She hits him in the head with a rock. Jaime knows that the Starks won't kill him as long as his sister holds Sansa and Arya hostage, but Jaime Lannister always taunts others while he is in chains to show them he doesn't fear them and they aren't superior to him. She says he has gone against the laws of gods and man, he says, "What Gods? When she says injustice in the world is because of men like him, he tells her, "There are no men like me. Only me. Jaime remains a captive of House Stark. King Robb Stark keeps Jaime caged and chained to a post in his camp at all times to prevent Lord Tywin bribing or threatening one of his bannermen into giving him up.
Jaime remains defiant, taunting and insulting Robb when he comes to confront him. King Stannis Baratheon has made Joffrey's parentage public, by sending letters to all the lords throughout the kingdom, exposing Jaime's incest with Cersei. Jaime counters that Stannis has a personal stake in these accusations, as if all of Cersei's children are Jaime's bastards that means Stannis is heir to the throne. However it is Jaime who is intimidated when Robb threatens him with his snarling direwolf Grey Wind. Months later, Jaime is joined in his cell by his distant cousin Alton Lannister. They talk about the time Alton served as Jaime's squire at a tourney, and Jaime tells him about his own experiences as squire of Ser Barristan Selmy.
Drawing Alton closer, Jaime seizes the opportunity to escape.
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When he leans over to hear Jaime whisper about an escape plan, Jaime head butts him then strikes him in the head repeatedly cracking his skull. When the guard Torrhen Karstark is distracted by discovering Alton's body bloody and convulsing, Jaime strangles him to death and takes his keys to free himself from his chains. Jaime is soon recaptured. Lord Rickard Karstark demands Jaime's head for killing his son. Catelyn Stark convinces Rickard to wait until Robb returns but fears that his patience will not hold.
Catelyn visits Jaime's cell with her female guard Brienne. She accuses Jaime of being a man without honor because of his broken vows. Jaime explains his view that his vows frequently conflicted with one another. He asserts that he has more honor than some; he reveals that Cersei is the only one he has slept with and reminds Catelyn how her husband Eddard Stark cheated on her and fathered Jon Snow. Catelyn makes a deal with Jaime and releases him. She tasks Brienne of Tarth with escorting him to King's Landing to exchange him for her captive daughters.
Brienne successfully smuggles him out of the camp on horseback and then they travel by rowboat to evade pursuit. Jaime needles her about her appearance and masculinity, unsuccessfully attempting to goad her into dueling him. He changes subject, focusing on her virginity and childhood. They find a trio of women, hanged for sleeping with Lannister soldiers. He mocks her service to House Stark and she asserts that she serves Lady Catelyn specifically. As Brienne goes to bury the bodies they are accosted by a trio of Stark soldiers.
Brienne kills all three after they recognize Jaime, and he is impressed by her skill. He questions her readiness to kill Stark men and she reasserts her dedication to Catelyn and the task she set her. Jaime continues to be escorted by Brienne to King's Landing. On their way there, they are spotted by a traveler. Later, the pair have to cross a river, which means they can either attempt a dangerous fording or take the bridge, which will probably be watched.
However, Jaime's mobility is reduced because his hands are still manacled, and he is malnourished after having spent the past full year chained up in a cell. After a protracted fight Jaime finally slumps to the ground in exhaustion. At first, Locke has his men untie Jaime on the pretext of letting him go after feeding him.
Locke mocks Jaime about always relying on his daddy Tywin and that his daddy isn't here. Locke says that Jaime's father can't help him now, and "this should help you remember! For half a second, Jaime stares at his severed right hand in shock, before what just happened can register in his mind, then he screams in horror. The following day, Locke's men lead their prisoners Jaime and Brienne of Tarth on horseback. Jaime's severed right hand is tied onto a cord that hangs around his neck. Jaime is physically in agony from his wound, feverish and half-delirious.
Barely conscious, he falls headlong off of his horse into the mud. Laying in the mud Jaime is mocked and tormented by Locke and his men, giving him horse urine to drink. However Jaime manages to steal a sword, and unsuccessfully tries to fight them off using only his left hand. Jaime is so weak and feverish that he can barely stand, much less wield a sword and must therefore quickly give up trying. His only hope is that one of the men would give him a small dignified death having a sword in his hand. He eventually succumbs to exhaustion and Locke simply warns him that if he tries that again he'll cut off his other hand.
Jealousy Is Crueler Than the Grave
Later that night Jaime and Brienne are restrained near a campfire. Jaime refuses to eat, and says he wants to die. Brienne says he should try to live for revenge, but Jaime says he was that hand, and without his sword-hand, even if he escapes, he is nothing, and would rather die as the Jaime he was than go on living, robbed of his very identity.
Brienne says she overheard when he earlier managed to talk Locke out of letting his men gang-rape her. Brienne is confused, and asks Jaime why he helped her, but he doesn't answer. Brienne grows angry, claiming that this is the first time Jaime had to face the real world where things people care about get taken away.
And that he's pathetically moping around like a woman. Her criticism and strength convinces Jaime to start eating. The party eventually arrives at Harrenhal, where Roose Bolton is visibly angered at Locke for maiming Jaime. Jaime asks Bolton about Cersei, and Bolton briefly tortures him emotionally, describing Stannis Baratheon's attack on King's Landing in a way that seems as if he will say Cersei was killed, but he informs him that Tywin and the Tyrell army arrived to drive Stannis away, and Cersei is alive and well.
Jaime is so relieved that he falls to his knees. His stump is later tended to by Qyburn , an ex-maester who was expelled from the Order for his unethical but successful experiments. Qyburn implies that he may need to cut off Jaime's arm to stop the corruption spreading, but Jaime threatens to kill him if he does, so Qyburn agrees to only cut away the rotting flesh, and offers Jaime milk of the poppy to ease the pain, but Jaime, fearing that Qyburn will sedate him and still amputate his arm, refuses, and screams in agony as Qyburn starts operating on him.
While Brienne is bathing alone in baths of Harrenhal, Jaime approaches and slips into the opposite corner. He makes a snide remark about Brienne unable to protect Renly and for being the reason he died. She stands defiantly, and he quickly apologizes, claiming that Brienne has protected him better than most. Unwilling to let that happen, Jaime killed him, and in doing so actually saved thousands of innocent lives before Ned Stark entered the throne room and saw the aftermath.
Brienne asks Jaime why he never told anyone if all of this is true. Jaime replies that Ned Stark judged him guilty the moment he laid eyes on him, and he vents, "By what right does the wolf judge the lion? She calls for the guards to help the Kingslayer, but he corrects her and says his name is Jaime. While sitting at the dinner table with Brienne and Roose Bolton, Jaime clumsily tries to cut his meat with one hand until an annoyed Brienne helps him. Roose tells Jaime that wars cost money and that many people would pay a great deal of money for him.
After discussing how busy Tywin is battling Robb Stark all over the North, Jaime informs Roose that his father would make time for him. Roose tells Jaime, that when he is well enough to travel, he will allow him to return to King's Landing on the condition that he will tell Tywin the truth, that he had nothing to do with his maiming. Roose does not allow Brienne to join Jaime however.
