Indeed there were many terrible instances where some Poles used the German Occupation as a pretext to commit the most vile, aggressive and horrific crimes against their Jewish fellow citizens. It is very VERY difficult for any patriotic Pole to come to terms with this kind of stuff, John, particularly for those who belong to the older generations. But I noticed that there is much less of a problem with the younger generation, particularly the educated younger generation in the larger cities. They grew up either in free Poland or in the days when Communism was on its last legs.
Why does this kind of verbally aggressive anti-Semitism find a welcome in a country that is essentially empty of Jews? Poland has a particularly strong relationship with the UK and with the English speaking world. Then comes the vitriol instead of the much more difficult challenge of dealing with the problem head on. I hold no grudge against Poland.
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Nonetheless, as the BBC Panorama report points out, there is still room for improvement, especially regarding the infinitely complex relationship between Poles and Jews. You hit the nail on the head in your post. You have no idea how grateful I am to you for speaking out. Fine bibliography in book as well. The good debate in this Perspectives on Poland piece is refreshing to read.
Know that when people use racist, biased, anti-Semitic, or ugly language, they show their ignorance, lack of vocabulary and quest for some power. If and when total transparency is put onto the table with regard to the Holocaust, that would indeed be material to read. I have lived in Krakow for two years and have attended a lot of matches here. I think Poland is a great country and I think this documentary has given an undeserved bad image of the country. I feel much safer living in Krakow than I ever felt living in London.
However, there is a problem at the football stadiums. I agree that these people are a minority but the football does seem to attract this minority, it is not like in western Europe where you get a good mixture of all levels of society at games partly due to a lot of the working class being priced out of top level matches in the UK. Not to mention gloats over the murder of a firm leader of a rival team. I really hope there are no major incidents this summer as it will give an impression of the country which is far from the image I have of the country in general after living here for two years.
What is your point here? Again, the topic at hand is Polish football hooligans and their proclivity for anti-Semitic banners and chants. How do you explain it and what do you think ought to be done about it? John, part of the problem is the fact that the Polish government allows Radio Maryja to broadcast anti-Semitic content with impunity. Why should the anti-Semitic football hooligans take all the blame when their own government refuses to silence the overt anti-Semitism of a public broadcaster? Nevertheless, anti-Semitic statements like this from a Catholic prelate were and shall forever remain horrifyingly inexcusable.
Again, Stan. I see no point. It gets neither of us anywhere, Let us stick to the subject at hand deal with the here and now with something that acutely embarrasses Poland ie anti-Semitic manifestations inside football stadia and where we go from here. How is it that such a racist word still persists? You know, like in the joke about the Jewish mom who kept her shiksa servant clean so that her sons could practice…. Where on earth do you take your stereotypes from?! Indeed, no Izaaks or Abrams in Poland, but one must admit the names would sound ridiculous in Polish.
There are however , Dawids, 1, Davids and 14, Saras. The only person who can and should do something about it is Benedict XVI, the pope. However, as far as I know the Church did impose some stricter control over the station. Are you saying that all the Jewish doctors suddenly stopped being doctors, like, say, Janusz Korczak? Jewish trade unions also excluded Catholics, but they did it already 20 years earlier.
How come the numbers mean to you discrimination of Jews in those professions? Eric, you say that many Poles esp. For example, when you say something like this:.
How on earth can you tell that my grandma who did nothing to stop the creation of Warsaw Ghetto or the deportation of Warsaw Jews to Treblinka was indifferent? How do you know what she thought or felt when it happened? On the other hand my grandma hid a Jewish girl for some time, so according to your definitions she was a decent person for a short time and an indifferent scoundrel for over 5 years of the war.
And who are you to judge my grandma anyway? Somehow, for some unfathomable reason, people from all over the world think they can come and become our voluntary shrinks. People like you are just too full of themselves. So, what number do you have in mind here:. Any proof that, say, szmalcowniki held some special anti-Jewish sentiments? Do you really believe that if Germans targeted some non-Jewish group of people all the szmalcowniki would simply go home and find some honest occupation? Poles, the majority of them, have no problem with coming to terms with facts.
I have no problem admitting that there were some Polish nationals who committed awful crimes against Jews and not only Jews. Even though the number of Poles in Britain is many times lower. So, would you say that Brits are a nation of virulent racists with an inborn anti-Polish sentiment? Coming from their religion perhaps? Or anti-Polish politics on the state level?
Sylwia, you betray your ignorance. It does not necessarily refer to non-Jewish Polish women. But this is besides the point, openly slurring opponents on a football ground with a racist epithet is unacceptable period. I find those stereotypicalfigurines of Jews hunched over counting their money to be racist, offensive, demeaning and repugnant.
To each his own. I stick with what I say about given names. Assimilated Jews started giving their offspring Polish given names after the First World War and the practice continued well into the s. Radio Maryja broadcasts over the public airwaves, hence it is a public broadcaster. It is not the government owned broadcaster but it comes under the scrutiny of the Polish broadcasting authority.
