In giving humans reason at all, evolution took a huge risk. Surely it must have wished there was some other way, some path that made us big-brained enough to understand tradition, but not big-brained enough to question it. So it was left with this ticking time-bomb, this ape that was constantly going to be able to convince itself of hare-brained and probably-fatal ideas. Here, too, culture came to the rescue. One of the most important parts of any culture — more important than the techniques for hunting seals, more important than the techniques for processing tubers — is techniques for making sure nobody ever questions tradition.
Or the belief in a God who has commanded certain specific weird dietary restrictions, and will torture you forever if you disagree. Humans evolved to transmit culture with high fidelity. And one of the biggest threats to transmitting culture with high fidelity was Reason. Why are people so bad at reasoning? Chesterton as attempts to justify tradition, and to argue for organically-evolved institutions over top-down planning. What unique contribution does it make to this canon?
Second, a much crisper focus: Chesterton had only the fuzziest idea that he was writing about cultural evolution, and Scott was only a little clearer. Third, a sense of how traditions contain the meta-tradition of defending themselves against Reason, and a sense for why this is necessary.
Maybe we just need to keep reading more similarly-themed books until this point really sinks in, and we get properly worried. You must be logged in to post a comment. In the scale of human evolution, Christianity as a whole is quite new and recent and is often argued by Christians themselves!
No, shamanistic beliefs are optimized for a completely different situation. Ancient Christianity was formed in primarily urban environments, which is a much better fit. Ideally, of course, he would change belief systems to adapt to his environment as needed. What are two of the major signifiers? Contrarianism and founding new religions! No, no. This sequence ends up with Scott studying Gemara. The big question is how many of us follow him there.
The arguments are very seducing. Would love to see differently, of course. Always fun when someone publicly actually discovers new information for themselves…. I am really glad to read your comment because I was disappointed AlphaZero did not come up. Now I assume it will soon. Obviously, the next installment will be an equally convincing, but incompatible story. It seems like another possibility is that he will address the progress of human culture and civilization over time. And what is the next step? We no longer fight hand-to-hand or even arrow-to-arrow.
The greatest threats to our lives when young are inventions barely a century old, and the greatest threats when old can only be treated with inventions newer still. Producing offspring that will try a bunch of crazy ideas and then tentatively repeat the ones that work may simply be the only way to handle a world where so many non-crazy ideas are obsoleted within a few generations.
Down to the last detail, the same has happened to me. Gives me a slight boost in confidence knowing that others have arrived at similar conclusions! I really wonder what weird things I do are going to get me and my friends in trouble. What about my vegan diet? Psychedelic drugs? Heavy metals in protein powder? Vegan diets seem quite risky to me. I think that there is a fairly high chance of deficiencies and excesses, especially since it restricts food options so much. From the cultural tradition angle, too — there are no primitive vegan cultures.
Light bulbs are at least somewhat bad. Not because they require a modern electrical infrastructure, but because of the spectrum they emit. Think of the difference in atmosphere between a room illuminated by candles, or natural sunlight, and a room illuminated by light bulbs. Light that has a higher energy level in the orange part of the spectrum has a calming effect on us. Think of light during the golden hour i. If your light bulb stops working, you know immediately that you need to find another source of light and that the reason for this is your light bulb not working.
To the extreme, yes. Last time I looked at the seaweed B12, it was either trace amounts far too little for humans or not a species generally available or traditionally eaten. Trying to get B12 from algae would be like trying to cure a bacterial infection by eating random molds in hopes they happen to contain penicilin. Much better to just take your B12 in supplement form. Expecting to be fertile while vegan is somewhat wishful thinking.
Still possible, especially early on, but I sure hope none of you are feeding your children that way. And folic acid fortification of foods, too. Do you have a source for that? A plant-only diet does not contain any: — Vitamin D3, — Vitamin A retinol; not everyone can convert beta-carotene to retinol , — Vitamin B Amennorhea among vegan women is more likely the result of not eating enough calories than the veganism per se. I would also expect higher prevalence of eating disorders among vegan women compared to non-vegan women. A plant-only diet does not contain any Vitamin D3, Vitamin A retinol; not everyone can convert beta-carotene to retinol , Vitamin B The argument about fatty acids looks more reasonable.
Do you have other experience? I have little direct contact with any vegans. I consider the contemporary western diet to be severe foolishness, and a vegan diet to be even worse than that. It typically goes along with iron supplements, yes. Also it is often mentioned as one of those nutrients modern diets are rather low on, so unless you subsist off predominantly lentils and kale it seems unlikely to be an issue.
Folic Acid, the synthetic form of the vitamin, is a common food additive. Those folks need methylfolate, not the synthetic garbage. Plants specifically evolved to try to kill anything eating them. Some plants have evolved such that animals eat their fruit and poop the intact seed so that the plant can spread its offsprings far. That applies only to fruit. It does not apply to stems, leaves, flowers, roots, and so forth — even in the same plant. And some fruit are only meant to be eaten by a specific species or type of animal, so they may or may not be poisonous to other animals than the intended ones.
