The fossil record shows a progression of perfectly formed species from simpler to more complex. This, they say, explains the sudden appearance of new species with no earlier transitional forms. But they have failed to show how this is biologically possible. Those who admit the lack of transitional fossils are at a loss to explain how the newer forms of life appear. Avoiding any acknowledgment of God, these scientists do not take into account the obvious conclusion the fossil record shows—that these creatures appeared as perfectly formed organisms in a progressive manner and without previous ancestors of the same kind.
But they have no alternative explanation.
Evolution Fact or Fiction by John Blanchard
Of the fossil record of plants, botanist and evolutionist E. How has this second major pillar of evolutionary theory fared? Geneticist C.
In other words, what are the fittest? Why, those that survive, of course. And what survives? Why, naturally, the fittest. Darwin cited an example of the way natural selection was supposed to work: A wolf that had inherited the ability to run especially fast was better equipped to survive. Yet, the very changes that enabled that wolf to run faster could easily become a hindrance if other modifications of the body did not accompany the increased speed.
Natural selection, scientists have found, deals only with the number of species, not the change of the species. It has to do with the survival and not the arrival of the species. And it is those that leave more offspring; and there is nothing more to it than that. In his famous book, Origin of Species, Darwin made a mistake sufficiently serious to undermine his theory.
And that mistake has only recently been recognized as such. Curiously enough, Darwin himself was one of the first to discount beneficial effects from rare changes he noted in the species, to the point that he did not include them in his theory. By the beginning of the 20th century these laws were finally decoded, first by Gregor Mendel, then by Hugo De Vries. Evolutionists quickly seized on these discoveries to support evolution.
It was found that once in a while, absolutely at random about once in ten million times during cell division, we now know the genes make a copying mistake.
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These mistakes are known as mutations, and are mostly harmful. They lead to a weakened plant, or a sick or deformed creature. What has almost a century of research discovered? That mutations are pathological mistakes and not helpful changes in the genetic code. We can be thankful that mutations are extremely rare. An average of one mistake per 10 million correct copies occurs in the genetic code. If, however, these copying errors were to accumulate, a species, instead of improving, would eventually degenerate and perish.
Genes are a strong influence for conservatism, and allow only modest change. Left to their own devices, artificially bred species usually die out because they are sterile or less robust or quickly revert to the norm Hitching, pp. We see these genetic limits at work in the world around us.
Although genetic diversity has allowed us to enjoy the companionship of hundreds of breeds of dogs of all shapes, sizes, colors and other traits, they are still dogs. In all sorts of living things, from bacteria to plants and animals, he has observed that mutations do not take succeeding generations further and further from their starting point. Instead, the changes are like the flight of a butterfly in a green house, which travels for miles without moving more that a few feet from its starting point.
Embarrassingly for evolutionists, mutation is also not the answer. If anything, the self-correcting system to eliminate mutations shows that a great intelligence was at work when the overall genetic system was designed so that random mutations would not destroy the beneficial genes.
Cells are marvelous and incredibly complicated living things. They are self-sufficient and function like miniature chemical factories. For example, the cell wall is a wonder in itself. If it were too porous, harmful solutions would enter and cause the cell to burst. Biochemist Michael Behe, associate professor of biochemistry at Lehigh University, summarizes one of the fundamental flaws of evolution as an explanation for any form of life.
Evolution: 24 myths and misconceptions
Such a system probably cannot be put together in a Darwinian manner, gradually improving its function. Just how complex are the tiniest living things? Even the simplest cells must possess a staggering amount of genetic information to function. For instance, the bacterium R. Scientists calculate it has some 2, genes, each with around 1, enzymes.
An enzyme is made up of some one billion nucleotides, which amount to a letter in the chemical alphabet, comparable to a byte in computer language. These enzymes instruct the organism how to function and reproduce.
What are the odds that the enzymes needed to produce the simplest living creature—with each enzyme performing a specific chemical function—could come together by chance? Mathematician and astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle calculated the odds at one chance in , that is, 10 to the 40,th power: mathematical shorthand for a 10 followed by 40, zeros—a number long enough to fill about seven pages of this magazine. Note that a probability of less than 1 in is considered by mathematicians to be a complete impossibility Hayward, p.
By comparison, Sir Arthur Eddington, another mathematician, estimates there are no more than atoms in the universe! Hitching, p. One relatively simple process necessary for animal life is the ability for blood to clot to seal a wound and prevent an injured animal or human from bleeding to death. Yet the only way this intricate system works is when many complicated chemical substances interact. How can these complex substances appear at just the right time in the right proportions and mix properly to clot blood and prevent death? At the same time, medical science is aware of clotting at the wrong time.
Blood clots that cut off the flow of oxygen to the brain are a leading cause of strokes and often result in paralysis or death. For evolution to have led to this astounding ability, multiple mutations of just the right kind had to converge simultaneously or the mutations would be useless. Ever since the world began his invisible attributes, that is to say his everlasting power and deity, have been visible to the eye of reason, in the things he has made.
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