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Jaime protests and insists that she must go with him, but Roose claims that she must stay because she is charged with abetting treason. Before Roose heads off to the Twins , Jaime jokingly tells him to send his regards to Robb Stark, a task that Roose actually does carry out right before killing the Young Wolf.
Jaime arrives in Brienne's chambers to tell her goodbye before he leaves for King's Landing. He informs her that Roose Bolton has demanded she stay behind with Locke. He tells Brienne that he owes her a debt. Brienne tells Jaime that if he keeps his word to Catelyn Stark the debt will be paid. Jaime promises that he will return the Stark girls to their mother. Along their travel back to the Capital, the group stops for Qyburn to medicate Jaime's healing stump.
Jaime notes that Qyburn's work is more effective than Grand Maester Pycelle and asks why he was expelled from the Order of Maesters. Qyburn tells him that it was because his experiments were "too bold". When Jaime mocks him, Qyburn subtly bashes him for all the lives he has taken while in the Kingsguard. Qyburn informs Jaime that Selwyn Tarth offered gold dragons for Brienne's return, but Locke refused; believing that Lord Selwyn has all the sapphire mines in Westeros. Locke, feeling cheated, would make Brienne the men's entertainment for the night.
Jaime senses a feeling of obligation to Brienne, knowing it is his fault for Locke believing there is a fortune in sapphires in Tarth. He approaches Steelshanks and tells him they are to return to Harrenhal. Jaime threatens that he will tell his father upon arrival in Kings Landing, that Steelshanks chopped his hand off. Or, he says he could tell his father that Steelshanks saved his life. Jaime dives into the pit to aid her, forcing Steelshanks to aid them both by firing arrows at the bear. Jaime and Brienne narrowly escape the bear, and he once again demands that she accompanies him, asking Locke whether he believes Bolton would prefer to reward him or to ensure that Jaime reaches King's Landing.
This time, Locke relents, and Jaime and Brienne depart together. Jaime walks into the gates of King's Landing with Brienne and Qyburn. A worker pulling a cart orders that he move out of the way, calling him a "Country Boy". Jaime immediately returns to Cersei back at the Red Keep. He steps into her room and notices her admiring a seashell fondly. He says her name and as she turns, he notices she is taken aback by his stump. Jaime comments that House Lannister has always wanted its own Valyrian blade and Tywin answers that they now have two. The original was absurdly large and had plenty of steel for two swords.
However, Jaime tells him that he has no plans of resigning and that he will remain in King's Landing to protect the King and secretly continue his incestuous relationship with Cersei.
He also rejects that this is about his honor, as he believes that his honor is too far gone so he might as well do what he wants rather than what is expected of him. Despite this, Tywin allows Jaime to keep the sword, saying that a 'one-armed man with no family needs all the help he can get'. Cersei later offers Jaime a golden hand to cover his stump.
Jaime protests that he murdered people so he could get back to her, but Cersei coldly replies, "You took too long. Joffrey is paying no attention because he thinks he is safe now that the war is over but Jaime tells him that the war is not over while Stannis still lives. Tyrion states that he is impressed with Jaime's new hand, saying that it's much better than the old one. Jaime brings up a dilemma of his: He can't use a sword, and he can't train, because it will be humiliating.
Tyrion says he knows just the man, which is Ser Bronn. Jaime says that Loras will never marry Cersei, that she would kill him and any child conceived on their wedding night; not that it matters since Loras will never marry her. Loras replies that neither will Jaime, a subtle barb to their incestuous relationship. When Joffrey is dying after being poisoned by Olenna Tyrell , Jaime rushes to his son's aid and is with him while he dies. Jaime enters to Great Sept of Baelor to see Cersei and his dead son, asking Tommen if he is coping well with the situation. Jaime sends the septon and septas away so he can be alone with Cersei.
Cersei wants the death of the accused Tyrion and his wife, Sansa Stark. She asks Jaime to kill Tyrion for murdering their son because she is sure Tyrion will talk his way out of it. Jaime refuses, almost positive that Tyrion did not kill their son and tries to comfort her through his affections. Cersei initially kisses Jaime then pulls away and turns back to her dead son after which Jaime proclaims " You're a hateful woman, why have the gods condemned me to love a hateful woman?
Cersei insists his actions are inappropriate and repeatedly asks Jaime to stop, but he refuses. They embrace and proceed to have rough, angry sex on the floor in front of Joffrey's corpse. Some time later, Jaime and Bronn are training, and it seems that Jaime has improved his sword skills with his left hand as he begins to overpower Bronn. Jaime asks Bronn his opinion on the murder; Bronn says that Tyrion is innocent, and is shocked when he realizes that Jaime hasn't yet gone to see Tyrion, since Tyrion's original choice for his trial by combat at the The Eyrie was Jaime.
After hearing this, he visits Tyrion. Jaime visits Cersei on her request, but is disappointed when she only wishes to know Kingsguard formations for Tommen, concerned with the safety of Tommen following the assassination of Joffrey. She asks him if he would break his oath to Catelyn by hunting down and murdering Sansa, who Cersei believes killed Joffrey, aided by Tyrion. Jaime and Brienne talk in the Kingsguard tower. They talk about Jaime's honor, which he hopes to reclaim.
He also gives her another present: a squire, Podrick Payne. She is reluctant at first, thinking that he will slow her down, but she accepts. Jaime says his goodbye to Brienne, and they are both emotionally affected as he watches her leave the capital. Jaime is ordered by his father to have Tyrion shackled before his trial. Tywin immediately agrees, saying that Tyrion will be declared guilty and allowed to join the Night's Watch. Tywin's rapid agreement makes Jaime realize that this was his plan from the start, but he nevertheless agrees.
Tyrion knew that the deal was everything his father wanted and could not go through with it. Jaime points out that, despite his practice with Bronn, his current skill with a sword would be useless in a trial by combat. Tyrion jokes how devastating it would be for Tywin if Jaime were to die in his trial by combat. On the day of the trial by combat, when Oberyn Martell has agreed to fight for Tyrion, Jaime visits Tyrion in his cell. They discuss their dead cousin Orson Lannister and his habit of smashing beetles with rocks for no reason.
Tyrion says he used to watch Orson for long periods of time and think about the reason behind his actions, but he hasn't come to any conclusion why all those countless beetles had to be killed. When Jaime says he doesn't know either, bells start tolling and he wishes Tyrion good luck. Shortly after, he seats himself next to Tywin, Mace Tyrell , Cersei, Pycelle and Varys in the royal box to watch the duel.
He exchanges a few supportive and cheerful looks with Tyrion when Oberyn seems to be winning, but is very unhappy at the result of the trial by combat, which condemns his brother to death - Ser Gregor Clegane crushing Oberyn's skull with his bare hands. Cersei finds Jaime in the White Sword Tower , and he expresses disgust at her blatant attempts to have Tyrion killed.
Cersei accuses that Tyrion killed their mother when she gave birth to him. Jaime is surprised that she still irrationally blames him for that, pointing out that he was an infant and had no control over what happened. Cersei begins to seduce him, saying she chooses her brother over everyone else in the world, no longer concerned with whether everyone else knows their secret. Jaime yields to her advances, kissing her passionately and throwing her on the table where they begin to have sex.
