In other words, we are supposing that, sometimes, the symptoms' placement could not be sufficient to make a diagnose. We deem that the process of individuation of the clinical phenomenology must absolutely take the subjective experience into consideration besides the behavioural patterns. Here, we refer to the meaning of narrative identity devised by P. The first guarantees a sense of permanence in time and does not depend on the current situations: it confers the possibility to always recognize oneself as the same.
The second, instead, provides a sense of self bound to the mutability of situations and the fickleness of emotions which are experienced in the here and now: the multiple sense of self given by the continuous contrast between self and other-than-self with, in the background, the cultural meaning codes which are socially and implicitly shared and which, at the same time, form the scenario upon which the value system of each of us is organized and moves .
In the following paragraphs, we shall first report some reflections on the results of the analysis by numbering the sentences expressed in the first person of the whole examined sample in a progressive order. This will be done independently from the specific diagnose; subsequently, we shall analyze some narrative elements found in the subdivided sample in the tables reported for the specific diagnoses; each numbering will refer to one person and, where we repeat sentences of the same subject, this will be signalled with the caption "subject and reference to the specific numbering".
Body-self sense organizer. By analyzing this sense organizer we have observed a particular way of experiencing one's own body and we have determined three experiences on the basis of which it can be seen that the examined patients lack a syntonization of the self-consciousness and that they perceive their body in a fragmented way and as something which does not belong to themselves, but is extraneous. The important phenomena in the experience of the "body-self" seem to be characterized by:.
I don't feel myself and I don't belong to myself" Table 1. I don't have the possibility to look at my total image which always appears to me in the mirror, instead, I see only parts of me which don't fit when put together" Table 1. When we talk about cinestetic experience, we refer to the unitary experience of the sensitive sensations experienced implicitly, without a reflective action; when we talk about selfperceptive experience, we refer to the perception of the bodily experiences implicitly which are implicitly felt as belonging to oneself;.
This "body-for-others" sense organizer is highlighted in the dialectic of "body-for-other" and "look-of-other", realized by the single experience which consists in perceiving that one's own body is taken away by the other's glance, in the sensation of feeling reduced to the level of an object under the other's glance and, hence, not to count as a subject, as a person, but only as a mere thing among other things.
We can mainly observe two modes of experience:.
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I am, in any case and always, fat" Table 2. What these people are experiencing could be described as a constant suspension of a doubt belonging to themselves which we indicate as a disarticulation of the character of "selfness" , i. What they report is that they touch themselves without feeling that they are themselves.
They express a fragmented cinestetic and self-perceptive experience, the sensation that they can't perceive themselves as a totality: they see and perceive themselves from part to part.
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This fracture of identity starts to encourage the shaping of an individual representation which is based on self-reflection, on thinking about themselves through the abstract expectations of the "other", concretized in the tendency to nourish values, belief systems and wishes of the cultural context they find themselves immersed in and tending towards the realization of a bodily reality, since it is the body which identifies them, which the other proposes. The relocationof the "body-self" towards the "body object" and, consequently, the "body-for-others" takes place, intended in purely physical terms - the concrete body of the other - as well reflectively as representatively what the other thinks I am and I must, hence, become.
The value system of these people bears an extreme tendency to incorporate the beliefs, meanings and expectations of the other, of the external context heteronomy , without even faintly discussing these values which become their own life indicators. Everything they experience is filtered by a cognitive and rational reflection whose point of comparison lies in accepting the other and the other's concrete body.
The body, as an object, is something they place outside themselves and which can be used as a delegated tool mediating with the external world, as a passive container. They are conscious of themselves through a reflective action, by reflecting on their reflection. Through the bodily being of the other, they represent themselves, they shape their own idea about themselves, but a different and peculiar situation seems to appear in the intersubjective space of the social dimension which happens when they meet the objectivation of the other's body in order to reflectively define their self-experience by delimiting their own body.
The body becomes the simulacrum of their own identity, it becomes the mirror of their self, like one of the attributes of the external image, a shape they identify with and which they use in order to represent themselves. Their self-representation, i. Even before we talk about an eating disorder, these people seem to exhibit a disorder of the self-syntonization, related to self-consciousness, to the realm of social syntonization and to the personal identity of "being-oneself".
By accepting the hypothesis of a destructuring self-consciousness, that particular way of experiencing their own body as an object, which we recognized through the analysis of the phrases, could be founded on this primordial basis of the experience of the body-self.
Thus, we could determine two meaningful experiences:. The body becomes the only tool for the symbolization in a peculiar coincidence between expression and means of expression which has been defined as a "concretized metaphor" .
On the basis of these experiences of the "bodyself"organizer, we acknowledged a failure of the social syntonization, a particular way of experiencing intercorporeity and intersubjectivity. Merleau-Ponty firstly places the recognition of subjectivity body-subject as being contingent to theencounter with the other's body and he distinguishes the capacity to simultaneously experience one's own body as subject and object as a persistent ambiguity of "being a body" and "having a body" .
By following up our hypothesis, it would appear, moreover, that the analyzed sample concretizes Sartre's conflict of being-for-others  as an original and primordial sense of self-consciousness and intersubjectivity which jeopardizes the identity of the subject himself. Figure 1.
The self-representation, mediated by language, through the use of symbolic systems which allow a re-ordering of one's own existence and the attribution of a meaning to it, shows in purely bodily terms and food and the so-called "dysfunctional behavior" would result in a semantic and metaphorical continuity of this lack of dialogue.
The summary quantitative analysis and comparison shows that all the diagnostic categories exhibit a significant presence of the sense organizer "body-self", particularly as a fragmentation and extraneousness of the body-self, while all 14 cases of EDNOS were significantly present in the second sense organizer which has been determined by us, as shown in Diagramme 1. By reading the data as a comparison between diagnoses, we realized that in the case of anorexia and bulimia there is no prevalence of the sense organizers, while, in the specific case of EDNOS, there is a prevalence of both sense organizers.
As far as the sense organizer "body-self" is concerned, there is a predominance of EDNOS compared to the other diagnostic categories which, instead, appear to be homogenous; we notice an even more evident predominance of EDNOS in the sense organizer "body-for-others" in the double modality of "body-of-other" and "look-of-other".
Even though the results of this pilot study must still be defined, we believe that subsequent studies could provide more clarity. As a matter of fact we think that the phenomena of bigorexia and some addictive phenomena could be more properly understood through this preliminary hypothesis. The emergent pathologies of the recent generations of our cultural context seem to concern more and more the specific identity disorder which we have herein described .
Indeed, we observed to which extent the otherness is not useful anymore for a bodily recognition and food becomes its substitute because it is semantically adjacent to what corporeity "realizes". Hereby, we include essential phenomena which have been hereto observed and which signal a disorder of the syntonization of selfconsciousness and the intersubjective sphere. Proceeding from this vulnerability, ED could be the result of the interruption of the identity dialectic "self-other-than-self" and they should thus exhibit an identity disorder which finds its own simulacrum in the body. Conflict of interest statement.
There are no potential conflicts of interest or any financial or personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately bias conduct and findings of this study. Callieri B, Castellani A. On the psychopathology of the lifeworld. Analecta Husserliana ; Sartre JP. L'essere e il nulla.
Saggi di ontologia fenomenologica. Milano: il Saggiatore; Ricoeur P. Jaca Book, Milano Blankenburg, W. Milano: Raffaello Cortina; Morton R. Phthisiologia, seu exercitationes de phthisi. London: S. Smith; American Psychiatric Association. Manuale diagnostico e statistico dei disturbi mentali.
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