Walking toward the entrance gate -- which four decades ago was a flatten fence trampled into the ground by stoned hippies -- walking on a brightly painted black asphalt path hemmed in by wooden brown fences surrounded by crisp-green patches of trimmed trees, it becomes clear what I must see first. Like thousands of other returnees, first stop must be the sacred ground. That's where the stage was. She is less than overwhelmed.
The sacred must be experienced to be overwhelming. But experience at Bethel Woods would be heavily curtailed. One is chained to the path of profit. Freedom and diversity and sacredness are not big money makers. On the ridge overlooking the grassy bowl of the sacred, thick-neck security guards in bright yellow T-shirts with tough black letters that scream SECURITY are poised to pounce on any wayward old hippie seeking to touch the holy ground.
Woodstock cannot be recreated, because it was not planned. It was chaos. It was the unhinged at the wheel of chaos. Organization evaporated and the kiddies had a grand time. Bethel Woods Center for the Arts, however, is all planned. The adults here an army of security ready to bash the unhinged. Bethel's message is: stay on the path! The path lined with concession stands selling the past that leads to the musical pavilion of today's past music. And I remember, "It's the music! The Stars Spangle Banner, instead of at the end of the concert, is played at the beginning. Instead of Jimi Hendrix wailing chaotic chords of raw splendor a young musician wails his chaotic cords of raw splendor.
Death is replaced by youth -- now that's the real American Dream! Next are rattled off the names of promoters and investors and organizers and financiers with the announcer implying we should be grateful to them.
That's also an American Dream. We should be grateful to those who gouge us. That's the American Dream for gougers. Being teased is what Americans like, it stimulates them. Making them feel alive. In a sense the American Dream is one big teaser -- I got to get back to the music. Country Joe's singing voice is strong, his articulation is sharp, and his hands slide and pick nicely on the acoustic guitar. And he looks darn good. He probably has a few more years to live before -- scratch that! Slowly I'm being pulled into Joe's folkie music and my gathering foul mood recedes.
Then comes the Fish Cheer -- "Give me an F! Let me explain, the prescription drug culture thrives in America. This is because capitalism thrives in America. Look around. The sick and dying are being fleeced. Our military is slowly becoming a mercenary military. College is so expensive only the rich can go without also going into lifetime debt.
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In the last four decades nothing has succeeded in America more than American capitalism. So today's drug syndicate is now is the American Medical Association, the drug dealers are our doctors, and my dope is called medicine. This is the capitalist spirit working for the benefit of consumers, supply and demand in action, the money economy in high gear. And I dip into my shirt pocket and retrieve some perfectly legal medicine.
The roar of Janis rips out a tiny Asian mouth housed in a tiny Asian face attached to a tiny Asian body.
This is incredible! Janis Joplin now Asian! Who would have guessed? Thomas Wolf didn't know what he was talking about. When you go back, just expect some updates. No problem. Soon I realize, however, Asian Janis does not have marbles in her throat. No vocal gargling. No gritty woman.
Probably no alcoholic, dope fiend also. Still, this Janis has an intense voice. One that rocks and jolts. One that is shooting ripples up and down my spine. Struggling to leave my seat, stepping on several feet, twisting around numerous wiggling bodies, I walk on a path that takes me pass the world's most perfect stream with rocks placed perfectly for the perfect stream.
I pass the upper reserved seats, and then I pass row after row of rented green lawn chairs with tie-dye shirts topped with white hair. Nice to see some of our grandparents are here. It's Janis -- the half-Janis. As the bright yellow sun drops and music floats up from the stage, many on the fringe of the concert area nurse beers cut with quiet discussions.
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Nothing intense here. This is where I spent my time at Woodstock, on the outer rim of the crowd, soaking in talk as much as the music, spreading out in relaxation and contemplation. Floating past, a musician for Big Brother says, "Instead of acid flashback, I get acid reflux. There is the twanging of Canned Heat -- "When the water tastes like wine It has two empty cots, several closed ice chests, and two attendants standing in the doorway soaking in the Canned.
A middle-age man asks, "Can I help you? I return to my seat for Ten Years After. We're told this is the largest gathering of the original Woodstock performers, like at Woodstock we were told over and over that the whole world was watching and we were the largest gathering of peaceful music lovers. But I'm thinking not size but content.
One Ten Years After member is dead, and Alvin Lee refuses to rejoin the group, so who is the group really? Canned Heat has only one original member, the drummer. Big Holding has two newbies. Authenticity was a key concept in the 60s. We hated the phony. I need to tack -- "Remember, it's the music. The dark, primal pounding of Ten Years After fires the furnace of 15, wiggling bodies. When the soul burns, the mind melts, the body goes berserk leaving only the music.