He leads Tyrion to a stairway leading up to a locked door, instructing Tyrion to knock on it twice and then twice more to summon Varys, who will lead him to the ship. Before they part ways, they share a tender embrace and say their goodbyes, unsure if either will ever see each other again. Jaime warns his sister that all the power and prestige their father built for House Lannister belongs to them now and that, once everyone sees that Tywin is truly dead, their enemies will do everything they can to take it away from them.
Cersei bluntly states that their true enemy is Tyrion and that Jaime is partly responsible for Tywin's death since he was the one who released their father's murderer. He is left alone in the Sept, looking at his father's corpse and feeling guilty. Jaime is summoned by Cersei, who has received a "gift" from Dorne : an ornately carved viper, with Princess Myrcella 's unique Lannister pendant suspended from its fangs.
Both siblings understand the gift as a threat from House Martell. Even though she is equally to blame for covering up their incest, Cersei lashes out at Jaime for not being a father to any of their children, to which he points out that if he had been, their children would be stoned in the streets. Jaime declares that he will bring Myrcella home, but Cersei mockingly asks how a one-handed man can rescue a princess alone.
Jaime tells her that he never said he was going alone. To convince him to go, Jaime reveals that Cersei has arranged for Willas Bracken to marry Lollys Stokeworth instead of Bronn, and offers him a much better girl than Lollys and a much better castle once they return from Dorne. During the journey to Dorne, Bronn pushes Jaime for answers as to why he is rescuing Myrcella personally instead of sending an army. Jaime responds that he does not want to start a war, but Bronn insinuates that he knows Myrcella is actually Jaime's daughter and not his niece.
He also warns Jaime on the impulsiveness of the Dornish people, and asks if Jaime set Tyrion free. Jaime claims it was Varys. Bronn asks Jaime to give Tyrion his regards should he see him again, but Jaime responds by saying that if he ever sees Tyrion again, he will kill him in revenge for their father. Not long after, Jaime and Bronn arrive in Dorne, where Bronn narrowly saves Jaime from being poisoned by a viper. As they make their way towards Dorne, they are discovered by Dornish soldiers and a fight ensues.
Jaime personally duels one of the soldiers and holds his own with his left hand until he is disarmed. The man moves in to kill Jaime, who catches the blade in his metal hand and uses the distraction to get his sword and finish his opponent. Over Bronn's protests, Jaime insists that they bury the soldiers in order to avoid suspicions. Myrcella is understandably surprised to see her alleged uncle in Dorne, but as Jaime attempts to persuade his daughter to flee with him, they are attacked by the Sand Snakes, who plan to kill Myrcella in order to force Prince Doran Martell into war with the Lannisters to avenge Oberyn Martell's death.
Jaime and Bronn fight with the Sand Snakes, with Jaime focused on Obara Sand , until Doran's bodyguard, Areo Hotah , appears with a handful of Martell guards and orders them to stand down. Jaime is briefly mocked by Areo for his missing hand before he drops his weapon, and he, Bronn, the Sand Snakes and Ellaria Sand are all arrested. Jaime is locked up in a bedroom-like cell. Areo brings Myrcella to visit him. Jaime tells her that the situation has grown dangerous and he needs to take Myrcella back to King's Landing, though he fails to mention that it is because the Dornishmen seek to use her as a way to gain revenge for Oberyn.
She soundly rejects his advice and claims she wants to stay in Dorne and marry Trystane, before leaving him alone. He comments on the nature of Myrcella's clothes, suggesting that they are too revealing, covering this suggestion up by asking if she is cold. She rebuffs this, stating that she is suited to the Dornish climate. He says he feared for her safety, but when Doran insists as to why he didn't just send a letter by messenger raven, he explains that they received a threatening message: Myrcella's Lannister lion pendant jammed in the mouth of dead viper.
Jaime asks if Doran intends to behead him, but he says that he will not, because he wishes to avoid war. Doran insists that for the alliance between the Iron Throne and Dorne to continue, the engagement of Trystane and Myrcella must stand, and Trystane will simply take his uncle Oberyn's place on the Small Council. Jaime finds Doran's request entirely reasonable, and Myrcella is ecstatic that she will not be separated from Trystane, so Jaime agrees. Ellaria later visits Jaime in his quarters and pretends to make amends with him, acknowledging that neither he nor Myrcella played any part in Oberyn's death, but expresses her knowledge that Myrcella is not Jaime's niece, but his daughter.
Before leaving, she mocks him for not being born centuries ago into the Targaryen family, in which position his incest would have been accepted. Upon saying goodbye, Ellaria Sand kisses Myrcella on the lips. Aboard the ship, Myrcella and Jaime talk about Cersei. Myrcella then reveals that she knows that Jaime is her real father, and that she is glad that he is, and the two embrace. However, Myrcella's nose starts to bleed and she collapses and dies in Jaime's arms, a victim of poison from Ellaria's kiss. Jaime returns from Dorne with Myrcella's corpse. He then comforts Cersei in her quarters and the conversation shifts to the death of their mother.
Cersei then tells Jaime about the prophecy that Maggy told her as a child concerning the deaths of her children. Jaime brushes this off, insisting that they are the only two who have ever mattered and promising they will take back everything that has been stolen from them. Aware that Doran Martell had nothing to do with Myrcella's murder, Jaime sends Doran a letter demanding the heads of Ellaria and the three Sand Snakes responsible, which leads to the deaths of Doran and Trystane at Ellaria's hands. Jaime and Tommen later mourn Myrcella in the Sept of Baelor.
Jaime informs Tommen they haven't found Trystane's killers, though Tommen suspects Cersei was involved. When Jaime asks why he has not allowed his mother to pay respects, Tommen informs Jaime that the High Sparrow has forbidden Cersei from entering the Sept. Jaime reassures Tommen that he will not let the Sparrows imprison her again while he is in the city and asks Tommen why has he not visited his mother yet. As Tommen questions his ability to rule and protect his family, the High Sparrow arrives and Jaime orders Tommen to go see his mother.
Jaime is furious at what the High Sparrow has done to Cersei and considers killing him on the spot but backs down when the fanatics surround him. The High Sparrow then revels in the idea that he has managed to take control of King's Landing, effectively ruling the Seven Kingdoms, angering Jaime further. Jaime and Cersei later visit Qyburn's lab accompanied by Gregor Clegane. As Cersei asks Qyburn to sway more of Varys' spies to her cause, Jaime wonders aloud on the ex-maester's treatment of Clegane, causing the Mountain to glare at him in anger.
Instead, Kevan and the Council refuse to continue to meet while Gregor Clegane is present and promptly leave the council chamber. This time, they agree to work together to remove the High Sparrow from power. Jaime convinces his uncle to keep the Lannister forces in reserve but have the Tyrell army go to the Great Sept of Baelor and free Margaery and Loras , though Kevan warns that the High Sparrow has many supporters and thousands could die in the ensuing civil war.