Many other plants actually require animals to ingest part of them, in order for the plants to have sex. I refer to the nectar-for-nookie deal, which has worked out quite well for all parties concerned. Sorry if the wording was confusing. Some plants go beyond nectar, for example many yuccas are pollinated by moths whose larvae feed on the yucca seeds.
And, as Watchman pointed out, the whole process of domestication is an evolution that results in plants and animals being consumed wholesale by humans in exchange for some really sweet deals on disperal and propagation. Works great for the genotype, at least in the short run, if not for the individual. I consider it incorrect to consider nectar to be part of the plant, in this context. Nectar is more like fruit, in that it is specifically intended to expended in return for reproductive success. And ultimately we have the banana, evolved with a bit if encouragement to be bred and eaten by humans….
Modern fruits are basically fibrous sugar, compared to most wild-type fruit. Because why would a plant invest more than the minimum required energy into its bait? And the avocado, evolved to be eaten and spread by a now extinct species of megafauna sloth. Fortunately, the species that killed all the megafauna also had a taste for avocado. Well, if you ever keep potatoes, or onions, or pretty much? But I could be wrong. The cheapo way to get a succulent garden to to collect fallen leaves from succulents and root them. Dunno how much evolution happened in that period.
Probably enough to make them bigger, but I doubt they shifted to that as their reproduction strategy -particularly as eating a potato does not send seeds into the wild, like eating, say, a tomato-. Manioc obviously does have a defense against being eaten, but humans figured out how to disarm it. Potatoes seem to have been domesticated 10k years ago.
I often see whole wild fields of them blooming just before the winter with no chances of producing a single seed, obviously. This reminds me of this experiment — a man ate mainly Twinkies for 10 weeks and several measurable health indicators improved. Also, I talked to a doctor I know recently though not a nutrition specialist about the carnivore diet and how supposedly people did it for months without bad effects. Though that could change eventually as science progresses.
As the examples of the Ecuadorian? Creating conlangs is hard not because creating language is fundamentally hard but because we are bad at top down modelling of processes that are the result of a bunch of tiny modifications over time. The distinctive features of language require both that it be used frequently for practical purposes this makes sure that the language has efficient shortcuts, jettisons clunky overengineered rules etc.. For most people the later is much harder than the former even though it seems weird that a bunch of random rolls and even input from friends who might such at playing their character role.
Developing language is easy. Almost any community has unique terms which would not be understood anywhere else. A marriage will do. Groups of pre-teens are quite capable of quickly inventing fully complex grammars and vocabularies in the absence of any pre-existing language other than a few dozen improvised signs. Ditto for just about every creole language in existence, though maybe to a lesser extent.
Deaf communities as we know them now, where children can acquire an existing sign language by being immersed in it the way hearing children acquire spoken languages, are a fairly modern phenomenon. AnthonyC mentions creoles, which seem to have undergone a similar process. In the case of slave creoles, for example, there are historical records of slaveowners fearing that slaves who spoke a common language would organize revolts — and deliberately purchasing slaves who spoke different languages.
Creoles can arise in other language-contact settings; in grad school I remember reading a study of Hawaiian Creole English that looked at letters, newspaper articles, diaries, and the like and found evidence for the point in time at which HCE emerged as an identifiable language with a consistent grammar — it seems to have been linked to the suppression of Hawaiian among schoolchildren, IIRC.
Are you sure? I thought this was a myth? That adults can learn a new language just fine if plopped into a situation where they have to use the new language all the time? I thought the general theory of higher brain plasticity at younger ages was greatly overblown as well? Even when there is strong incentive to do so, the best you get is a pidgin. But there are many cases where children in similar situations have created a full creole. Does Esperanto count? According to Wikipedia , the overwhelming majority of its speakers are non-native speakers.
Many people do learn languages quite well as adults, but even intelligent people who are immersed in the language and consciously working at it usually have accents in other words, they continue to use some of the sound rules from their native language or slightly odd syntax. There are still a lot of open research questions concerning child language acquisition, but the idea that children have a capacity for language acquisition, not just generalized brain plasticity, and that this capacity is lost as they age, is very widely accepted.
Also I should consider new glasses. Religious settlers in a new environment are thus an especially handicapped because they are on the very opposite end of extremely rigid cultural conformity. Primitive versions of bow and arrows, sarbacane, spear thrower, harpons, boomerang, bolasses and many types of animal traps are easy to invent and build, once you have the general idea. I know, I made a lot when I was 10y old. Some of them were even surprisingly effective spear thrower for example. Sure, I had access to some hand tools and sometimes DIY furniture string-ropes are really really useful , I am clever and not clumsy, but also I was a single 10Y boy without many source of informations appart from documentaries showing hunter gatherers in action it was pre-internet.
