All polls show a wide feeling among youth that the political class and elites are a problem. Affordable housing is in short supply, rents are expensive, and for many, getting a home loan seems as likely as changing the rings of Saturn. Without a work contract, it is often hard to sign a lease. Moving from flat to flat takes a toll, and living at home puts a strain on families. Nadera is a young French Arab, With black hair pulled back and fine features, she has a slightly glamorous look that belies her status as a member of the generation who works seasonal jobs for cash.
She comes from a family of nine. She left home at 14 and has held numerous jobs. One was caring for the handicapped, and she would like to one day own a home-care business; helping others is an ideal of hers. Little things cost a lot for this generation: phones, train tickets, food. Twenty-five-year-olds compete with year-olds for work. As Europe ages and budgets tighten, older generations want to keep their jobs.
The young are, well, young, and considered more adaptable. Globally, only Southeast Asia has low youth unemployment. In Europe, figures show a rise in joblessness since the fiscal crisis began. In , the overall jobless rate among youth was But by , it had risen to more than 20 percent. Only Germany saw a decline. Wendy Cunningham of the World Bank in Washington says the old social contract that college equals a job is fast disappearing. Whether the disillusionment will manifest itself in something more unruly is uncertain. Down the road, some do see trouble. In the May elections in Britain, Liberal Democrats captured student hearts with promises that university tuitions would not rise.
The youth turned out. For many, it was the first time they had ever voted. The shock ignited a massive student march through central London. Young protesters bused in from all parts of the country to demonstrate. Most see them as sympathetic and sacrificing. Studies show that 46 percent of Europeans under 34 live with at least one parent. I like proof. I am always online. When it comes to Greek politics and the debt crisis, I draw my own conclusions. There is a lot more information, and a lot more to challenge. One thing youth resent is when elders caricature their generation.
It was a derogatory slap. The protesters, highly educated but often unemployed, shot back that, yes, they were Ni-Nis — they supported neither center-left Socialists, nor the center-right Popular Party, something akin in the US to a pox on both Democratic and Republican houses. This ended. Howker, who just turned Not that youth are free from self-criticism.
In Luton, a blue-collar city northwest of London, Michael Toms, 24, works the late shift at the train station. The last express to London is around midnight, and Mr. Toms walks the platform notifying stragglers of the timing. Luton is heavily ethnic, South Asian and Muslim, and proudly so, but it is also a home of the far right youth gang, the English Defense League.
Toms says that EDL members often kick up a fuss at the Luton station after football matches. They think about tomorrow or the day after tomorrow. Tall and burly, he wears a monogrammed oxford shirt and is about to start an internship with Price Waterhouse in Madrid. He stands in line outside the business school he graduated from, points inside to the office staff, and says that to get ahead one must avoid bureaucracy. The private sector is going to save Spain. It depends on us, no one else. Alberto Canfran, 25, a biologist in Madrid who has a grant to work in the US, agrees with the indignados can-do spirit but faults his cohorts more broadly.
Our future is in our hands. They have families, meet with friends, watch a lot of film, live on the Internet, get along. An international Roman Catholic youth meeting in Madrid this summer drew more than a million participants. And not all young people reject the notion of a unified Continent. But there is also a lot of experimenting with ideas from the East, alternative medicine, art therapy. Many youth say an impending global catastrophe, whether economic or ecological, is not far off. We see how … power corrupts, and our leaders all end up the same way, chasing money.
A slightly anarchic spirit exists among many of them, and some political scientists see a shift toward a proliferation of small left parties, like the Pirate Party that recently captured many votes in local elections in Berlin.
But not all youth fish from the port side. Thierry Rassfestin, 21, joined the youth wing of the center-right French ruling party but was turned off, and moved further right. Rassfestin, as an openly gay male, represents a change in the composition of the French far right. We must hand back the power to the people; give them the sovereignty.
These are no strangers to European complexities. Then there is Jacques Delors, a main architect of the modern European Union.
Delors in the s reconciled the left in France with a free market economy to integrate Europe, and was president of the European commission. Hessel was living quietly in Paris, reading the poet Rainer Maria Rilke, and tending his garden. But the climate of antipathy and corruption he felt in France — and the abandonment of ideals he believed were prevalent in the s through UN summits on women, climate, and social development — outraged him.
I believe in evolution and trust scientists on global warming. Appelez-moi fou! A 76 ans, il est soutenu par beaucoup de jeunes du parti. Des intellectuels radicaux comme Cornel West ou des journalistes comme Glenn Greenwald sont de plus en plus critiques envers lui. This blog has been on hiatus for almost two years. I have been posting articles and media interviews on my Facebook page. I have also recently joined Twitter and you can follow me there.
A technical incident last year caused the loss of several articles. More recently, Le Monde upgraded the Word Press version, and some technical glitches occurred. My banner might not be visible on certain browers. Please let me know if you see any problem or any dead link. La plateforme des blogs de LeMonde. Au pluriel! Encore un testament trahi. Le Lapon saute de joie. Ou est-ce autre chose? A 16 ans, Kundera lisait Marx avec enthousiasme. Mais le public voulait les Rhapsodies hongroises de Liszt et pas Stravinsky.
