Filtration is also used to describe some biological processes, especially in water treatment and sewage treatment in which undesirable constituents are removed by absorption into a biological film grown on or in the filter medium as in slow sand filtration.
There are many different methods of filtration; all aim to attain the separation of substances. Separation is achieved by some form of interaction between the substance or objects to be removed and the filter. The substance that is to pass through the filter must be a fluid, i.
Principles of Filtration
Methods of filtration vary depending on the location of the targeted material, i. Two main types of filter media are employed in any chemical laboratory— surface filter , a solid sieve which traps the solid particles, with or without the aid of filter paper e. The first type allows the solid particles, i. However, the second type is less prone to clogging due to the greater surface area where the particles can be trapped.
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Also, when the solid particles are very fine, it is often cheaper and easier to discard the contaminated granules than to clean the solid sieve. Filter media can be cleaned by rinsing with solvents or detergents. Alternatively, in engineering applications, such as swimming pool water treatment plants, they may be cleaned by backwashing.
Self-cleaning screen filters utilize point-of-suction backwashing to clean the screen without interrupting system flow. Fluids flow through a filter due to a difference in pressure — fluid flows from the high pressure side to the low pressure side of the filter, leaving some material behind.
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The simplest method to achieve this is by gravity and can be seen in the coffeemaker example. Particles in the air stream have mass and velocity, as the air stream passes through a filter media, the air diverts around the fiber, however because the particles tend to move in a straight line, those particles located at or near the center of the flow line will stick or impact upon the fiber and be removed.
In this process, particles are on a collision course with flow stream molecules.
Principles of filtration
These frequent collisions cause the suspended particles to move in a random fashion around the fluid flow lines, which increases the likelihood of contacting the fiber surface and being removed. In the Camfil Experience Centre, you will experience the importance of indoor air quality in an interactive and multimedia manner.
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Principles of Filtration: How do Filters Filter Anyway?
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Related Principles of Filtration
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