This book investigates public claims for the protection of weak groups and interests in Japan and China from the nineteenth century to the present day. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, it engages with ongoing global debates relevant to both Western and non-Western societies whilst also…. By Razak Abdullah. This book analyses the…. Edited by Kuei-Tien Chou. The Fukushima disaster of shook the globe, arousing warm debate and new research within the academic fields of countries in both the West and the East on issues related to nuclear security, public trust, government governance, risk governance and risk perception along with technological and….
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Edited by Carole Zufferey , Nilan Yu. Across the Asia Pacific, there are a vast range of experiences of homelessness and an equally diverse range of responses from state systems. Edited by Raquel A. Reyes , William G. Non-reproductive sex practices in Asia have historically been a source of fascination, prurient or otherwise, for Westerners, who being either Catholic or Protestant, were often struck by what they perceived as the widespread promiscuity and licentiousness of native inhabitants. Edited by Connie Carter , Andrew Harding.
Although there is no universally accepted definition of the term "land grabbing", ordinary people whose livelihoods are adversely affected by land grabbing know exactly what it is. It involves the physical capture and control of land and homes, including the usurpation of the power to decide how…. Asian Popular Culture in Transition examines contemporary consumption practices in South Korea, China, India, and Japan, and both updates and extends popular culture studies of the region.
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It also considers the relationships between…. By Christopher M. Edited by Ishtiaq Ahmed. This book presents comparative country case studies on the politics of religion in South and Southeast Asia, including India, Pakistan and Indonesia. It deals with politicized religious revivals that cannot reasonably be depicted as mere quest for a moral anchor in a world of flux and change. By Sheng-mei Ma. This book offers an incisive and ambitious critique of Asian Diaspora culture, looking specifically at literature and visual popular culture. Using examples….
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Tanjung Pinang continues to be a multi-religious and multi-ethnic city, which is reflected in the eclectic architecture and variety of urban fabrics. Dutch colonial neighborhoods that use the modernist Indische style, raised wood Malay houses, Chinese shophouses rowhouses with shops on the ground level and residences above , various styles of Chinese and Malay housing on stilts over the sea, and more, can all be seen just walking around the city. The main period of growth has been over the past two decades; many new homes, offices, malls, and hotels have been built in a variety of syncretic forms and outnumber the pre-Independence buildings in many districts of the city.
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Our examination of recent state architecture in and around Tanjung Pinang, the previous capital of Riau Islands Province, provides insight into current political, racial, and religious dynamics, as it demonstrates how and why various interpretations of Malay identity are appropriated by the state, often with the consequence of excluding others. Our essay emphasizes that ethno-nationalist state architecture in Riau Islands Province is not merely a revival or simple transfer of architectural types, but is a syncretic reinterpretation of many circulating architectural forms and ornamentation, past and present, from South Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and other parts of Indonesia.
We focus on the metropolitan area of Tanjung Pinang, a major city in the Riau Islands, which served as a colonial administrative base, regional trade hub, and the provincial capital since the formation of the province. We then examine how state architectural projects, from modest individual buildings to a new master-planned capital city for the province, manifest a variety of elite interpretations of Malay heritage. Finally, by critically analyzing whose history and culture is projected in state architecture, we examine how various projects serve to challenge and maintain particular configurations of power, often exacerbating patterns of social exclusion based on socio-economic status, race, and religion.
The nearby port of Melaka, located across the strait from Sumatra on the southwest coast of the Malay Peninsula, emerged as the most vibrant trade center in Southeast Asia in the s, particularly for the spice trade, 11 and was the base for the powerful Melaka sultanate. The Portuguese were the first to reach Melaka in and promptly burned it down and took control of the city. As a result, the Melaka Sultanate split into a number of smaller sultanates that spread out around the Malay Peninsula and the Riau Islands, including the Tanjung Pinang area.
Both the British and the Dutch played significant roles in establishing urban administrative centers around their colonies, 12 which evolved into major cities across the region.
Over the nineteenth century, Tanjung Pinang served as the Dutch military base and administrative center for the Riau Islands, while the Riau sultanate on nearby Pulau Penyengat continued to grow in importance as a Malay cultural, religious, and administrative center. While Tanjung Pinang today has about , residents and Pulau Penyengat has 2,, in the mids the population of Pulau Penyengat was 9, with just 4, in Tanjung Pinang.
Raja Haji Fisabilillah, from Pulau Penyengat, led a victorious battle against a Dutch invasion in and was later killed while attacking Dutch fortifications in Melaka. Raja Ali Haji, a was a Bugis-Malay poet who wrote the first Malay dictionary, started a Malay language printing press, published the Gurindam Dua Belas one of the most famous literary works in the Malay language in , and is widely viewed as a luminary of high Malay literary culture.
He was only officially declared a national hero in after the formation of the province. The era of Kepri functioning as a hub of Malay power and culture came to an end in , when the sultan was forced to abdicate to the Dutch. He refused, and chose instead to flee to Singapore with his retinue. Most of the grand royal buildings on Pulau Penyengat were destroyed to prevent them from falling into the hands of the Dutch, although half a dozen remain, as well as the royal tombs. The gains from this investment mainly benefited the central state and thus fostered resentment at the local and regional level.
It is now the second-fastest-growing province in Indonesia, and has thus regained its position as a region of strategic importance. The Regional Autonomy Law has given provincial elites an opportunity to distance themselves economically, politically, and culturally from Jakarta, and take greater control over their affairs.