Ma vie est mon secret qui ne regarde personne. La Plaisanterie contient un long essai sur la musique populaire. A cause de La Plaisanterie. Pauvre Europe! Quel scandale ce fut alors! Je ne parle pas du communisme, mais du totalitarisme russe. As today marks the 40th anniversary of this landmark event, I have been reading a few articles about it.
There is a thesis that he did actually say it, but people on earth did not hear it due to transmission static :. In any case, he confirmed that he intended to say it. The other story, the funny one, told below, turned out to be a hoax. Many people thought it was a casual remark concerning some rival Soviet Cosmonaut. However, upon checking, there was no Gorsky in either the Russian or American space programs. On July 5, , in Tampa Bay, Florida, while answering questions following a speech, a reporter brought up the 26 year old question to Armstrong.
This time he finally responded. Gorsky had died and so Neil Armstrong felt he could answer the question. In when he was a kid in a small Midwest town, he was playing baseball with a friend in the backyard. His neighbors were Mr. As he leaned down to pick up the ball, young Armstrong heard Mrs.
Gorsky shouting at Mr. You want oral sex? Rien de tel en France. Ron Howard en rit encore. Le Bon plaisir. Le public est friand de films politiques si ceux-ci ne versent pas dans la propagande ou le militantisme cru. Des gens qui ne voient pas, je les connais un peu. Mais ce ne sont que des exceptions. ET : Oui, mais il y a plus grave. Entre temps, comment passer le cap? ET : Si, si. Ils ont fait Sciences Po comme moi. Donc, ils ont appris cela. Je ne dis pas cela en un sens moralisateur. ET : Oui, sur le fond. Il y avait beaucoup de ressentiment. ET : Non, je pense que suis clair sur ces questions.
Ce serait trop facile. Les choses ne sont jamais en blanc ou noir. Il faut prendre le temps. Il y a plusieurs zones…. Elle est francophone, anglophone, lusophone. Je ne sais pas dans quelle mesure ils sont conscients. Il faut leur donner le temps de le faire. KB : Si la Chine va autant souffrir, quelles sont les puissances qui se sortiront le mieux de cette crise, ou du moins qui souffriront le moins? Incluez-vous la Grande-Bretagne et la Russie? Leur association serait la bienvenue. Beaucoup sont convaincus. Je suis convaincu que la France refusera les solutions ethniques. Je veux bien.
It was actually his first broadcast interview about Vietnam. It was quite impressive to see such a personality sob like a baby. His tears showed that he had a thread of dignity left. I would not imagine Dick Cheney going on TV and acknowledging his errors and crimes. McNamara was promoting a book he wrote, called In Retrospect , in which he analyzed the s and the Vietnamese events in hindsight. I read the book in Diane Sawyer was one of Barbara Walters main competitors. I remember reading that while she was in College, Diane Sawyer dated Bill Bradley, who would become the famous basketball star and later a US senator who would run for the presidency in Security forces pushed the activists back with water cannons.
Briton who advised US in Iraq tells how tactics changed after bloody insurgency Emma Sky, who spent four years in Iraq, says US military started reaching out to groups it had been fighting to stem violence. Everything had just escalated and escalated. Speaking in detail for the first time about this most turbulent of periods, Sky also describes how:. A British liberal who had been against the war in Iraq, she was taken on by the Americans because they respected her judgment and advice, even when it ran directly counter to their own.
She said the military realised it could not win with might alone, and had to start reaching out to groups that had been waging violence against it. But I was not sure the strategy would work. The military has a language that is not accidental, it is used to quarantine emotion. Every day we would hear reports that another 60 or 70 bodies had turned up, heads chopped off or drilled through. It was absolutely horrific. We could tell which groups had been behind the attacks by the way the victims had been killed.
There were ceasefires everywhere, local agreements, because more and more Iraqis were coming forward wanting to work with us. The intelligence we were getting improved, and the number of Iraqi casualties started to go down. When Obama made his first visit to Iraq, a scheduled meeting with the Iraqi prime minister, Nouri al-Maliki, had to be abandoned because White House security staff refused to let the president fly from the American base outside Baghdad to the Green Zone because of bad weather.
Senior Iraqi politicians had always avoided the US base, called Camp Victory, because it was regarded as the seat of the occupation. With a diplomatic standoff looming, Sky was sent to the Green Zone to see if Maliki could be persuaded to travel by car to meet Obama at the US headquarters. I had to wake him up. Everyone was excited about him, and Maliki agreed.