As the High Sparrow is addressing the crowd, the Tyrell force marches into the square at the foot of the Sept's stairs. Just as it seems it will come to blood, the High Sparrow announces he will be releasing Margaery due to a new alliance between the Crown and the Faith, and Tommen emerges from the Sept with the rest of the Kingsguard. Jaime is shocked and enraged, and he gives the High Sparrow a scornful glare. He commands him to take an army to Riverrun , which was recently captured by the Blackfish and the Tully army, and help the Freys retake the castle.
Jaime later informs Cersei of this, angry that the High Sparrow has swayed Tommen to his side and threatening to attack the Sept with help from Bronn and other sellswords. Instead, Cersei advises Jaime to lead the Lannister forces to Riverrun, confident the Mountain will win her trial by combat. She kisses Jaime goodbye, reminding him their enemies have always underestimated them. Jaime arrives at Riverrun accompanied by Bronn and an army of 8, Lannisters. Knowing his nephew is too valuable to lose, the Blackfish dismisses them and Edmure is spared.
Jaime remarks on the Freys' poor attempts at siege warfare and points out that threatening to hang Edmure and then not doing so makes them look weak. To prove his point, he threatens to strike Black Walder if he speaks again; when Black Walder begins to answer, Jaime slaps him hard with his armored hand, drawing blood.
Jaime assumes command of the siege and orders Edmure to be washed and fed. Jaime then sends word to Brynden that he wishes to parley. He comes face to face with Brynden, but it quickly becomes clear that the Blackfish is not interested in surrendering. He asks Jaime whether he has come to honor his vow to his niece and return her two daughters. Brynden quips that "negotiating with an oathbreaker is like building on quicksand", declaring that he is ready to die in his home.
He challenges Jaime to either storm the castle or try to starve them out, claiming that they have two years worth of provisions. Brynden then asks Jaime, "Do you have two years? As she and Jaime discuss the situation privately in a tent, Bronn asks Pod if he thinks they are having sex and says that Jaime would definitely have sex with her. Meanwhile, Brienne tells Jaime that she fulfilled their oath to Catelyn Stark and explains Sansa's desire for aid from the Blackfish. She proposes that if she can convince the Blackfish to surrender the castle, then Jaime will allow him and the Tully army safe passage to the North.
Jaime agrees and allows Brienne to enter Riverrun and try to convince Brynden to surrender. She then removes Oathkeeper and tries to return it to Jaime, since the purpose he lent it to her for rescuing Sansa has been fulfilled, but he refuses to take it back, saying that it's hers now. Brienne reminds him that her oath to Sansa Stark will obligate her to fight him if her efforts to find a peaceful solution should fail if he attacks the castle. Jaime responds by saying that he hopes that it does not come to that.
After Brienne fails to persuade the Blackfish, Jaime visits Edmure to offer him a deal, trying to tempt him with seeing his son and sending him, his son and his wife Roslin Frey to Casterly Rock. With his family's life credibly threatened, Edmure agrees to cooperate. Despite Brynden's protests, the gates are opened to Edmure and Riverrun surrenders without a fight. On the castle walls, Jaime is informed of the Blackfish's death, leaving him visibly saddened.
He then witnesses Brienne and Podrick escaping in a boat, but allows them to leave, waving goodbye to Brienne. Jaime then marches to the Twins with the Freys as they celebrate their retaking of Riverrun. Jaime notices a serving girl who smiles at him. Bronn then complains that all the women desire Jaime, who then calls over two young girls and introduces them to the knight. He then speaks to Walder Frey , who gloats about their victory. When Walder attempts to equate himself with Jaime, calling them both kingslayers, Jaime is visibly irritated. Walder goes on to say that fear is a marvelous thing but Jaime retorts that people fear the Lannisters, not the Freys, and questions the need for the Freys if the Lannisters have to keep helping the Freys hold the Riverlands.
Walder does not respond and Jaime brusquely leaves. Walder and his sons, Black Walder and Lothar, are later murdered by the same serving girl that smiled at Jaime earlier, who reveals herself to be Arya Stark. Jaime points out their lack of allies and questions Cersei's power. He expresses his will to discuss Tommen's suicide, but she refuses, calling their youngest child a traitor.
She later reveals that she has considered a new ally, Euron Greyjoy. Euron arrives to ask Cersei to marry, but she declines, stating that she cannot trust him. Jaime then reminisces about Euron's primary role in the Greyjoy Rebellion , including the Sack of Lannisport and is less then impressed when Euron proposes to Cersei, but is relieved when she refuses his proposal.
Jaime is present when Cersei convenes a court of Reachmen , including Randyll Tarly , who are asked to betray their oaths to Olenna Tyrell , who has recently joined forces with Daenerys. Jaime then manages to get Randyll on his own, after a brief confusion of names with his son, Dickon Tarly , who is mistaken as "Rickard" to Jaime.
He then makes it clear that Randyll is the most prominent of the lords of the Reach, and that the others will look to him when choosing sides. Despite Jaime mentioning the possibility of the Dothraki invading his lands, Randyll still announces that he doesn't wish to be dishonorable to Olenna. Jaime then promises to give him the title of Warden of the South , should they succeed in triumphing over Daenerys. As they stand beside the throne as Cersei proclaims Euron commander of her naval forces as well as assuring him of her hand in marriage once the war is won, Jaime quietly mutters that the same people who cheered for Euron would do the same if Cersei put his head on a spike.
Euron ignores the jab, but responds with one of his own by asking Jaime for advice on how Cersei enjoys sex. A furious Jaime almost lunges at Euron, but Euron, delighted at having provoked him, gleefully tells Jaime to save it for later, in a not so public place. Soon after, Jaime is seen dining in his chambers when Cersei enters the room, and proceeds to disrobe him.
They have sex, and then the next morning, they are woken by a servant ringing the doorbell. Jaime urges Cersei to ignore it, and expresses shock when she decides to answer the door, as nobody should see him sleeping in Cersei's bed, but Cersei retorts that she is the Queen and can do whatever she wants. When Cersei opens the door, the servant tells her that the representative from the Iron Bank of Braavos is ready to meet with her, and her eyes catch on to the sight of Jaime in Cersei's bed, before quickly walking away.
Cersei smiles as Jaime's concern turns to amusement. Jaime is next seen leading the combined Lannister-Tarly army, along with Bronn , Randyll and Dickon Tarly in the final assault against Highgarden. In the aftermath of the assault and the massacre of the castle's Tyrell garrison, passing through his own soldiers counting up the spoils of victory, Jaime confronts Olenna Tyrell in her study. Jaime notes that the Tyrell forces fought bravely, whereupon Olenna acknowledges warfare was not House Tyrell 's strong point.
Olenna observes that Tyrion and Daenerys thought the bulk of the Lannister forces would be defending Casterly Rock against the Unsullied attack. Jaime, while pouring two glasses of wine, reveals it was a ruse, explaining that his ancestral home is now practically worthless, aside from childhood sentiment; a token garrison was left behind and the Rock's food stores were emptied before they fled.
He also states Euron's Iron Fleet will have destroyed the attacking fleet, leaving the Unsullied trapped deep in Westeros at the mercy of Lannister forces. Meanwhile, the main Lannister army would be far away from the main attack, a strategic move Jaime learnt from Robb Stark 's attack at the Whispering Wood.