The difference is I was living in a comfortable suburb with as much food as I wanted, I was just playing. The groups that failed reproducing H-G techniques were in deep trouble survival conditions, non-optimal version of the tools were not good enough and they did not had the reserves needed for experimenting.
Also, sometimes experimenting is dangerous.
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Not something you can emulate as a small group of explorer, even very clever ones. In general, a common strategy of predator animals is to isolate and kill the weak, not to go after healthy, strong game that can defend itself well. The failed European explorers were mature in their own culture and therefore less able to learn a new one.
There was something in Deep Survival about this. I think it was children age 6 to 11 who did best. Old enough to have some reserves, but too young to have ego investment to keep going when they had a bad theory. Also, they were more likely to go to ground, which is apparently a good strategy. Exactly what I was going to bring up! Little children look for water when thirsty and sleep when tired, eventually they get found. They are also more likely to try bad strategies. If anything I would think that the Pilgrims would have seemed like excessively rational types, who followed the logical implications of their religious beliefs to extremes that traditionalists found weird.
And said rigid derivatives were still based on the same basic matrix of crops, livestock, and technology used by their native land. Depends on which settling religious group you mean. French Catholics along the St. Lawrence River adapted their faith to the locals much more freely than the Puritans to the south. They also communicated with the natives more and thus learned from them. When one is a supplicant, one is more likely to become the slave of any competent native hunter gatherers, rather than the friend. Hundreds of their shipmates perished, many after managing to land safely.
Cabeza de Vaca and his companions spent much of their time as the slave of various native tribes, often with literally no possessions whatsoever he recalled the bitter cold of the US gulf coast, which is understandable for someone with neither clothing nor fire. Eventually they gained a reputation as healers among the tribes, and were able to travel freely from one to the next. In the context of a hunter gatherer society, as an adult person with little to offer, enslavement is about the best one could hope for.
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Adjusting from life as a minor noble, lording it over Indians, Moors, and peons, to being a slave of a minor band of savages must have been difficult. A person showing too much resentment must have risked death by misadventure. If Cabeza de Vaca had not discovered his talent for faith healing he would never have been able to travel as he did. Where previous explorers had tried and failed with well-funded expeditions of dozens of dedicated sailors, Amundson used a tiny boat and a crew of 6, barely escaping his creditors. But he was iced in next to an Inuit villiage for two years and learned arctic survival from them, and the rest of the trip went off more or less smoothly.
Why were the pilgrims starving in the richest fishing grounds ever recorded?
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It seems these religious zealots had not thought to bring much fishing tackle—not that they would have known how to use it…They were also bad at farming…What made it worse, being English, they did not want to eat unfamiliar food. Great review. Supposedly biological organisms have genes for this as well. What if the conventional wisdom that you can just keep borrowing money for welfare programs turns out to be wrong?
What if the gold standard is actually a super-important way of stopping an economic apocalypse in a hundred years? What if letting Amazon absorb the retail sector is actually a bad thing? If a nomadic tribe living in tents have a taboo about setting up tents in an area …. Adhering to ancient traditions when the context is rapidly changing is a recipe for disaster. This is why every true traditionalist must be, at heart, an anti-capitalist…if they truly understand capitalism. Which societies had more success in the 18th and 19th centuries in the context of this new force, capital?
Those who held rigidly to traditions like Qing China , or those who tolerated or even encouraged experimentation? Even countries that were not on the leading edge of the Enlightenment, and who only grudgingly and half-heartedly compromised with it like Germany, Austria, and to some extent Japan, did better than those who held onto traditions even longer, like the Ottoman Empire or Russia, or China. If you plot tradition vs. I think an important piece of this, which I hope Scott will get to in later points is to be less confident in our new culture.
It makes sense to doubt if our old culture applies. However, it is also incredibly unlikely that we have an optimized new culture yet. We should be less confident that our new culture is right for new situations than that the old culture was right for old situations. This means we should be more accepting of people tweaking the new culture.
We should also enforce it less strongly. Commodity money, as a concept, has been around for thousands of years, discovered and practiced independently in virtually every society, anywhere. Yes, but many forms of commodity money have qualities strikingly different from gold. Some ancient pastoral cultures basically ran their economy on the cattle standard, and it worked pretty well for them. Not just in the sense that you can invest it or something, but your individual units of currency are like von Neumann machines for making more of themselves.
And so on. Your mileage may vary. The use of gold as a common money for international transactions goes back more than a thousand years. One of the advantages of the current way of doing things is, our economy has grown so productive that we can afford to rebuild our castles a lot more often than we used to, whether the country is earthquake-prone or not…. But yes, that over-extension of the metaphor only applies to some things, not all. What if not borrowing money for welfare programs turns out to choke off economic growth as the bulk of the population becomes too poor to afford and too unskilled to create the products of an industrial economy?