And if Maliki agreed, then the others would probably come too. On the face of it, Emma Sky was not an obvious candidate to send to Iraq in the immediate aftermath of the war. She had only been to the US once and was instinctively suspicious of the military, perhaps especially the US military. Yet on Friday, 20 June , two months after the war began, Sky boarded a flight from RAF Brize Norton, the only woman among soldiers, and headed into the 50C heat and post-conflict chaos of Basra, the city in the south where the British were based.
Two weeks earlier she had been working as an international development adviser for the British Council in Manchester; now she found herself in charge of one of the most volatile regions in Iraq. The journey from north-west England to north-east Iraq owed a lot to fortune, her determination, and some barely scriptable coincidences. But Sky is the first to concede the random nature of her appointment reflected much broader failures in planning and strategy that would ultimately draw the country into a civil war. Into the breach. When the Foreign Office asked for volunteers to go to Iraq to help with the reconstruction effort, a friend in the civil service prompted Sky to apply.
The Foreign Office did not give her a formal interview or briefing before she left, and she was given no detailed instructions about what to do when she landed. I was told that there would be someone at the airport waiting for me, carrying a card with my name. When I got to Basra, there was nobody there, and nobody seemed to know I was coming. After a sleepless night on the floor in a corridor at Basra airport, Sky hitched a lift on a US Hercules transport plane to Baghdad, and then a military bus into the Republican Palace in the Green Zone.
This had become the headquarters of the Coalition Provisional Authority CPA which was supposed to be restoring order to the country. Life inside the palace was bizarre. At times we showered in mineral water and some days even the floors were washed with mineral water. Their dirty laundry was flown to Kuwait for cleaning, and engineers spent days trying to decapitate the four giant heads of Saddam Hussein, which leered from the palace ceilings. A few days after arriving, she decided to escape into downtown Baghdad on her own — the kind of trip that was already strictly forbidden.
She found herself chatting to a man selling cigarettes from a trolley. And I was thinking, how does he know about Hobbes? He was referring to all the looting. Iraqis were taking revenge on the state that had controlled their lives for so long. Under the leadership of the US diplomat Paul Bremer, the CPA was tasked with reforming and reconstructing the country; but it was always going to struggle, especially in the regions away from Baghdad, where it had fewer people. Sky was told to fly to northern Iraq because the CPA was short of staff in Erbil, but when she arrived, the posts were already filled, and she was directed to Kirkuk.
On the border of the autonomous Kurdish area, and miles north of Baghdad, Kirkuk is an ancient, oil-rich city, with tribal rivalries that date back to the Ottoman Empire. She reported directly to ambassador Bremer. In the days before she took up her new post, he invited her to join him on a short tour of the north, which included dinner with the Kurdish leader, Masoud Barzani, in the town of Sari Rash. I wondered, how on Earth have I got here? How on Earth had someone like me, a British liberal, become part of a US-led invasion that I had opposed? From the airport in Kirkuk, Sky was taken to modern villa near the centre of the city, a base she was supposed to share with a group of American contractors and engineers.
But within days, this idea looked a trifle optimistic, as did any notion that a new Iraq would emerge easily from the shadow of the old. On my fifth night, five mortars were fired at the house. The noise was deafening and seemed to be coming from all sides. We were under attack.
I struggled into my body armour and ran down to the safest part of the building where the others were already huddled. We sat in the darkness for what seemed like hours. Most of the staff abandoned the villa the following day, but Sky decided to stay. Two nights later, the house was attacked again by gunmen who appeared determined to storm the building. Dust poured in through the sandbags. I curled up in a ball in bed with my hands over my ears, paralysed by the sound.
The attack lasted half an hour … it was only when it was over that I discovered that four rocket propelled grenades had been fired at the house, and one had entered a couple of metres from my bed. The private security guards who tried to defend the house believed it was too vulnerable, so Sky accepted the offer of a bunk on the airfield in a US airforce tent, which she shared with seven men. Narrowly avoiding death within her first week was an inauspicious start to her governorship, and the task ahead remained unclear.
This was underlined to her a few days later when Sawers arrived in Kirkuk on his farewell tour of the country. He invited Sky to join his entourage, and during the trip, she sought his advice. With few staff of her own, no orders from Baghdad, and reliant on the US military for protection, Sky concluded there was only one way to get anything done. She would have to work with the 3, soldiers of the rd Airborne Brigade who were based on the outskirts of the city. I looked around and decided to work closely with the military.
They were the ones with the power, with the resources, with the bureaucracy. I could spend all my time watching what they do and reporting back on all their mistakes, or I could look at how to work with them. So I rolled up my sleeves, knuckled down. I learned the rank structure, the handshakes, the jokes, the code. Sky did this with some trepidation — she had never worked with the military before — and some of those she spoke to at first did their best to confirm her fears. They did not understand the people they were dealing with.
In one effort to foster relations with community leaders, the US air force invited a group of dignitaries to a military entertainment show. The guests walked out, quickly followed by Sky, who assured them that no offence had been intended. Abu Ghraib Iraqi inmates line up for a body search in Abu Ghraib prison: the detention of young men and evidence of torture at Abu Ghraib radicalised many Iraqis.