Olenna wonders why Tywin Lannister didn't just take Highgarden when Casterly Rock's mines first ran out of gold. Knowing her end is near, she remarks that she may ask Tywin himself soon enough. Olenna asks Jaime how he intends to kill her, speculating he will kill her with Widow's Wail, Joffrey Baratheon 's old sword. Remarking on Joffrey's horrible nature, Olenna proudly admits that she enacted measures to protect her family at all costs, with no regrets, but reflects that her actions pale in comparison to the atrocities performed by Cersei. She tells Jaime that Cersei is a monster; a matter of opinion according to Jaime.
While some may dread her, Jaime insists that none will care what she has done, so long as order is restored. Olenna observes that Jaime really does love his sister, and calls him a fool, claiming that she will be the end of him, and that by the time he realizes what a disease Cersei is, it will be far too late for him. Jaime considers this a moot point, of little value discussing with Olenna, although she points out that as an experienced person about to die, she is the perfect person to discuss his life with. Olenna again asks Jaime how he plans to kill her.
This was no inner-page murder. The Tate murder was not only headline material for an extended period, but it electrified the whole nation and spawned books and articles for years afterward. No one hesitated to call her murder evil, and, judging from the public reaction, an evil of greater magnitude than the unheralded murder of the anonymous black man. Both murders were, viewed from one perspective, equally senseless and despicable.
This would be the supremely fair perspective of God and the Constitution. But from the more subjective reaction of the public, the murder of a beautiful, pregnant celebrity weighed heavier in the balance of evil. There was of course the element of terror in the Tate case, and indeed Manson had meant to strike terror in the public. That was the meaning underlying his "Helter Skelter. And then-because the blacks were, in Manson's jaundiced view, incapable of governing, he-Mansonwould assume leadership of the remaining population. So in a way, one can understand how the Tate murder seemed to belong to a higher notch in the scale of evil than the murder of the homeless man.
Yet- when you take full stock of the veteran's bigotry and cowardice in killing a sleeping black man, just as innocent and defenseless in his way as Sharon Tate was in hers, the scales of evil are not so far apart. One may well ask, what is the point of breaking up the concept of evil into all these categories in the first place? Once we accept the new way of defining evil-taking it outside the realm of religion and philosophy, that is, and reexamining it in the light of everyday speech-then we all see that some violent crimes, some forms of cruelty to women and children in particular, are worse than others.
The measure of these differences might be a stronger gasp when we hear certain stories, our jaw dropping lower, our eyebrows raised higher-the changes in facial expression that accompany our hearing an "evil" story. Those changes in expression correspond quite closely with the degree of shock, the reaction of horror that we register when we first hear such a story. But this alone would not justify making twenty-two categories of evil acts.
My argument for making distinct categories rests on the fact that in other areas of human behavior, something useful often emerges from making these distinctions. There are several important questions that might be more easily answered if we take this approach to evil as well. If all the individual cases that get labeled "evil" are simply lumped together, it becomes harder to discover the origins of the different varieties of evil behaviors. If we are dealing with prisoners who have committed horrific crimes, how can we best decide which ones are salvageable-and which ones can most safely be restored to the outside world as functioning members of the community?
Which of these criminals are best kept under lock and key for extended periods, or even for the rest of their lives? Can one inherit certain tendencies or be marred by certain experiences early in life that heighten the risk for cruelty? The first step toward answering such questions is to find common features-of background, of behavior, of personality-shared by one group of individuals who have committed evil acts but not often found in some other group.
Those fitting into the halfdozen categories already mentioned ought to differ from one another in ways that go beyond the mere differences in the types of murder. My guess at the outset is that serial killers are not the same as the kind of men who lie awake thinking up schemes to kill their wives, and that the latter are probably quite different from those who kill on impulse in some dramatic but once-in-a-lifetime way.
It is only when we separate the groups that show these outer differences that we can then take the magnifying glass and look for subtle differences and, ultimately, inner differences. By "inner differences" I mean the various hereditary, early-background, and even brain-structure differences that would not be at all apparent when the people behind the evil actions were first identified.
This is the same process that has already begun to pay big dividends in psychiatry. There were a few patients in that era whose breakdown took the form of grandiose delusions so flamboyant "I am Napoleon," "I am the Virgin Mary" as to be labeled "manic. Once medications like chlor- promazine17 were developed in the s, that was what the patients were prescribed.
Not many types of psychotherapy were available either, so most patients who were called schizophrenic were given a form of therapy based on psychoanalysis.
punditic: meaning - WordSense Dictionary
This one-size-fits-all treatment didn't change much until lithium was found to be useful in the treatment of mania. In mania one sees such symptoms as an abnormally elevated mood, often with grandiosity or irritability or both , along with excessive rapidity of thought and speech. The delusions of manic persons may take the form of believing they are some exalted figure, like the Messiah, the Queen of England, Napoleon, or the Virgin Mary. At this point it became important to make careful distinctions in diagnosis: many patients who had been labeled schizophrenic were finally recognized in the s in Europe but not until the late s in the United States as manic and given an effective medication.
As more was understood about causative factors for these conditions, the role of inheritance came to overshadow improper parenting. Mothers were no longer blamed for making their children schizophrenic. In recent years magnetic resonance imaging MRI techniques have made it possible to show in an even more dramatic way the differences in how the brain works in these two separate conditions, not so long ago thought of as just one condition.
By applying similar methods to the shadowy realm of evil, I hope to develop a better way of understanding the complex forces that lead to it: What are the varieties of evil? What are the underlying factors peculiar to each of these varieties? In the search for a violent criminal who has so shocked the public as to call his act evil, the police are mainly concerned with the questions: who, when, where, and how. As a psychiatrist, entering the picture well after there has been a capture, and well after those four questions have been answered, my interest is: why?
In the case of murder, to the police, to the prosecutor, and even to the judge, the why question is usually of less interest. Where psychiatry and the law come together- in "forensic psychiatry"-there is the allimportant question of dangerousness. This outweighs even the issue of treatability, as significant as that is.
With the focus here on murder, we want to know whether the persons in a particular category of the scale are likely to harm others again if they were released. That is, after all, one of the major reasons why the categories were created: in which persons, having committed an evil act, does dangerousness remain a compelling issue?
In which persons, who have committed a violent act, can we expect eventual rehabilitation and the reduction of dangerousness to a minimum? By looking at the histories, and the subsequent fate in the case of released prisoners of persons in different categories, we can begin to answer such questions as this: is a person who has committed so gruesome a murder as to place him in one of the more extreme categories of the scale-but who has done so only once-more dangerous than someone who has performed less shocking crimes of violence but has done them more often? Another relevant issue concerns the legal tradition.
There is a centuries-old custom of shaping the length of sentencing purely on the nature of the crime and whether it is a first-time offense. Of course many judges are more sensible and more strict. But there are plenty of examples in the crime literature where someone committing a seriously violent act, such as rape of a stranger with mutilation, is given something like "ten years with three years off for good behavior. Still in the prime of life, that is, with all of his masculine juices flowing as ardently as before?