The crowd explodes It's real! And then Country Joe returns to the stage to mellow out the animals, many of whom are rushing off for beer and bathroom and hamburgers. His job is to calm us with tranquil music before the gathering explosion of the Jefferson Starship. Gently he pulls us down, us on the emotional yo-yo. He spent more than three decades managing bands which have given him a huge depository of great stories. Now he's telling me Grace Slick threw a beer bottle at Paul Kantner, which was off the mark, and nearly hit Walt. But I am barely listening.
I'm in serious need of answers. Answers to the rumors I've been hearing when walking around. Is Bob Dylan going to make a surprise appearance at Bethel? Is the brown acid really bad? Am I really seeing Army helicopters swooping down and landing here? Dylan was at Woodstock, he won't be coming to Bethel. There is no such thing as bad acid, unless you take bad acid. And helicopters don't come to music festivals.
Otherwise, the same key would be added in each round, which would make AES easier to crack. In the first round, the initial key is added in order to begin the alteration of the plain text. The byte substitution step , where each of the data points is changed according to a predetermined table, also performs an essential role.
It alters the data in a non-linear way, in order to apply confusion to the information. Confusion is a process that helps to hide the relationship between the encrypted data and the original message. Shift rows is also critical , performing what is known as diffusion. In cryptography, diffusion essentially means to transpose the data to add complication.
By shifting the rows, the data is moved from its original position, further helping to obscure it. Mix columns acts in a similar way, altering the data vertically rather than horizontally. At the end of a round, a new round key that was derived from the initial key is added. This adds greater confusion to the data. The processes of adding round keys , byte substitution , shifting rows and mixing columns alters the data, but it can still be cracked by cryptanalysis, which is a way of studying the cryptographic algorithm in order to break it.
Shortcut attacks are one of the key threats. These are attacks that can crack the encryption with less effort than brute-forcing. When AES was being designed, shortcut attacks were found for up to six rounds of its process. Because of this, an extra four rounds were added for the minimum of bit AES as a security margin. With most things in security, there needs to be a compromise between pure defensive strength, usability, and performance. If you put ten steel doors with deadbolts at each of the entry points to your house, it would surely make it more secure.
It would also take an unreasonable amount of time to get in and out, which is why we never see anyone do it. We could make it more secure by adding more rounds, but it would also be slower and much less efficient. The 10, 12 and 14 rounds of AES have been settled on because they provide a good compromise between these competing aspects, at least in the current technological landscape.
To go from the ciphertext back to the plaintext of the original message, everything is done in reverse. It looks like this:. AES has three different key lengths. The main difference is the number of rounds that the data goes through in the encryption process, 10, 12 and 14 respectively. In essence, bit and bit provide a greater security margin than bit. In the current technological landscape, bit AES is enough for most practical purposes. If you are paranoid, you might prefer using or bit encryption wherever possible. Cryptographers are constantly probing AES for weaknesses, trying to come up with new techniques and harnessing the technology that comes their way.
So far, researchers have only uncovered theoretical breaks and side channel attacks. In , a series of related-key attacks were discovered. These are a type of cryptanalysis that involves observing how a cipher operates under different keys. Again in , there was a known-key distinguishing attack against an eight round version of AES These attacks use a key that is already known in order to figure out the inherent structure of the cipher.
There have been several other theoretical attacks, but under current technology they would still take billions of years to crack. This means that AES itself is essentially unbreakable at the moment. Side-channel attacks occur when a system is leaking information. The attacker listens in to the sound, timing information, electromagnetic information or the power consumption in order to gather inferences from the algorithm which can then be used to break it.
If AES is implemented carefully, these attacks can be prevented by either removing the source of the data leak, or by ensuring that there is no apparent relationship between the leaked data and the algorithmic processes.
This is why AES is just one aspect of keeping data secure. Effective password management, firewalls, virus detection and education against social engineering attacks are just as critical in their own ways. In the current age, we all transmit so much of our sensitive data online, AES has become an essential part of our security.
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Despite the current theoretical attacks and any potential side-channel attacks, AES itself remains secure. Judging by the current level of technology and attack techniques, you should feel confident using it well into the foreseeable future. At its most basic level, encryption allows us to encode information so that only those who have access to the key can decrypt the data. Without the key, it looks like gibberish. With the key, the jumble of seemingly random characters turns back into its original message. Encryption has been used by governments and militaries for millennia to keep sensitive information from falling into the wrong hands.
Over the years it has crept more and more into everyday life, especially since such a large portion of our personal, social and work dealings have now migrated to the online world. Just think about all of the data you enter into your devices : passwords, bank details , your private messages and much more. Without any kind of encryption, this information would be much easier for anyone to intercept, whether they be criminals, crazy stalkers or the government.
- Some Descendants of JOHN T. SQUIRE BOYD (1795 SC-1872 AL).
- Fox Dish (The Madison Wolves Book 6).
- Forensic Applications of Gas Chromatography (Analytical Concepts in Forensic Chemistry).
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We would be stripped completely of any privacy and security, sending our online lives into absolute chaos.
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