Sky set about learning the history of Kirkuk and ventured out into the city, in her soft-topped car, to speak to people about their problems. The military seemed genuinely perplexed that Iraqis seemed so hostile. I said that after the first Gulf war which killed , Iraqis, a decade of sanctions with the devastating effects on health, education and economy, and the humiliating defeat of the second Gulf war, I could well understand why Iraqis were shooting at us. Sky found an unlikely kindred spirit in Colonel William Mayville, the brigade commander with a cowboy swagger.
They shared the same goal — to help Kirkuk get on its feet so the military could withdraw. And he also believed — wrongly — her presence heralded the arrival of an army of civilians that would enable his brigade to go home. As did their willingness to listen to this opinionated Englishwoman who had appeared in their midst. The restless natives. When she arrived in Kirkuk, the military was running everything in the city. But that was part of the problem. Sky said success should be defined as Kirkukis running their own affairs: the job of the coalition was not to do it for them, but to help them do it themselves.
They established the Kirkuk Development Commission to kickstart the local economy. And they also encouraged Iraqis to register any complaints they had about the coalition, including damage done to property during raids. The two shared an office on the first floor of an old government building in the city centre. Others were asking for jobs or complaining about services. The second issue was whether Kirkuk should secede from Iraq and become part of the Kurdish enclave in the north. Sky urged the CPA to give Kirkuk special status because of its unique make-up; she met the US secretary of state, Colin Powell, and the US deputy defence secretary, Paul Wolfowitz, when they made flying visits to the city.
She argued Kirkuk needed to be exempted from the rush to Iraqi governance the CPA was demanding in other areas. Instead I had listened to a litany of suffering and pain under Saddam for which I was quite unprepared. The mass graves, the details of torture, the bureaucratisation of abuse. The pure banality of evil. But the Iraqis also had huge expectations of the US. Sky admits the CPA simply could not meet these expectations and no amount of hard work from many experienced British and American volunteers could make up for the lack of planning before the invasion.
It left the CPA — which was assembled in haste and from scratch — attempting to restore public services, disband the security forces and build new ones, as well as introduce a free market and democracy. Those in Baghdad struggled to cope with the daily crises, whilst those in the provinces were often left to their own devices. Some Americans believed Iraq could become a democracy that would serve as a model for the region. Most Iraqis had not consented to this experiment, or to being occupied by foreign forces. Thousands of professional people in Kirkuk lost their jobs at a stroke — including teachers and doctors.
It did not affect all communities evenly. Some Sunni areas ended up with no doctors in their hospitals and no teachers in their schools. What did the coalition really know about Iraq? It became highly politicised and brought more and more anger. Everybody who had stayed in Iraq had, in order to survive, become complicit to some way with the regime. Sky realised many local Sunni Arabs were joining an emerging insurgency because they felt excluded from the Shia-led Iraq.
Right from the outset, there was resistance from former regime members as well as foreign fighters who entered the country to fight jihad. But Baghdad controlled the payroll and cut them off. A mix of resentments and fears fuelled violence to a level nobody had foreseen. There were continuous raids and mass round-ups of military-aged males. There were no suitable facilities to hold the detainees, nor systems to process them, and many became radicalised in detention.
I spent a lot of time with the provincial council and about a quarter of the people on council were killed. If we had never come into their lives that would never have happened. Some were killed because they stood forward to join the council, some were killed because they were seen as close to the coalition. I can still see their faces, I remember going to their funerals, speaking to their kids. Beyond the wire and thick bomb-resistant walls, fliers were appearing all over the capital denouncing the occupation.
He had watched Sky reaching out to people in Kirkuk and liked the way she worked with the rd Airborne Brigade. In almost all respects, Sky and Odierno were different; she is diminutive, precise and controlled. Shaven-headed and muscular, Odierno is a giant, whose military call sign was Iron Horse. He and Sky developed a rapport that became as important as it was unlikely. I found him honest, straightforward and direct. Whenever he arrived in Kirkuk, we felt a huge sense of relief. He always gave us support and asked how he could help.
And he always asked my opinion about why the violence was happening. I think he recognised the solutions were not simply military ones. He asked Sky to join his team. Emma Sky was at her home in Wandsworth, south-west London in September , when she received an email from a friend in the US.
At first she tried to ignore it. When he asked me to return I was flattered. I also felt that if anyone could make a difference in Iraq it was Odierno. He is prepared to take in ideas, and then make decisions. The presence of a British woman at his side would prove controversial and unpopular in some quarters, particularly at the US state department, but the stakes were high and Odierno was evidently prepared to take a risk. The situation in Iraq at the time was desperate. The violence in Iraq had morphed from an insurgency into sectarian conflict. The al-Qaida leader Abu Musab al-Zarqawi had provoked a civil war between Sunni and Shias that would take the country close to collapse.
