head at him. After catching it, Shalnark cries out in shock before Hisoka lands an extremely powerful attack to his head, killing him. Shalnark's mangled body is then seen tied to a swing with Kortopi's severed head in front of him and crows gathering around their corpses. By the time Machi reaches Chrollo in the market inside the Black Whale, she confirms that Hisoka had made his way into the Black Whale to kill the rest of the Troupe members.
Chrollo orders the first come, first serve rule to make it fair for the rest of Troupe members to kill him. The following are the results for Hisoka in Heavens Arena. Each KO resulted in the opponent's death. After his fight with Gon, Hisoka obtained the right to fight a Floor Master, whom he defeated to obtain the title. Playing Cards: Hisoka's weapon of choice is a set of ordinary French playing cards , which he uses in combat to lethal effects by wielding or throwing them in conjunction with his Shu.
Hisoka has all the benefits granted by his status as a Hunter. Notorious for his graceful, cruel, and deceitful fighting ability, which has earned him the rank of Floor Master,  he has proven to be a deadly adversary. His tremendous physical abilities and combat skill make him extremely dangerous in a bout, and his expertise in Nen, tactical genius and flexibility allow him to swiftly adapt to changes in circumstances.
Among the opponents he has defeated are previous 4 member of the Phantom Troupe  and the Single-Star Blacklist Hunter Bushidora, killing the latter without suffering any injury himself. Hisoka is also a skilled magician, and often uses Nen to perform his tricks. His skills in misdirection and amazing dexterity find applications in combat, their combination allowing him to triumph against Kastro. Hisoka's zest for battle often causes him to suffer more damage than he would if he fought seriously from the start.
Preternatural Perception: Hisoka has proven to be able to sense not only the presence, but also the position of people hidden with Zetsu, even Kalluto's, whose execution of the technique was described as "flawless". Although he generally glances at someone to determine their strength, he ranked Illumi without even seeing or recognizing him beforehand. Immense Strength: Hisoka boasts astounding brawn, ranking third in the Phantom Troupe in arm-wrestling.
Enhanced Speed and Reflexes: During the Hunter Exam, Hisoka dispatched dozens of applicants in seconds, and disappeared from Leorio's and, more remarkably, Gon's sight at close quarters. Enhanced Agility: Hisoka is fairly acrobatic, a skill which he uses to recover his balance and respond to attacks quickly. Enhanced Stamina: Hisoka was able to complete a long-distance run more than 80 kilometers long, and taking place on uneven terrains such as ascending stairs and a swamp,  without breaking a sweat.
He was only momentarily stunned when Kastro and Chrollo landed critical blows on him. Genius-Level Intellect: Hisoka is an expert tactician and schemer with excellent analytical abilities. Though at great personal risk, he succeeded in manipulating the Spiders into staying in Yorknew so he could fight Chrollo, and to forge a fake prophecy minutes, if not seconds, after receiving the original, perfectly replicating its style. Master Strategist: Hisoka is an exceptional strategist who can formulate winning plans at the very start of a confrontation. He frequently puts up an outlandish or even arrogant act to fool into his opponents into believing he is being careless, whereas in reality he is laying traps.
Master Hand-to-Hand Combatant: Hisoka is a force to be reckoned with at close range, even without his cards or Bungee Gum. Cherry, whom Tonpa regarded as the most skilled unarmed combatant in the th Hunter Exam,  acknowledged the enormous gap in technique between the two of them,  and he easily dodged every attack from Goz.
Master Weapon Specialist: With the aid of Shu, Hisoka can turn his cards into mortal edge weapons or projectiles. He employs them to instantly kill the opponent by targeting their vital spots, generally the throat,     but also to incapacitate them by severing their tendons. Master of Stealth: Hisoka managed to spy on Killua undetected by him as well as, seemingly, Amane and Tsubone. Hisoka is a Transmuter  endowed with a powerful, sinister aura that disquieted Wing  and Gon even after the latter learned Nen.
He utilizes the former to maintain aura around projectiles  as well as in conjunction with Bungee Gum , to separate the ability from his body. His affinity for Enhancement manifests primarily as a remarkable level of durability. Hisoka survived multiple Nen-enhanced strikes from Kastro, an Enhancer, without using his aura to defend. He seems to have resorted to Manipulation on one occasion, exploiting the boost enjoyed by Nen after death to impart an automatic command to his Bungee Gum. Aside from Hatsu , Hisoka is capable of using at least Ren ,  Gyo ,  and Ken , which allowed him to survive multiple explosions of The Sun and Moon set off in his proximity, although one of his legs was severely mangled.
With Shu his poker cards can easily cut through bone  and concrete  even while he is not holding them. When he applied it to a severed human head, it carried so much force that it pulverized other heads it came in contact with,  incapacitated several puppets with a single throw and injured a Nen user of Chrollo Lucilfer's caliber  without being damaged in the least, whereas it would break immediately if not enveloped in aura.
Hisoka's Nen prowess if further supported by his knowledge of more abstract notions, such as Nen becoming stronger after death  and Exorcism. Offensively, Bungee Gum can be used to pull the opponent towards Hisoka  or to create flail-like weapons.
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