What if staying on the gold standard in an industrial civilization causes economic apocalypses, as the fate of a lot of 19th and early 20th century economic crises tends to suggest? What if not letting Amazon absorb the retail sector means inefficiencies so large they leave us permanently stuck short of some higher transformational level of productivity and efficiency? Reason, so often the enemy of survival for subsistence hunter-gatherers and subsistence farmers, is the only tool that gives us a hope of addressing these problems meaningfully.
What experience would the culture have gone through that would have caused them to know? Nowadays, we have social security and we have massive governments by historical standards. Our current social security may be sustainable: yes or no, binary choice. There was parish charity and poor laws: do we expect that experience with these would give a culture any information about our current setup? For the gold standard, the past is indeed very instructive: it shows precisely how fiat currencies fail, generally by over-inflation by corrupt or incompetent elites.
We can absorb that insight, and then try and figure out whether that behaviour is going to happen again. Finally Amazon buying the whole retail sector is even easier: we know that monopolies can go bad. I have a feeling that a society with a fertility rate of 1. Not quite right. She finds that educated women are actually more likely to get married and have kids, but they do it much later, only marry fellow professionals, and spend more time with their children.
The less educated are far more likely to get children outside of marriage. Terrorists and mobs are out; ideologues and demonstrations are fine. Manioc, AKA cassava, is a tuber not a grain. Scott or the book said that some areas had adapted to it better than others. Heinrich describes a circus act of the s where the ringmaster would challenge strong men in the audience to wrestle a juvenile chimpanzee.
I read a book long ago that discussed the vast difference in ability to apply force between humans and chimpanzees. Because, according to this book, humans are stronger — at least, they have much more muscle than the chimps do. And between two human men, strength differences are generally about who has more muscle. Chimp anatomy is different — their muscles are weaker, but they attach to the bone in more advantageous locations, allowing the chimp to apply the same force as a much, much, much stronger human.
However, the basic idea attachment difference makes a lot of sense. Fine motor control and speed seems much better in humans, resistance and strength much better in chimpanzee. This would mean more smaller muscles attached close to articulation for us, less numerous larger muscles attached further for our cousins. Speed and motor control can be seen when looking at throwing and stick fighting. There the roles are reversed and chimps and other apes are pathetic compared to humans… Be carefull too, fur and general build hides the muscle bulk of our primate cousins, looking at a human and a great ape without skin and fat not that other great apes have a lot removed, you see that a gorilla and an adult male chimp are increadibly muscular.
I remember well a plastined gorilla I saw a few years ago, and it was striking. And attachments also looked further away from joints, especially in the legs. The ankle for example was completely different. In the arm, it was less clear, cause there was so much muscle I could not see clearly the attachments! Also, I remember reading somewhere that, as you write, apes would actually be be much worse than humans at certain strength-related tasks for example weightlifting IIRC , because of the differences in body proportions and muscle attachment. Nice hairless adult chimps.
Showing adult males more often will make people thinks harder before wrestling chimpanzees, or having one as pet. Picture of a plastined gorilla. Yes, exactly what I remember. I found this picture of the back , but the neck is not pictured. It seems like the ratio of slow twitch to fast twitch muscle fibers is at least part of the difference. If I recall correctly this is mostly a matter of where on the bones the muscles are anchored. Chimpanzees get more leverage out of their muscles but at the cost of a smaller range of motion making them unable to, for example, touch the back of their heads.
This range of motion is important for humans in terms of throwing things. This suggests that throwing rocks and spears as a hunting technique goes way back in human pre-history. No, it is a warring strategy, as we have innate ability to dodge thrown missiles. Sorry, cannot find the link now. This seems like a distinction without difference if a medium sized chimp can still rip the door off your car, pull you out of it and tear your limbs off….
My understanding is that we are the only primate that has evolved muscle atrophy as a strategy to facilitate long migrations with scant hunting opportunities -eat our own bodies from the inside out. My understanding is that we are the only primate that has evolved muscle atrophy as a strategy to facilitate long migrations with scant hunting opportunities.
The section about divination is interesting. I have occasionally read tarot cards for the exact reason given. I assume I am getting a random spread of cards. I take the random collection of symbols, and approach them one of two ways. First is to assume the cards are correct about a given situation, and it requires finding the right perspective. That is kind of a present focused approach. The other is more future focused, which is assume the cards are correct and what does that imply for the future.
I find this useful for when my thinking gets stuck in an unproductive rut. I look at things differently. The suffix on sci-hub that works may change over time but is probably Googleable. Apply standard Internet search tactics. I think the fact that the creation of culture is ignored is a pretty fundamental problem to address. Reason is a way of finding non-stupid ideas to test. The more often whoever does that has a bad day, the more reinforced the meta-tradition against challenging a norm should be. Living in accordance with centuries-old cultural traditions is at an all time low, right?