In , 16, Iraqi civilians died, including 3, in September, the highest amount for any month during the conflict. Coalition casualties were also high; troops were killed that year, of them American. Inevitably, political support for continuing the military campaign was ebbing away in Washington and London. Nevertheless, the US president George Bush was poised to disregard the advice of some of his closest advisers — and most commentators too — to announce he was sending an extra 20, troops to Iraq, most of them into the cauldron of Baghdad.
The surge was a gamble. It seemed then, and with hindsight remains, an astonishing risk taken by a president who had stopped believing those people who said the violence was being provoked solely by the presence of US forces. With thousands of extra troops heading for Iraq, Odierno set up headquarters in the vast US military base outside Baghdad near the airport, the unfortunately named Camp Victory. Sky was given her own basic accommodation and was expected to accompany the general everywhere he went.
Specifically, Odierno wanted Sky to help him work out an operational plan. A process, she said, that could only begin with a brutal acknowledgment of previous tactics. There was no denial about the extent of the problem. But every day we would be up late talking about why people are using violence. I knew from my time in Kirkuk that politics drives this kind of instability, and that politics needs to be managed to bring down violence.
I believed Iraqis were using violence to achieve political goals. We had to stop stigmatising these people.
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We had to stop calling these people the enemy. What are the drivers of instability? The overall strategy was masterminded by General David Petraeus, who had spent months in the US developing a new counter-insurgency doctrine. The former would not be targeted by Special Forces operations, the latter could be. It meant we would have to start dealing with people we had been fighting and for any commander that is a very difficult thing to do.
McChrystal dealt with those who refused to compromise. The campaign was given an Arabic name, Fardh al-Qanoon — imposing the law. As an important first step, US troops began to move out of their bases to live among the local population. And they had to do two things which were fundamentally counter-intuitive; prioritise protecting the population rather than trying to defeat the enemy; secondly, reach out to the armed groups which were killing civilians and soldiers.
People were using violence to achieve political objectives, so we had to create a process where they could achieve their objectives without violence. I had confidence in our analysis. Not because I thought it was wrong, but because I worried the situation in Iraq was so out of control our extra forces might only exacerbate the violence, not lessen it. In those first months, there were few signs of progress and there was violence everywhere they went. We would go to the hospitals to visit the wounded.
We would attend memorial and ramp services for the dead. Every day, the general would be slipped a note with details of casualties which went up and up. We lost over a hundred soldiers a month in April, May and June In the past, I had been a spectator, an observer. I had never been involved in the decision-making to send our soldiers somewhere.
We were living among these men. And every day, the general would talk to commanders and troops, explain the strategy, listen to their concerns, boost their morale. He would tell them that he knew it was so tough in this gruelling heat to put on body armour and go out day after day on raids. And the general continued telling them that they were making a difference, and all the little tactical successes were helping the strategy. Sky said she never felt in danger herself, though with hindsight, she accepts her confidence may have been misplaced. Then the door at the back of the plane fell open and we had to get it closed, and on the ground there was shooting, and when we got in a vehicle and it was hit by an IED.
But I never had a sense that I was going to die, and I was sure the General could not die. I thought, this is not where the story ends. Some things you never forget … the smell of burning bodies. The military talk about KIAs killed in action.
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There was so much violence that it was almost too big to comprehend. Everyday we would hear reports that another 60 or 70 bodies had turned up, heads chopped off or drilled through. We were not peers and he was always in charge. But I could be more of a friend to him. Within two months of the launch of the new campaign, al-Qaida militants had claimed responsibility for an audacious suicide bomb attack on the Iraqi parliament in the heart of the fortified Green Zone; two of the bridges in the capital were also hit by truck bombs.
But these incidents proved to be the high-water mark. Of course there were nights when I thought, we are bringing more violence and it is causing more violence, but is it actually going to break the violence. Everything had just escalated and escalated … there were occasions when I doubted whether we were ever going to break the back of it, and whether we should call it quits.
That was until those same tribal chiefs began to see al-Qaida as a greater threat to them, and turned to the US military for help to drive the insurgents out of the region. This process had begun before the surge, but the Fardh al-Qanoon programme put the US in a better position to work with, and build trust between, sheiks who had spent the previous four years waging vicious conflict against American forces.
This started before the surge when the Anbaris became sick of al-Qaida. In that wonderful way people in the region can switch alliances, they just changed side. They saw they could get American help, and they regarded Iran, and the Shia militias it supported, as the bigger threat, and decided to align with the US to fight them. While tentative progress was being made out on the ground by the military, Sky was tasked with talking to the Iraqi government and assuaging some of their fears. One unexpected consequence of the campaign was that Shia leaders had begun to worry that through the ever-increasing awakening the US was creating a Sunni army that would eventually overthrow them.
Al-Jaidra was remarkable in many ways. She was a young Shia, in her late 30s. She had been a rocket engineer. And she was tough. Over the summer and autumn, Sky made regular helicopter trips into the Green Zone to speak to Al-Jaidra, who was known for wearing the striking combination of stiletto heels and a veil.