Is this true or not true? I guess those szmalcowniki blackmailed Jews or turned them in to the Germans because they cared about them so much. Poland had a wartime population of approximately 30 million people who thought 30 million different ways. I pass no judgements on your grandma. That is ridiculous. Do you care that it happens?
And what do you think Polish authorities should do about it? As far as I know Jews living in Poland have no problem with them. You just like to believe in things you want to believe. And you think that our government should control what kind of stuff can be broadcast by independent broadcasters? I know that Catholic trade unions stopped admitting Jewish members.
I know of no national associations that would ban Jews from the profession. Can you cite their Polish names? Well, according to your logic the primary motive of a criminal must be his racist attitude. Alas, the szmalcowniki did it for money. Oh, and while we are at it. You are a chauvinist after all. Would you stop that please? We live in 21st century Europe, not in Victorian England. Do I care?
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Yes and no. I think that, in general, foreigners make the mistake of thinking about Polish league football as about league football in other countries. A clear difference which you can see now during Euro Probably because we have, in general, a greater national cohesion than Italy, Spain or the UK. Only those guys at the stadia think it actually matters. Perhaps you should take your own advice and stick to the topic at hand. I wish you the very best. OK Sylwia, time for a linguistics lesson. OK, so what is your point? That Jews had or have pejorative words for Christians?
What relevance or meaning or enlightenment does this bring to the topic at hand, namely why do some members of Polish football crowds scream anti-Semitic epithets at football matches? I guess they were paying attention in history class after all! Now I get it,. Radio Maryja broadcasts hate speech. In ALL Western countries, there are laws that forbid the public broadcasting of programming that can incite racial hatred.
This has nothing to do with freedom of speech. Regardless of whether or not the government of Poland banned Jews from practicing certain professions, the banning of Jews from trade unions, the national medical association and the national Bar association shows the widespread prevalence ad public acceptance of institutional anti-Semitism in Poland after British treatment of Polish immigrants at its worst did not include their official banning of Poles or their offspring from entering universities or the free professions should they qualify for entry.
Please correct me if I am wrong. Because the team was founded 80 or 90 years ago by Jews? Give me a break! Your explanation is trite and hollow. Since you like history so much, perhaps you could come up with a deeper one. Oh I forgot. I suppose they must have really adored those people they were blackmailing, knowing that the denunciation of a Jew to the Germans meant certain death. You are not a Pole, so you may not know that denunciation was followed by a punishment of summary execution or detention in a concentration camp for the Jews and the people who were hiding them, and that the latter group included whole families and sometimes even the neighbours of the actual perps.
Feel free, though, or you can resort to pure sarcasm again, of course. Anti-Semitism displayed at football matches has very deep roots in Polish society. Polish anti-Semitism is well documented. Polish Catholic ethno-nationalism had its origins in the late-nineteenth century, tapping into historical bigotry and became quite popular during the Second Republic and afterwards.
Anyone who might wish to make an educated comment on Polish Catholic anti-Semitism should make a few trips to the library instead of attacking the academic credentials of Dr. Jan Gross. Below are a few books which examine Polish Catholic anti-Semitism:. Tomasz, your extended bibliography brings some valuable and needed depth to this discussion. Eric, I appreciate all of your input to the discussion above. We Poles are extremely reluctant to acknowledge the historical record regarding anti-Semitism as you are aware. Many of us hold dearly to the stereotype of Poles as noble martyrs and victims.
Certainly, Poles have endured tremendous sufferings over the last two hundred years — sufferings largely unrecognized in the West — and are not of a mind to accept accusations of intolerance. The original article by Jamie, which dismisses the connection between historical anti-Semitism and the hatred vented by modern-day football hooligans, is naive and uninformed at best. As you know, the highly vilifed Jan Gross is only one of many scholars to broach the topic of Polish Catholic anti-Semitism.
It is only now, after the fall of communism, that scholars are able to thoroughly examine the subject. Scholarship is gradually turning the tide against chauvinism. Those proud Poles who attempt to smear research by Gross and other academics belong to an ever-shrinking population. Many thanks to Eric and Thomasz! This topic is quintessentially important because acknowledgment is required before there can be reconciliation, healing, and transformation towards respect equal rights and understanding.
Thank you both! Courage is the ability to want to see the obvious, even when one has been over entitled, privileged, or victimized. A world free of prejudice, oppression, and bigotry is possible. All peoples can be afforded dignity and respect with equal rights. It is time that we decry nationalism, racism, sexism, ethnic hatred, classism, and understand that we are all inter-connected and that even religion must not become an extremist set of fundamental practices lest we continue sanctified justifications to practice inequality.
Thank you both for carrying forward a set of understandings that will lead to reconciliation not further hatred and bigotries. Anti-Semitism displayed at football matches has deep roots in every European society, no need to get excited about Poland. He was the one who predicted that black Brits would come back home in coffins. Sneaky bastards. Your reading list is impressive, in numbers. And some of that material has no relevance to Poland in the 21st century.
Irony missed. Stan presents some anecdotal information in the form of a rhetorical question to justify this dearly held prejudice. Approximately 30, Jews fell in battle, were taken captive by the Germans, or declared missing during the battles defending Poland, 11, in the defense of Warsaw.