Life expectancy is way up. Infant mortality is way down. Population is at an all time high. As a species, it seems like abandoning lots of old cultural traditions and playing around with lots of new ones has been correlated with surviving and thriving over the last few hundred years.
It is dramatically different than the one our parents were born into. Or if your neighbor says you are a witch. Constant revolutionising of production, uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions, everlasting uncertainty and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones. All fixed, fast-frozen relations, with their train of ancient and venerable prejudices and opinions, are swept away, all new-formed ones become antiquated before they can ossify. Yes, the tradition of science allows us to accumulate new knowledge and surpass old ways of doing things, but this would not work without a tradition of trusting in the institution of science.
Non-scientists need to believe in a certain degree of scientific consensus in order for the world outside the lab to be consistently affected. I wish it were possible to upvote things here because I think this is an extremely important observation. Science relies on reason in certain crucial stages, but for most people, most of the time, science is about trusting certain groups of old people.
If science is appropriately thought of as one, millennia-old tradition and it is mostly responsible for gains in life expectancy and population, why do graphs of life-expectancy and population stay basically flat for most of those millennia and then rocket upward in the last tiny bit? You assume that scientific discoveries affect life-expectancy and population linearly. This seems a common misconception. The really effective discoveries are like traffic accidents. Medieval Mills were like a flipped semi-truck; Sanitation was like an exploding oil tanker; plastic are like Godzilla rising out of the sea to smash the interstate to smithereens.
Forward synthesis suggests, I believe, that science is actually an old cultural tradition like the ones detailed in the original post. So maybe it is all science. But the science we have today seems to be much more untethered from rigid cultural tradition than what you guys want me to call science years ago. Modern science is all about not taking things like ancient cultural wisdom for granted. A: the survival benefits delivered by unquestioningly following ancient traditions that seem arbitrary but might be important.
Rationalist element of modern science gets its first spark with the inquiries of these Anatolian Greeks taking inspiration probably from Egypt and Syria. Presumably because not all scientific discoveries are made equal. We needed to get to the chemistry track before we could get to the Haber process. The engineers who designed late medieval castles were not as important as the engineers who designed late medieval mills and led the way to the industrial revolution, at least when it comes to the specific issue of life expectancy and population increases.
Kids are kind of impressionable. I have no idea about the number, I just made that up. The mechanisms by which these things lead to non-reproduction are pretty obvious so holding them up as the way of the future is counter-intuitive and needs explanation. In that way we come to resemble hunter gatherers, many of whom have or had cultural practices that limited fertility — long breast feeding periods, many sexual taboos, body modification eg penile subincision , and more.
The highest tax on contraception is on conservative Catholics your immortal soul. Not that all gay men are effeminate and all gay women are masculine, but there does seem to be something going on there, which is reflected in a fair few bits of research finger ratios, algorithms, twin studies, birth order research etc. Also, was taking children along to gay pride something that happened even ten years ago?
I think gay pride has changed over time.
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Well to drum on my pet issue , if we hurry up and invent Workbot to do the surviving for us, we can get on with the thriving. There was always going to be a limit to birthrates, and this was always going to mean that unless you produced advanced automation, you experienced economic decline and declines in living standards due to a collapse in the ratio of productive younger people to less productive old folks. Limitations on relative space produce this alone. Even third world countries with traditional gender structures are experiencing birth rate declines as they develop, just at a slower rate.
Most people use a procreation stategy that is at least an approximately rational attempt to secure the best standard of living for themselves and their families. There are some details: which sex has the most influence, and which generation? And there is some cultural intertia, it takes a generation for attitudes to change.
If the poor, fertile populations of today manage to leverage enough fossil fuel use to raise their standard of living to developed nation standards I believe that their birthrate will decline too. Declining population growth is an economic and social challenge, but that unlimited exponential growth thing was just never going to work out.
So far as what has happened so far, nutrition has trended up, extreme poverty down, making the modern world better suited to humans than the world in the past. Fertiility is well below replacement in most highly developed places including the U. Fertility is well above replacement only in Africa. I wonder how far along that trend we can go. I also wonder about immigration- if places like Germany Europe react to declining population by increasing immigration from Africa, what culture will result?
Why not? If income continues to increase there will be less need for people to work in general. My wife and I had no problems starting a family relatively early because we were both high earners and savers. One answer to this question is that if high earners are a small fraction o the population, their reproductive behavior is irrelevant to the population growth rate. The relevant question is, can the median person afford to have children, and at what age? What about people in the bottom quartile of the income distribution? If they ignore the question and have children anyway, what are the results?