I think it would be fair to say she is not an easy woman. I would try to explain to her what we were doing and why. They assumed that this was all part of a conspiracy by the US to purposefully destroy Iraq, keep it weak and humiliate its people. I tried to get her to understand our position and how we had got there, and vice-versa.
He therefore assumed the US was plotting a coup against him using the Sons of Iraq! When you ask your commanders for good news, you get good news. If you ask for bad news, you get bad news. It helped that they were women in similar positions. We were the same age, and neither of us had married. And we were both trying to bring our bosses closer together. Sky persuaded Al-Jaidra that it would be better, and safer, for the government to integrate the new groups emerging around the country into the Iraqi security forces, rather than ostracise them. That year we went from being in hell to bringing the violence down.
In , 15, Iraqi civilians were killed in violence. In , the number had come down to 4, US casualties went from in to in The British. Sky was at the heart of the US military machine and her advice was being sought at the top of the political pyramid. But she says she only ever met British diplomats when she accompanied Odierno to embassy meetings.
They told the prime minister their senior adviser was from the UK. I assured him that I was British born and bred. To end any suspicions, Sky says she was not and never has worked for MI6. Sky saw what the British were doing from the US side of the fence. More than 40, British troops took part in the invasion but, by , it seemed the UK was losing control of the south to the Iran-backed Shia militias of the cleric, Muqtada al-Sadr. And there was little political appetite to win back this territory. The early confidence that led senior members of the British military to boast to the Americans about their experience in counter-insurgency had evaporated.
Of course the Americans wished the British forces were bigger and had more resources, but to be perfectly honest, the British think far more about what the Americans think of them than the Americans think about them. In March , 30, troops from the Iraqi army surged into Basra to clear the city of Shia militias; the operation was called the Charge of the Knights. The British were peripherally involved, mostly giving medical and logistical help. All of which meant the British inevitably left Iraq under a cloud. With the British hamstrung by lack of numbers, and with Prime Minister Maliki overestimating the capabilities of his own forces, the US had to intervene to stop the Charge of the Knights turning into another disaster.
AT the end of , Sky left Iraq for what she thought was the last time. But three months later there was an unexpected reshuffle at the top of the US military. In the rearrangement, Petraeus was to leave Iraq to take command from Centcom and Odierno was asked to return to replace him as the commanding general of all coalition forces in Iraq. General Odierno had been separated from his family for so long and had been so looking forward to going home. Within months, he was told he was being sent back to Iraq.
For senior commanders, they get little choice. The poor guy, I felt so sorry for him. But General Odierno was going to go regardless. For him it was duty. And if he goes, and he wants my help, I go. This time, with broader responsibilities, she was based in the US embassy in Baghdad, but still accompanied Odierno to all his meetings. Staff like to feel they are controlling the general and they did not like him getting different ideas from me. It was upsetting, but I felt the mission was important. He had enough things going on. You certainly need thick skin to work with some in the military.
The key initial task was on negotiating a status of forces agreement, the legal basis that allowed the US to remain in the country, and for how long. Sky, the Englishwoman, was asked to represent the US military during the talks. With a UN resolution due to expire, getting an agreement was essential before the end of Some of the Iraqis were scared the agreement made the prime minister too strong and wanted reassurances. But, at the last moment, an agreement was signed. It specified that the military had to be out of the cities by the end of June , and out of Iraq completely by After so many years of fighting in Iraq, it was natural the military would find it difficult to let go.
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But by letting go, our relationship with Iraqis would improve. So the general had to get them to understand that success was something different now. We were shifting from counter-insurgency to stability, and putting Iraqis in the lead was the priority.
When you do counter-insurgency the focus is protecting the people. In stabilisation, the priority is building up the institutions. As the change in military posture and preparations for withdrawal continued, Sky remembers tensions between the military and the state department. These trips gave Sky a chance to speak to Iraqis and see places for herself, picking up valuable on-the-ground understanding she could feed back to the general and his staff.
I was supposed to be as well, but being a non-American, and not coming under the British either, I was in a unique situation and Odierno trusted my judgment. I would travel at night around Baghdad to get a sense of what it was like so I could report back on different areas. I was going out with and among Iraqis. I could see if the Iraqis were working the checkpoints properly, if the electricity was on. Things like that can help give commanders the confidence to let go. I was going in and out of Sadr city a district of Baghdad , which the Americans regarded as one of the most dangerous places on earth at the time.
They had their own lives and their own motivations. Iraqis are the most extraordinary people, they might distrust each other but they can be remarkably open to an outsider. I was a woman on my own, and they took good care of me. The people who would have done me harm, would have done them harm too. So if the security was good enough for them, it was good enough for me. Although the risk of kidnapping was real, I was not worried that I would be taken.