We know from studies what happens with rapists in the years after release from prison: they have high rates of re-offending "recidivism". Depending on the report, a third, perhaps a half, will commit another rape or another violent crime within two or three years. Too generous. Especially, when in the all-male environment of the men's prison, there are no women with whom the rapist's "improvement" can be put to the test. Prisons nowadays, incidentally, are often called correctional facilities, a phrase built on the hope that during their incarceration prisoners will emerge "corrected" of their tendency to behave in antisocial, let alone violent, ways.
And this does sometimes happen. The older term for prisons was penitentiary-implying that prison was a place where you were to feel sorry from the Latin paenitet, "to make sorry" for what you did. And that sometimes happens, also. But there are many exceptions to these hopeful beliefs. In all fairness, I would have to say that there are incarcerated men and women who, despite having committed acts widely felt to be "evil," have become truly both penitent and "corrected.
Before presenting the Gradations of Evil Scale in its currently more expanded state, I would like to share with you two examples: one of a man who should never have been released, but was, and another of a man who will never be released as far as I can tell , but who I believe now deserves return to society. The first example concerns a Massachusetts man, David Paul Brown, who began showing violent behavior when he was six: he choked a sixyear-old female pupil.
He grew massively obese and was a social misfit, mocked in school for his awkwardness and obesity. At fifteen he tried to lure two boys to a cemetery for lewd purposes. He was not able to carry through his intentions, and the boys' mother did not press charges. For that offense he was given merely a year's probation.
- Jealousy Is Crueler Than the Grave: Helping People, Who've Been Victimized by Jealousy.
- My Long Ago Girl.
- Vegetarian Cooking: Stewed Squash, Cucumber and Tofu Puffs in Chinese Spicy Black Bean Sauce (Vegetarian Cooking - Vegetables and Fruits Book 31).
- 2012 Global Hunger Index: The Chanllenge of Hunger;
- I Will Call on You.
At twenty he lured two adolescent boys, with the same ruse of being a "cop," and, using a knife and handcuffs, attempted to kidnap and sodomize them. One was able to play dead, and later ran off and summoned the authorities. Both survived. Brown was arrested and sent to a prison for sex offenders with the recommendation from a psychiatrist that he be retained indefinitely.
This was in part thanks to efforts of his mother. By that time he weighed lbs kg. His mother managed to find two independent psychiatrists from outside the prison who testified that he was no longer a risk to the community. Based on their testimony made without delving into Brown's criminal record , the judge was persuaded-bamboozled would be a better word-into granting Brown's release. Scarcely a month and a half later, he was rearrested, this time for entering a parked car and sitting atop a seven-yearold boy who was awaiting his mother to return from shopping.
Brown's mother pleaded with the boy's mother not to pursue the charges, on the promise that her son, now thirty-four, would relocate to Montana. Not long after he moved to Montana, Brown was arrested for pedophilia involving an eight-year-old boy; for this he spent only five months in jail. A year later, again impersonating a policeman and standing outside a school, Brown lured a ten-year-old boy, immobilizing him with a stun gun.
Convicted instead of child molestation among other offenses, Brown began serving a life sentence. When I interviewed Brown a few years before his death in prison, I asked him why he had moved to Montana. He said, "Oh, I was getting sick of Massachusetts. As I will show in a later chapter, this picture of incarceration for a violent crime, followed by imprudent release and then the commission of still more-and more shocking-crimes is actually common in the literature on men ultimately convicted of serial sexual homicide. The second example centers on a man, Ronald Luff, who got swept up in a small Ohio cult whose leader was a con man-turned-preacher.
A stranger to modesty, Lundgren claimed that he was a prophet of God, heard God's voice, and-toward the end-that he was God. There, a church had been erected by the early Mormons during their westward trek in the nineteenth century. Among the two dozen people he mesmerized into joining his cult was a devout man from a more traditional Mormon background, Ronald Luff. Married with children, Luff had been a deeply religious, hardworking, industrious man with a ster ling record in his Missouri hometown.
He fell under the spell of Lundgren, taking him for the prophet he claimed to be. In time he became the second-in-command member of the cult. Another Missouri family that felt the same enchantment with Lundgren's grandiose and controlling qualities was Dennis and Cheryl Avery and their three children. The Averys fell afoul of Lundgren, who was trying to con them out of their savings. Lundgren would not tolerate such "disobedience" and ordered the whole family to be executed. Luff, whose moral values had been swamped and overridden by Lundgren, participated, with an obedience worthy of Hitler's henchmen, in this murderous plan.
One evening, in April of , Lundgren commanded Luff to lead the members of the Avery family, one at a time, from the main house to a farmhouse farther off on the grounds. Once the entire family was in the farmhouse, Lundgren shot each one so that the bodies fell into a pre-dug pit that was then sealed over. Lundgren was executed for the massacre in Ron Luff was given a life sentence- actually a "year" sentence, which is very much the same.
An intellectual, thoughtful, and remorseful man who had never been remotely in trouble with the law before, Luff has already served over twenty years. He shows every sign of being able to resume his place in society as a worthy and law-abiding citizensomeone who could be of special use, given his experience, in warning other susceptible people against submitting to power-hungry cult leaders.
But it is not likely he will ever be released. The difference between these two men is that the dangerousness of the one was ignored until it was too late, and the non-dangerousness of the other was not taken fully into consideration. At least that is my opinion. There was, of course, no miscarriage of justice here: he was unquestionably guilty as an accomplice to a massacre.
It is appropriate that he serve a long sentence for that crime: perhaps the twenty years he has thus far been in prison. But from the standpoint of our main topic- evil-it is clear that evil was quite evident in the pedophile and equally so in the cult leader. Lundgren, in fact, was one of those rare individuals who behaved atrociously on a day-in day-out basis throughout most of his adult life.
We will have more to say about him later. Clearly, Ron Luff also participated in an evil act. But since we are interested in gradations in the domain of evil, Luff belongs at a lower level than the utterly callous leader, Lundgren, who dominated him. This means that Luff might have somehow found the courage to escape and tell the authorities about Lundgren, perhaps even saving the Avery family. So our sense of the level of evil here, in Luff, is still quite high. A more dramatic example of a "lesser" evil is a man who has had the opportunity to demonstrate his rehabilitation: Billy Wayne Sinclair.
It was an impulsive and unintentional murder. He had fired his pistol over his shoulder without looking where it was pointed as he tried to escape the owner. Through terrible luck, the bullet struck and killed the man. Billy was arrested, spent seven years on death row and twenty-eight more years there when the death penalty was temporarily abolished. He eventually became the editor of the prison newspaper, exposed the pardons-for-sale scandal at the infamous "Angola" Louisiana State prison, and was befriended by a journalist whom he later married. He and his wife now live in Houston, where I interviewed him and got a chance to learn how he has been working at a law firm, helping other inmates who have had to struggle with the kinds of unfairness that for so long had characterized the criminal justice system in his area.
The book he and his wife have written is a testimony to the possibility of selftranscendence and redemption in some men and women who have committed an evil act-a stark contrast to the life of Jeff Lundgren and others like him, for whom redemption is unthinkable, whom age does not mellow, and whose propensity to evil actions remains at full tilt throughout their life span. Since murder cases formed the inspiration behind the creation of the scale, its focus remains on murder. There are a few exceptions for cases involving multiple rapes and a strong suspicion of murder, the latter never proven in court.