Do you think that is the current cultural push behind Pride? Of course not. Which is why I also mentioned promiscuity, birth control, abortion, women in the workforce, pursuit of higher education, etc. Death by a thousand cuts. Seems like the opposite. So, yeah, given abortion and birth control, promiscuity will likely result in fewer pregnancies carried to term. I meant to continue the topic last time, but got pulled away for long enough for the thread to go stale. Thoroughly boiled down, my thesis would be that I give it generations before either population levels equilibriate on their own or alternatives to traditional reproduction emerge.
How long do you figure we have before the collapse of civilization due to lack of manpower? Your thesis might be correct within a context of little or zero immigration, or in the context of moderate to high immigration levels by people sharing the same culture as the natives. But in the current context of high immigration levels from cultures having significantly higher birthrates than the natives, I dont expect anything to equilibriate is this a word?
I would rather expect the birth rates to equilibrate eventually, with descendants of migrants becoming majority in some countries. If your child must keep one, consider the fine irony in bugging your student to crack a book every night, if you rarely do it yourself. Make reading a group activity. Just as younger children parallel play, older children parallel read.
Try it: Instead of organizing family leisure time around TV, movies or video games, schedule a regular family reading time. Avoid giving your child an e-reader. Studies have shown that people, especially children, absorb and retain stories better when they read them in print. So there is a good pedagogic reason to urge your children to stick to paper. At night, screen time is known to interfere with melatonin cycles, which makes it harder to fall asleep. Books belong everywhere. Even a devoted anticlutter person should make an exception for books. Create impromptu reading opportunities for your child by leaving books in places where they may be picked up in an idle moment.
Discovered on a coffee table, a great photography book or a book about lizards may occupy children for long stretches. Join — or start — a parent-child any combination book club. Being in a book club together increases the opportunities for you to start conversations about books, which may lead to deeper conversations about other subjects. Books to movies. A movie adaptation of a novel your child loves is a great way to re-engage with the book, opening a conversation about how a story can be told in different ways.
Encourage your child to read the book before the movie adaptation hits the screen. Consider establishing a family rule: No one watches the film until everyone has read the book. Let your child build a personal collection. Children love collecting. Every child should have a special bookcase. Plan for long-term storage for the best of this collection. When your children reach adulthood and discover that you still have the books that meant so much to them in childhood, they and you!
Books are for giving. Not every book your child owns is bound for the permanent collection. Keep a regular conversation going about which books your child is ready to hand down to younger siblings, cousins or friends. Consider a birthday-party book swap. When your child is at the picture-book stage, ask guests to bring a wrapped book instead of gifts, and have everyone choose one on the way out. With older children, have guests bring an unwrapped book, and have them choose from the pile.
Determine the order by pulling numbers from a hat, or through a contest or game. Make regular trips to the library even better as a family to keep a constant stream of new and intriguing books around the house. Many local libraries no longer have limits on the number of books you can take out at one time. And keeping a constantly rotating menu of books on hand exposes children to a variety of subjects, formats and genres, piquing their curiosity. Let your children become members as soon as they are old enough. Teach your children that library membership is a privilege and a responsibility.
Decoding pictures and decoding words are part of the same process. Becoming a reader starts as soon as your baby pays attention to board books. Everything is new to a baby. The pages of a simple board book may be boring to you, but pay attention to what delights your baby in a book, and find more like it. A feast for the eyes. Board books should have big, bright images and comparatively few words.
For very small babies, easy-to-see, simple black-and-white pages with big patterns are a great way to start. As your baby gets older, find board books with bold color combinations and high-impact graphic design. All hands on board. Lift the flap. Feel the textures. Pull the tabs. Babies love to manipulate these features. As soon as they can use their hands, lift-the-flap books are a wonderful way to make reading a tactile activity as well as introduce the element of surprise into story time. Board-book versions of your favorites. Not every book that started out as a picture book works in the format.
The art has to scale down well, and there has to be a strong, simple visual component to the story. It may be best to wait until your baby can experience that beloved book in its bigger, intended format. Gizmos and sounds. Babies can get easily overstimulated, and they will also quickly tire of these bells and whistles. You will, too. Your live, human voice should trump everything else. A lot of blah-blah-blah.
Every word in a board book should count. The caterpillar is still hungry after all these years. A shy hippo makes a big impact in this Sandra Boynton classic. Maisy and her friends get ready for bed. Picture books are bigger than board books, with be careful! You can introduce picture books into the story time mix right from the newborn days, but the sweet spot for picture books is later toddlerhood and beyond. It artfully combines great illustration and great words.
Picture books are not just a lot of fun, they are an art form. Sometimes you can suffer through some terrible text in the service of beautiful illustration. And if you are reading a picture book to your child before she is reading herself, you can even get away with changing text that strikes you as outdated or just plain bad. These masters of the form can make a picture book seem like a whole world. They pay attention to the details. Every inch of a picture book is thought out, from the cover to the end papers. The all-time great picture books stay delightful even with frequent repetition.