I trusted the Iraqis with my life, I trusted them completely. Sky would travel from neighbourhood to neighbourhood. You could see areas coming back to life. When women and children are in the streets you know they must feel safe. Even Sadr city started to buzz, and that was very exciting. One meeting made a particular impression. We had tea together. A little later I discovered he had been arrested and was the al-Qaida emir for northern Iraq.
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Photograph: the Guardian The Guardian. But Obama-mania was still very much alive when he made his first visit to Baghdad in April, Though not reported at the time, Sky says the trip so nearly ended in acute embarrassment for all sides. The problem was something even the leader of the free world could not control; the weather. It is their country, he has to meet them.
In the Green Zone, nobody else knew about the looming crisis. There were myriad security check-points along the route and Sky knew the prime minister would take umbrage if he was stopped anywhere along the drive, and U-turn back to the Green Zone.
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At every one I jumped out, waved my military badge and shouted. It was a miracle that we got him in without a major diplomatic incident. There was laundry all over the bed. Sky attended all the meetings between the Iraqis and Obama, and Odierno introduced them. Despite the chaos, and the opportunities for bruised egos, the visit ended without any major diplomatic incidents. The chief of staff almost had a heart attack. Although the ceasefires between Sunnis and Shia were holding, tensions in the north had increased between Kurds and Arabs.
One episode reflected the difficulties; there had been a spate of bomb attacks close to the town of Hawija, just south of Kirkuk, which had been blamed on al-Qaida. They are angry. So Gen Odierno told me to accompany one of his generals to speak to the sheiks. I told them the peshmerga would not be positioned south of Kirkuk. This is how they saw things so they took their own defensive action.
The Americans said he could, as part of an agreement that we had brokered. And then the Iraqi security forces arrested some Kurds for trying to assassinate the governor. So we had a group of Kurds detained in Mosul, and an group of Arabs had been taken in retaliation. Sky said the US embassy insisted that men accused of attempting to assassinate the governor should be put on trial, in accordance with the rule of law. Odierno told Sky to find a pragmatic solution to the crisis; realistically, it could only be solved one way — an exchange of hostages.
But to do this, I needed to get proof of life of the Arab detainees. The weather was absolutely terrible. But they were determined to get me to my meeting and managed to land on the second attempt. The Kurds took Sky to a presidential guest house, but before addressing the critical security situation, her hosts said she had another appointment — with a beautician.
I had my hair cut and my legs waxed. It was quite nice but rather bizarre. Then they said they wanted to take me to a new mall. They love their malls. This was partly a deception; on the way, Sky was diverted to meet members of the Asayesh, the Kurdish intelligence service. I saw they were alive and well. So I called the deputy prime minister Rafi al-Issawi and told him I had proof of life. Sky flew down to Baghdad to pick up Issawi and his adviser, Jaber al Jaberi, and then they all flew back to Mosul to seal the deal.
There was a further twist; the three Kurds suspected of attempting to assassinate the governor had to be taken before a court so an Iraqi judge could formally release them from custody. The Kurds have informers everywhere and there was no way they wanted the prisoners taken before a judge without having some way of ensuring they came back again. Two American military helicopters went to pick up the 15 kidnapped Arabs.
All this time they were saying, we are going to call off the deal, we are going to call off the deal. This went on for about four or five hours … it was incredibly stressful. The mobile reception was terrible. It was on, then off, then on then off. The Arabs had had no idea why they had been detained. Then we held a press conference in which Issawi went on about national reconciliation and on the flight back to Baghdad he was saying how great it was to do something that made all sides happy.
Emma Sky left Iraq, along with Odierno in September , at the end of combat operations. In total, she had been in the country for 50 months, completing more tours than most military commanders. Pierre Chaunu 17 August — 22 October  was a French historian. His specialty was Latin American history; he also studied French social and religious history of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. A convert to Protestantism from Roman Catholicism, he defended his Gaullist views most notably in a longtime column in Le Figaro and on Radio Courtoisie.
He became a strong supporter of general Charles de Gaulle a. It is the capital of Bigorre. It has been a commune since It was known as Turba or Tarba in Roman times. Formerly of strong industrial tradition, Tarbes today tries to diversify its activities, particularly in aeronautics and high tech around the different zones of activities which are increasing. The recent development of Tarbais beans and other regional specialties also shows a willingness to develop the agri-food industry thus justifying its nickname of "market town".
Its 42, inhabitants are called Tarbaises and the Tarbais. It is the seat of the diocese of Tarbes-et-Lourdes. Tarbes is a Pre-Pyrenees town within t. Its current archbishop is Angelito Lampon, O. I, after the retirement of Orlando Cardinal Quevedo, whose resignation was accepted by Pope Francis on November 6, He was installed on January 31, On 28 October it was renamed Territorial Prelature of Cotabato when it los. Guido de Malesicco; It. Guidone d. March 8, at Paris was a French bishop and cardinal. He was born at the family's fief at Malsec Maillesec , in the diocese of Tulle.