Some of the cases concern people regarded as evil by the community- people who were exceptionally cruel to a spouse, to children, or to other family members. Their actions fell short of murder, though they sometimes precipitated a suicide. Some cases involved spouses usually husbands whose evil consisted of "gaslighting" their wives. The term gaslight comes from the famous play Angel Street, by Patrick Hamilton, later made into the novel Gaslight, by William Drummond.
As it says on the back cover of Drummond's book: "Trapped in the evil mansion on Angel Street, Bella suspects that her own husband, sinister Mr. Manningham, is driving her mad. Hence the evil in these cases does not fall within the scale. But these and other examples of prolonged cruelty, deserving perhaps a separate scale, fall readily under the larger umbrella of Evil-with a capital "E"-cov- ering every known variety. The terms psychopathic traits or psychopath occur in most of the descriptions of the categories from number 9 on.
A century ago the word psychopath meant little more than its root meaning of "mental illness. This checklist consists of twenty items, some dealing primarily with personality; others more with behaviors. Since each item can get a score depending whether it applies considerably, only a little, or not at all of 2, 1, or zero, the maximum score would be Anyone scoring 30 or more is considered a psychopath proper.
Others with lower scores-in the teens or twenties-are said to show psychopathic traits but not the fullblown condition. For our purposes, the most important items are those having to do with personality. Taken together, they paint a picture of extreme egocentricity, or "narcissism," with ruthless disregard for the rights and feelings of others. These personality items are: glib speech or superficial charm, grandiosity, conning or manipulativeness, pathological lying, lack of remorse or guilt, callousness or lack of empathy, and a failure to accept responsibility for one's actions.
Some of the behavioral items include impulsivity, sexual promiscuity, poor behavioral controls, and a parasitic lifestyle. Armed with those dreadful qualities, a person is capable of just about anything. Once she got into the car to place the grocery bag on the seat, Bundy would then snap the lock on her side and drive off to some remote place, where he would proceed to rape and kill the woman, with no more regret than if you were to step on a roach in your kitchen.
As we go through the descriptions of the various men and women who occupy the higher-number categories in the evil scale, we will see psychopathy, or at least some of its key traits, over and over again. Some of the worst offenders-those whose actions prompt the word evil most quickly and uniformly-also show "sadistic" traits. The terms sadism and sadistic come from the life and writings of the infamous eighteenthcentury Marquis de Sade, whose novels contained much more cruelty than did his actual deeds.
But he murdered no one and would have found our serial killers of today revolting. The essence of sadism, as we now use the term, is the taking of enjoyment in hurting others. Two other main qualities of sadism are humiliation and controleach carried to an extreme. As it happens, a person can be psychopathic without being sadistic as in the fake-Rolex salesman who is nice to his wife and children , or one can be sadistic without being psychopathic. We see the second type in families where a parent may be verbally or even physically cruel to others in the family, yet behave decently at work and in most other social situations.
Robert Jahnke Sr. At the most he may have had a few psychopathic traits, but he did not come up to the level of the full-blown psychopath. The common thread that runs through almost all of the categories from number 9 to number 22 is the element of malice, or "intentionality. Richard Speck, the alcoholic drifter who killed eight nurses in a Chicago hospital dormitory, had broken into the dorm intending to cadge money from the nurses.
When some of them resisted, he killed all eight that he could find, though there was another nurse who had hidden under a bed and who survived. Since the Gradations scale was built only from published biographies, it represents just a fraction of all the people who have committed a murder. This means that the members of the "biography group" are quite special: their murders were spectacular in some way, either because of the cunning they used to conceal the crime, or the horrific nature of the crime, or the large number of victims as in the case of a massacre.
The great majority of murders would register much lower on any scale of evil and are usually impulsive acts, like barroom brawls that went too far or spousal murders that resulted from a passionate argument. The latter often occur at the very moment when the wife with packed bags is about to leave the house and divorce her husband. The tearful husband then calls the police and tells them he'd done a terrible thing. Thus the element of malice aforethought is not nearly as often present in murders of the more "everyday" type.
In those cases I have given a lower number to the case, acknowledging that the act was widely considered evil but that the offender could not really be held fully responsible for what he had done. Murderous cult leaders are also difficult to place on the scale because they have often persuaded their followers to do the killingwithout the leader firing a shot. Charles Manson, for example, did not participate physically in the murders he authorized.
Jeff Lundgren was the exception, since, although he used an accomplice, he personally murdered the Avery family.
My efforts in creating such a scale were not, however, the first. Though there have been very few such attempts, there was an earlier one that earned considerable-and lasting-fame. Without having meant to, this earlier scale shows us quite vividly how society's values as to what is absolutely evil, fairly evil, or not so evil are subject to change over time. I refer to the Divine Comedy of Dante Alighieri, the first book of whichthe Inferno-was composed seven hundred years ago in As with the longer list in the Epistle to the Galatians of the New Testament, the Seven are also merely a list, with no ranking as to which might generally be worse, more partaking in evil, than some of the others.
Whereas Proverbs mentions murder per se, the Seven Deadly Sins are not actions, let alone evil actions in our modern sense. They are only attitudes or emotions that happen to nudge those who harbor them in the direction of committing certain actions. The Seven do not lend themselves to any scale, though one would like to think that Anger, to the extent that it is associated with murder, would merit far more social disapproval than would Sloth or Gluttony. But obviously the overlap between Anger and Evil is only partial.
Anger, in less vehement forms, also motivates us to protest against social injustice. That said, Dante, as he journeys down through his Nine Circles of Hell in the company of the great Roman poet Virgil, does offer us a ranking, or a scale, of bad attitudes and actions, going from the mildest and to our way of thinking, the least akin to "evil" to the most abominable or repugnant and thus closer to what we now mean by "evil". Dante divided the sins and vices of which people could be guilty into three broad sections, also anchoring his system to a "zero point"-of essentially guiltless persons whose only fault, or rather, misfortune, was to have been born before Christ.
Table 1. There are a number of crucial differences between the graded divisions of Dante's Inferno and the Gradations of Evil I have sketched above. My schema concentrates on evil actions committed in peacetime and throws the spotlight on murder or acts of violence that are a little short of murder. I equate evil with that-which-horrifies. Dante includes wrong actions done either in peacetime or in times of group conflict and war. He does not insist on an act being shocking or horrifying before he will include it among his list of wrong behaviors, though if he were to do so, he would apparently find heresy in Circle Six more repugnant, perhaps more horrifying, than anger Circle Five or avarice Circle Four.
The values of thirteenthcentury Florence when Dante grew up are not all the same as ours. Also, we know there were rare cases of serial sexual homicide at the time of Joan of Arc in the fifteenth century: her chief lieutenant, Gilles de Rais, the richest nobleman in France, was a pedophile who seduced and killed several hundred boys before he was finally executed. It is hard to imagine he would have overlooked them, if they existed. The influence of religion was so strong in Dante's time, that for him the worst person imaginable was Judas Iscariot, who betrayed Jesus.