They let you look beyond words. Animals are also often gender neutral and appeal to both sexes. They make facts fun. Not every picture book has to tell a story. Many of the most memorable approach their role differently: They show fascinating information about life, often broken up into bite-sized chunks.
Can Pearl, a pig, and her new friend, a small talking bone, outwit a band of robbers and a hungry fox? This book teaches the patience and technique needed to plant a seed and help it grow. An old man and an old woman decided to get a cat, but he found not one cat, but millions and billions and trillions of cats! Armed only with an oversize purple crayon, young Harold draws himself a landscape full of wonder and excitement. When a bus driver takes a break from his route, a very unlikely volunteer springs up to take his place. Alice made a promise to make the world a more beautiful place, a seed of an idea is planted and blossoms into a beautiful plan.
Each new addition to the household brings a new demand for a special meal. A stray dog finds a new home. Early reader books use a limited number of words and are heavily illustrated. Most have a more workmanlike appearance than picture books. They often have no jacket and are slightly taller and narrower.
Your child is likely to encounter these in school, starting in kindergarten. These are the books that invite your children into the world of readers, where they will spend the rest of their lives. But if your child feels constantly judged, or that too much attention is paid to the pace of progress, the experience may not be fun. It may even get in the way of learning.
It is said that it is wrong PDF format! Why is happening such? Is it my problem? Sorry to hear you are having difficulty opening our. Please try using Adobe Acrobat Reader, a free download from Adobe. Just click on the filename and it will download after 3 or 4 seconds.
The site is working normally. Thank you for this incredible collection of books! Could you please add books: 1. The link to this book is functioning normally. Thanks for pointing out this problem.
The file has been repaired, so please try the download again. Respected team, i am thankful to you for providing precious material to the readers especially to the lovers of history. The politics of india since independence by Pual Brass 2. Freedom at midnight. Please upload Domestic Mandala by John Gray Really require it for my ongoing research. Is it possible to digitise and produce a soft copy of: Kandahar Newsletters for the Year , vol. Dear editor, is it possible to upload the book, Baptists in Assam by Victor H. Thank you Tiajungla Nagaland.
Thanks for pointing this out. Now it is fixed so please try again. I had checked various sites to find some historical documents on Nepal but never found, I am so happy to get them here. In addition, I found downloading process was very simple and fast. You have done a great job. I would be very much grateful if you could manage to upload them. Thanking You! Finally I found great resource online. You did a great job archiving earliest accounts of history.
Thank You. Dear sir, I am awfully surprised to see such a site where books of my interest are easily available. Thanks to the management for taking such an arduous step. I read his book sometime in my early days.. Now at this age , I want to read those once again to recall my those days. Bye All the best Regards.
Yes sir. I was looking for that book only. May kindly send a pdf copy , if so desire, to my email address. You can download this book for yourself! Open the Pahar. Click on that book in the list and it will download. Brother, you did great job! I am a student and no money to buy books but you are my helper.
The popularity of these secret clubs peaked in the 18th and 19th centuries
Dear Admin, It is a very wonderful initiative I really appreciate the effort. The collection of rare books and maps are a treasure trove. I will definitely recommend this site to others. May i suggest if you could kindly add some books on Sikkim. We are happy to post books on Sikkim, but which ones do you want!
Iain Gray: I was a secret member of the Culture club
We need the name, author, and date of publication of the books you would like to see. Dear Admin, Thank you very much for providing us with such a wonderful books collection. This book is published in We think it would be better you buy it in the bookstores. Thank you for your invaluable contribution. Similarly, could you also upload Kamal P. Many thanks! Your request for books in Hindi has been directed to the Pahar.
Please check this book link. That file opened perfectly for us. Dear editors, thank you for your contribution! Many thanks,. I am searching this book for my research. I will be eternally grateful. Journals of T. Machell seem to be manuscripts at the British Library. The book: 4 Villages — Architecture in Nepal by Blair s. Could you please please please re-upload it? Unfortunately it is likely to take a month or so till we can repair this file.
Kindly let me know when the problem is fixed.. You are doing such a great job archiving these books and resources! Could you upload this book? SIR Your Collection is amazing cant believe so much of rare books are available at finger tips. I am an avid reader thus got 2 Books written by Mr. B N Mullick Ex. Gen B M Kaul Awaiting for a reply.
Dobremez JF. Books published as recently as are likely easily available in local bookstores, and should be purchased there. Hello Admin I want This Book. Thank you for making all those valuable books available for download. If the admin have any books related to Birds specially from Himalayan region in electronic form, I would be thankful please. I am a educationist and birder too. Perhaps some of these will serve your purposes. If not, please be specific about which particular book you would like.