He had two sisters, Berauda and Agnes, who both became nuns at the Monastery of Pruliano Pruilly in the diocese of Carcassone, and two nieces Heliota and Florence, who became nuns at the Monastery of S. Prassede in Avignon. Guy was baptized in the church of S. He played an even more prominent role in Benedict's repudiation and deposition. Countries with politicians, public officials or close associates implicated in the leak on April 15, As of May 18, This is a partial list of people named in the Panama Papers as shareholders, directors and beneficiaries of offshore companies. We do not intend to suggest or imply that any persons, companies or other entities included in the ICIJ Power Players interactive application have broken the law or otherwise acted improperly.
Heads of s. Gerardus Mercator — The Mercator world map of is titled Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad Usum Navigantium Emendate Accommodata Renaissance Latin for "New and more complete representation of the terrestrial globe properly adapted for use in navigation". The title shows that Gerardus Mercator aimed to present contemporary knowledge of the geography of the world and at the same time 'correct' the chart to be more useful to sailors. This 'correction', whereby constant bearing sailing courses on the sphere rhumb lines are mapped to straight lines on the plane map, characterizes the Mercator projection.
This is a list of buildings that are examples of Art Deco. The town proper has a population of about 20, The municipality population in was 40,, in an area of Tomar is one of Portugal's historical jewels and more significantly was the last Templar town to be commissioned for construction.
Tomar was especially important in the 15th century when it was a centre of Portuguese overseas expansion under Henry the Navigator, the Grand Master of the Order of Christ, successor organization to the Templars in Portugal. The bronze statue represents Gualdim Pais, founder of the town.
Tomar lies in the most fertile regio. In ancient Roman religion, the dii also di Novensiles or Novensides are collective deities of obscure significance found in inscriptions, prayer formulary, and both ancient and early-Christian literary texts. In antiquity, the initial element of the word novensiles was thought to derive from either "new" novus or "nine" novem.
The diocese comprises the department of Eure within the Region of Normandy. The diocese is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Rouen, and the current bishop is Christian Nourrichard, who was appointed in History Tradition has it that the diocese of Evreux was founded by Saint Taurinus. That tradition claims that he was born during the reign of the Roman Emperor Domitian , and was baptized by Pope Clement I ca, He went on an embassy to Rome, where he received the blessing of Pope Sixtus ca. Shortly after the death of Sixtus, the barbarians overran the province.
The last remark, on top of the unlikeliness of the other statements, makes it clear that the story is fiction. An attempt to fix the chronology places Taurinus in the time o. Guido Terrena c. Xiberta, the Carmelite scholar who. The see is currently sede vacante. The city was annexed by France in stages, eventually being fully subsumed in by it during the French Revolution. Early history of the diocese A statue of Ferreolus. Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, "Louis Duchesne proved that these legends belong to a chain of narrati.
The Atlantic Ocean is to the left. The history of Lisbon, the capital city of Portugal, revolves around its strategic geographical position at the mouth of the Tagus, the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula. Its spacious and sheltered natural harbour made the city historically an important seaport for trade between the Mediterranean Sea and northern Europe. Lisbon has long enjoyed the commercial advantages of its proximity to southern and extreme western Europe, as well as to sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas, and today its waterfront is lined with miles of docks, wharfs, and drydock facilities that accommodate the largest oil tankers.
Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in western Europe, with a history that stretches back to its original settlement by the indi. Its members are bishops and archbishops from current and former British, Dutch, and French colonies and dependencies in the Caribbean excluding Haiti , Central America, and northern South America. The conference's membership includes five archdioceses, fourteen dioceses, and two missions sui iuris. These particular Churches minister to Catholics in thirteen independent nations, six British Overseas Territories, three departments of France, three countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and 3 municipalities of the Netherlands proper.
The episcopal conference is led by a president, who must be a diocesan ordinary and is elected by the membership of the conference for a three-year term. The conference also elects a vice president, who has the same qualifications as the president, and a treasurer, who can be a dioces. Rafael Andia born November 30, is a French classical guitarist.
Biography Born in France of Spanish Republican parents, Rafael Andia first studied the violin but was attracted by the musical tradition of his family. The history of Barcelona stretches over years to its origins as an Iberian village named Barkeno. Barcelona is currently a city of 1,,, the second largest in Spain, and the capital of the autonomous community of Catalonia. Its wider urban region is home to three-quarters of the population of Catalonia and one-eighth of that of Spain.
Origins The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear. Remains from the Neolithic and early Chalcolithic periods have been found on the coastal plain near the city. The ruins of an early settlement have been excavated in the El Raval neighborhood, including differen. Dehradun , also spelled Dehra Dun, is the interim capital of Uttarakhand, a state in India.
It is one of the "Counter Magnets" of the National Capital Region NCR being developed as an alternative centre of growth to help ease the migration and population explosion in the Delhi metropolitan area and to establish a smart city at Dehradun. Dehradun is located in the Doon Valley on the foothills of the Himalayas nestled between the river Ganges on the east and the river Yamuna on the west.
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