Dante put evils caused by perversions of Reason in a lower circle than the Brutish. Hence he saw the simonists44 as somehow worse than murderers. Compared with our worst murderers, who torture their victims, Dante's worst were those who killed a relative in order to hasten an inheritance. A modern example would be Steven Benson his case is mentioned earlier in this chapter , whom I placed in Category 14 for "ruthlessly self-centered psychopathic schemers. As so often happened in those days, the punishment was more gruesome than the crime.
We are now ready to take a closer look at the Gradations of Evil as I have outlined them, approximately in the order in which they appear in the scale. I am not so fortunate as to have Virgil as my guide, but I do have Dante as my inspiration.
But probe the valley with your sight, for we are approaching the river of blood, in which are boiling those who harm others with violence. Oh blind cupidity and mad rage, that so spur us in this short life, and then in the eternal one, cook us so evilly! The higher the number, the more likely people will use the word evil in describing the murders and other acts belonging to that category. We then reduced those twenty-one categories to five groups: the impulsive without psychopathic traits, the impulsive with a few psychopathic traits, those showing malice aforethought and many psychopathic traits, psychopaths committing multiple violent crimes, and finally, psychopaths committing either torture alone or else serial sexual murders that also include torture.
To simplify matters even further, we could speak of just two very broad groups: those with few or no psychopathic traits versus those with many or full-blown psychopathic traits. Another broad division concerns those who acted on impulse and those who planned the hurt or the violence they then committed. Here we will turn our attention to impulsive persons whose evil acts were not accompanied by psychopathic traits, or, if they were, the traits are minor.
As always, I am using the word evil here in response to the reactions of the public in general and to the reactions of the people who came to be involved with the various cases, including journalists, members of the court, and relatives of the victims. In the courts and in books about crime, certain phrases are used over and over that have almost identical meaning. The "passion" may concern a love relationship and sexual passion or may mean no more than a strong emotion of any kind, such as anger or rage.
A less commonly used word is expressive-which merely indicates that the act was done by way of expressing some intense feeling. Crimes preceded by planning, and done with malice aforethought-that is, with the conscious intention of hurting another person-are often called instrumental crimes.
This does not mean the crime was carried out using an instrument; rather, the crime itself was the "instrument" for achieving some goal. Hiring a hit man to kill a spouse so as to free oneself to be with a lover is, for example, the "instrument" the killer uses to carry out his or her plan of a new life with the other partner. This is quite different from the situation, mentioned in the last chapter, where a woman tells her husband "out of the blue" she is leaving him, and, as she tries to leave the house, he kills her with a blunt object.
The same is true for acts of cruelty, often carried out within a family, that go unnoticed because the authorities are not summoned. Crimes of intention are placed under the heading of instrumental. The term premeditated is regularly used in the same connection. Acts of this sort are most often premeditated, in contrast to crimes or other damaging actions that are called expressive, where the common characteristics are lack of forethought and spontaneity.
These acts are said to have been done in the heat of passion. Certain motives are regarded as more understandable and more forgivable; others are regarded as more vile and inhuman. To get a better grasp on why we tend in our minds to create a hierarchy of more or less forgivable acts-in effect, lesser or greater evilswe can take a brief page from psychiatry; specifically, from the comments of Sigmund Freud.
Toward the end of his long life, Freud was approached by a journalist who inquired of the great man what life was all about. What the journalist got was two words. Well, three, if you count the "and. When matters go very wrong in the sphere of love, we may find jealousy. And where jealousy is extreme, serious crimes including murder can be the outcome and may occur quite suddenly-literally in the heat of passion.
Stalking an intimate partner following a rejection is another act of love-gone-wrong-one that may also escalate to a serious crime or murder, though here there is more conscious planning-making the stalker's actions "instrumental. This was apparently so in Old Testament times, when the term gin'ah was used for both words and also meant "ardor" or "heat," in the emotional sense. The equation between passion and heat goes back to our earliest days. The equation worked as it still does in both directions: we burn with passionate love; if the love turns sour, we burn with anger and the switch can happen in the fraction of a second.
The Romans also made little distinction between jealousy and envy, using the word invidia for both. For them, the root meaning was to see videre in a negative way; figuratively, to look upon someone with the evil eye. But currently envy is usually reserved for two-person situations-where you have something your Ferrari that I wish I had instead of my Chevy -in this case, coveting your neighbor's car.
Jealousy refers more to a three-person situation: I resent you because I thought you loved me, but now I see you have turned away from me and love another. I have lost you and I hate the other for having taken you from me-or I hate you for having deserted me for that other person. Because each of us can identify with how devastating it is to lose the object of one's love, especially in the context of a long partnership or marriage, we tend to be less shocked when we hear that jealousy was the motive for a murder. We also realize that a loss in a love relationship is harder to replace than loss of a job.
This makes us more sympathetic in the case of a jealousy murder especially if the killer found a spouse in bed with a lover than with a workplace murder where the killer shot the boss after being fired. The word evil is not so often used when commenting about a jealousy murder, unless the circumstances are extraordinary. Two examples might be: the victim had in reality done nothing to evoke jealousy,' or the victim had indeed cheated on the killer-who nevertheless resorted to extremes of mutilation or torture in exacting "revenge. There are other types of spontaneous, or "expressive" violence and murder unrelated to jealousy: violence during a brawl or in the course of an argument.
Murders of this type seem more avoidable and often enough closer to what we mean by evil. Many of the spur-of-the-moment murders and other acts of violence committed by people with severe mental illness fall under this expressive heading and are sometimes so spectacular as to smack of evil-until we learn that the person in question was acting under the command of imaginary voices or something similar. This was the case with the young man who threw his father's head out the window-or with another mentally ill person who slit open her mother's abdomen in the belief that the mother's exterior was the devil and that the "good" mother was inside, waiting to be released.
When things go very wrong in the sphere of work, we may find a different set of responses, and different motives for criminal acts. Greed is a common motive, as in arson carried out in the expectation of getting the insurance money, as well as in the more mundane crimes of theft, burglary, and robbery. The motives behind certain work-related murders are to get rid of a business rival or to avenge a real or fancied wrong-of which retaliation for being fired is a common example.
Schoolwork is work, too, in the broader sense of the word; many of the mass murders committed on campus are in retaliation for being dismissed from high school or college for failed grades. Mass murders are almost universally regarded as evil no matter the motive which is almost always revenge , and no matter if mental illness is a factor-given the enormous amount of destruction and loss of innocent life occurring in the wake of such crimes. Before we flesh out the theme of jealousy with actual examples, it should be recognized that both an expressive and an instrumental motive may get compressed together in one violent episode.
This may happen when someone else's action ignites an overwhelming rage, sparked usually by an intolerable feeling of humiliation and a consuming hunger for revenge the "expressive," heat-of-passion component. This is quickly followed by a methodical plan to undo the humiliation by a violent act short of or including murder that will then "even the score" and restore the person's sense of self-worth. The accomplished forensic psychologist Reid Meloy has written about this reaction, and the crimes that occur in the aftermath, under the heading of catathymic crisis. David Timms.
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