It shows error after page Any help. Thank you for the library of knowledge you have put here. Please check and download again. Dear Editor!
- Nancy Drew?
- Navigation menu;
- King barks?
- No Boys Allowed (Lesbian Erotica Book 4)!
Religions of the Hindukush by Karl Jettmar should must be on your website. Could you fix the downloading option, please? The website is operating normally. There may be some problem with your internet connection. Perhaps you need to find a better internet connection. Dear Admin, Wonderful site! Hagen, Toni, Report on the Geological Survey of Nepal, vol.
Schweiz Natur. Gessellschaft 86, no. Henss, M. Mustang: Tibetisches konigreich im hohen norden Nepals. Ulm: Fabri. Dear admin, I am a researcher and this is one of the very few sites on the internet which have helped immensely. In fact, I can say with certainty that without this site I would have missed out on so many sources and books. A big thank you for hosting so many sources on this site. Your contribution will be duly acknowledged by me. It seems that no library in India possesses this book. I am not sure if this falls into the category of books that you upload.
But if it does, I will be forever grateful if it is uploaded. Pierre-Etienne Will and R. Sir, I will be forever in debt. It is a great relief for me to even anticipate that I might finally be able to lay my hands on this book. I have been searching for this for more than a year now. Sir, have you got relatively easier access to the book — its digital copy, I mean? MCADDeditor has just responded that they might be able to provide the book but it seems they will have to work hard towards either getting possession of it or digitize it.
Finally a silver lining! Sir, I have waited for this book for over a year. This book is indispensable for my research and worth the wait. I am sincerely grateful to you because I had almost lost the hope of getting possession of this book before my research period is over. Can You please upload the book authored by K. I am quiet new for this site but highly impressed from the abundant materials make available in the single site.
Its great contribution to enrich the people who are interested to learn about this regions. This is also the soft power of outreach in global arena. These items also appear to be quite recently published, and thus are not suitable for our website. Thanks a lot for uploading such kind of sources. Thank you for this rich digital library which is highly beneficial to everyone who loves reading, thinking and learning.
Shah Wali Atayee, New Zealand. I am interested to read very rare book in Nepal Borgstrom, B. Village ualues and panchyat democracy in Nepal. Thanks in advance. Thanks a lot for your hard work and sharing these wonderful sources. Following books are needed If you could upload them. Its really great.
All the browsing user of this site will be gratitude forever for your superb work. Can you help me to find that book. Can you add Michl, W. Thanks a lot for providing with the books so fast! With regards, A. You have wonderful site. A thank you is too small for it! Merewether and Frederick Smith published in It will be great!
Warm regards,. Dear Sirs, Today I perused your site. It is very very useful. I have been able to locate some books of Kullu and Western Himalaya. Would it be possible for your to upload 4 Vols. Please enter Hedin in the search bar to find all the books by Sven Hedin. I think you will find at least 3 volumes of Trans-Himalaya already on the site. Hi, Many thanks for providing knowledge repository of the Himalayan region. Can I ask to add the followings if possible. Borgstrom Regards,. I am new to this site but its quite impressive.
Please help me with these articles i have been searching for so long, 1. Stewart, J. P; Sapru, B. I think I found it originally on Google Books, or archive. If you have any problems finding a downloadable copy, then let me know, and I can email or ftp a copy to you. Best Wishes, Hugh Rayner. The Stewart, J. You can search for all the items by Stewart by entering the word Stewart in the search bar.
Sorry, could not add this to earlier comment. Could you please upload B. The book is still in print and available for sale so we have not posted a pdf file on our site. Please check the Indian book stores. Any books related to explorer Nain Singh Rawat? A book I come across is: C.
Skrine and Pamela Nightingale. Hello, thank you for your work, so much appreciated! I am looking for some book on the masks of Himalaya, have you something planned that could help? Hello, thank you for your work! Best regards. We will keep trying. Dear sir, The following books are very important for Himalaya studies.
Could you upload them? Dagmar Bernstorff, Hubertus von Welck eds. Exile as Challenge: The Tibetan Diaspora. Mumford, S. Aziz, B. Kathmandu, Center for Nepal and Asian Studies. Campbell, B. Smadja and B. Centre national de la recherche scientifique. Most of the books you request are recently published and thus not suitable for our site. We may be able to help with the Himalayan Dialogue. Hello, thanks for this fantastic resource.
Just a couple of questions: is it possible to request the following article? I, No. Also, how can we contribute texts for this project? I have a few scans of rare books and articles related to the subjects this database covers and would like to make a contribution. We will see if we can find the Waddell article you request. I would be extremely grateful, should you have access to it, if you could make it available here. Like all those who have come here and kept coming back, I thank you for providing us with this tremendously useful and necessary resource.
We will do our best to find a copy, but it looks difficult.
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