These are often not reproductions of specific cultural forms but are amalgamations of architecture found among the indigenous people of the province. In the early s, spaces in Taman Mini were allocated to accommodate new sections for each recently added province. The challenge was then for each new province to come up with a housing type, weapon, wedding costume, and dance that showcased their culture and was sufficiently distinct from the provinces of which they were formerly a part.
This has been attempted through various conferences, forums, and publications related to Malay culture, 30 through the creation of various programs for the performing arts, 31 tourism efforts, 32 education, 33 and, as this paper examines, architecture and the built environment. Within Kepri, those who identify as Malays have varied cultural practices and material culture. The top-down national designation of cultural groups and the determination of what constitutes cultural heritage has been controlled and promoted by the state for over 40 years through a variety of platforms, including school textbooks, monuments, national day activities, televised national programming, architecture, and more.
As a result, this process of determining and way of conceptualizing cultural heritage has been normalized for many Indonesians. The current struggle to determine Kepri identity is highly dynamic and draws on a number of sources, as will be explored in the following section. First, it is a way for local Malays to reassert local power over the Riau Islands that were long seen as dominated by outsiders.
In this section, we group recent state architecture that aims to project a sense of authentic Malayness into three main themes: Malay cultural revival, royal heritage, and Arab revival-meets-global Islam. The problems of conveying the identity of a highly diverse and complex group become evident through the construction of these three themes, as expressed in state architecture, and demonstrates the intersectionality of Malay identity.
As mentioned, the impulse to have more autonomy from Jakarta has fueled Malay ethno-nationalism. Furthermore, there is an emerging sense of pan-Malay identity in Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia, and a widespread understanding among Malays that colonial and national boundaries have arbitrarily split up a once united group.
State buildings that adopt a Malay idiom have a variety of purposes including government offices and state transportation infrastructure, as well as venues to foster and promote Malay performing arts. These performance stages do not replace or replicate past structures; they are entirely new structures that use modern materials to create decorative elements and rooflines to signify their Malayness fig. Figure 2: Performance stage for Malay arts, Pulau Penyengat constructed in A rumah adat , or traditional community house, was constructed in the late s on Pulau Penyengat in an attempt to revive a sense of community spirit and tradition fig.
The structure stands empty and neglected, and serves primarily as a brief stop for tourists exploring the history of the island. Figure 3: A rumah adat traditional community house , Pulau Penyengat. While many Malays throughout the region built wood homes, mosques, and other buildings on stilts over the sea for centuries, this practice has waned as it has become associated with poverty and backwardness, and concrete houses built on land, associated with modernity and progress, have gradually become the norm. The kampong air project carries symbolic weight as an attempt to revive and update a vernacular building form fig.
This project highlights the idiosyncrasy of state projects and their dependency on a single person who has his or her own priorities and who may champion certain projects over others and have his or her own interpretations of what architecture constitutes Malayness. Enhancing the visibility of royal heritage is now a key part of current provincial tourism strategies, and architecture is an important medium through which the sultanate is being branded and revived.
This has been accomplished mainly through modifying existing architecture and adopting particular features in new architecture to convey a sense of royalty. Bright yellow and gold, once the signature of the sultanate, has been adopted to broadly signify royal heritage, and Malay high culture in general.
Despite archival evidence and the memories of old-timers on the island, most local residents and government officials are convinced that yellow carries special significance and a sense of cultural authenticity fig. The mosque Masjid Raya Sultan Riau Penyengat was white since its construction in but was recently painted the royal yellow for the first time to brand it as being associated with the Riau sultanate.
While these events have no relation to the sultanate once based in the region, the ruling elite adopt royal heritage to project a sense of authenticity and heritage, and to reference a glorious past, while legitimizing their own power. The stage integrates a variety of elements all recognizable to Kepri residents as Malay and taken from a variety of architectural sources. The lattice that trims the stage and the roof reproduces the decorative trim widely used in Malay wood homes, while the staircase at the front of the stage references concrete staircases used in many raised wood Malay houses.
The Malay floral patterns are drawn from intricate wood carving found in vernacular mosques and fabric. The minarets on either side of the stage replicate those of the royal mosque on Pulau Penyengat. The structure embodies the syncretism both of the past and the ongoing syncretism found in recent ethno-nationalist architecture in Tanjung Pinang. Figure 6: Temporary performance stage for a Malay cultural festival in the heart of Tanjung Pinang. The promotion of Islam and Arab culture as authentically Malay overlaps with the strengthening influence of global Islam and the increasing connectedness and the sense of a revived pre-colonial connection among Muslims in Southeast Asia and the Middle East.
It relates to a golden age of Malay history but also alludes to the great Islamic civilizations that preceded the colonial era and the influx of Chinese and Indian immigrants. The Grand Dompak Mosque is a state project designed to be the main place of worship for Dompak, the new master-planned capital city of Kepri fig. There are, for example, drawings and photos of the Nabawi Mosque displayed inside the Grand Dompak Mosque as well as texts that create a connection between the two buildings.
Such buildings represent a new attempt to encroach on land designated by the state for the Chinese community, particularly as they are built along a ridge that is highly visible from a great distance. The domed buildings along the ridge above Senggarang create an Islamic silhouette and mark the territory as Malay.
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