Thousands of Jews later served in various Polish armies fighting against the Germans in the Allied Forces. Approximately , Much praise to the rescuers but Poland had 4X the number of Jewish citizens 3,, as the next highest national population Romania — , Even Polish scholars state that rescuers had to keep their activities secret out of fear of their Catholic neighbors.
Traditionalist Poles love to tout the Yad Vashem number without even realizing the institute references the virulent anti-Semitism of the Second Republic in its courses and publications. Dearly held prejudice? Of course more did join the ranks once the Germans invaded and reservists from all over Poland were called up. If Eric is looking for balance instead of one sided anti-Polish prejudice then I suggest he reads the work of Mark Paul who has published several studies on historical Jewish attitudes towards Poles and Poland.
Eric, in order to bring depth into any discussion then you have to present information from every aspect unless your agenda is to simply present one side of the argument and to convince others that your side is the only side with any credibility. If you can sift out the blatantly prejudiced from either side you can usually find balance and become better informed. The moderator obviously should not allow speculation of this sort.
Traditionalist Poles are quite dumbfounded when a fellow Pole examines Polish Catholic anti-Semitism. Sorry to disappoint you. Perrtinent, detailed and powerful information thatt brings added nuance and depth to the conversation at hand. Tomasz, you have provided an extremely thoughtful, provocative and powerful intervention here. Your bibliography was absolutely superb. I am a documentary film maker working on a film directly related to this subject matter. Is there any way we could continue this dialogue privately?
Kindest regards, Eric Scott. Dear Nott, this is not the point. I stated it before and I will state it again. I am charmed by the country, the warmth of its people, its creativity in so many fields of endeavour, its steadfast courage in adversity and its timeless beauty, I do not believe in collective innocence or guilt. I consider that notion a total absurdity. I have no hidden agenda here. Regardless of what you may think, I am charmed by your country. I am truly interested in hearing why you have no respect for JT Gross. You will get no counterattack from me here No counterarguments.
I promise not to refute you, should you not wish me to do so.
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Do not wax indignant. Anyway, I am not exactly convinced you have an agenda, just being mislead. What looks ludicrous to me is a valid hypothesis for you, so you just count sources for and against, and come to conclusions. This is not the way to go. Especially that I am Polish, thus necessarily biased. Nonetheless, you expressed your point of view and substantiated it from your perspective. The fact that you are Polish has no bearing for me, one way or another.
Different people have different points of view and perspectives. Poles are no exception. Indeed, it is my understanding that he completed his first university degree in Poland in the physics department! No doubt you are also aware that he was hired as a history professor at Princeton, one of the most prestigious universities in the world.
Anything you can add here Nott, would be most helpful. That means simply that he was teaching history, not that he earned the title of Professor for his scientific achievements in the field. Unlike Gross I have seen a typical Polish barn. Cramming people inside is hardly possible, unless you pack them high. The number has been officially reduced since, and no surprise here. What I remember were findings of bullets and shells, highly unlikely on the site of a spontaneous pogrom by Poles shortly after the Soviets had left.
And the number of victims, the memorial now says about some , if I remember well. And some testimonies, including those known but rejected by Gross. Ah, one more thing, just remembered. The final statement of the IPN was not exactly consistent with the previous partial reports, I remember being rather disgusted with it. German historians confirmed that the massacre was in the typical Einsatzgruppen style, and that the time and place fits one of them. And, again, some claims that he was cherry-picking his evidence.
I remember that I was concentrating on non-Polish historians, for obvious reasons. I do remember, however, that I put quite an effort into it, as the topic was important. And the result was as you know. I would never claim that the 30mln strong nation was unable to produce one murderous mob once, only if it comes to concrete facts, I want concrete data.
And Gross is not the whole story. The book was a sensation, and triggered official investigation, as you know. Part of this investigation was an archeological excavation of the site, and everybody waited for the results impatiently. The excavation was stopped, however, after the first mass grave had been opened and the findings were not in quite line with Gross. The Jewish Council of Poland, or whatever their name in English is, suddenly remembered that disturbing Jewish remains is against Jewish traditions and sensitivities. I would prefer not posting it on a public forum such as this one.
Most appreciated. Eric, it there a way I could contribute in any small way to your undertaking? I am a researcher not a scholar in this area , and simply have a very honest and genuine interest in learning about how one goes about a documentary. My family has several videographers and photographers and I have seen the importance of documentary.
Would you kindly explain in detail? I am most curious about your reasoning. It started when I heard he claimed some victims in the Jedwabne barn, so I made some research on him and on the topic. Some clues:. He is a sociologist, not a historian. National Remembrance Institute refuted several of his claims, and I trust them; not the least reason was that some of those claims were ridiculously out of phase with the reality of the times. Numerous historians criticised him, not only Poles, and even some Jews.
Not a problem. I see considerable thought was put into your response. I appreciate a clearer understanding of your point of view. Fair enough, Jamie. As you say, the average football hooligan has no knowledge of documented historical anti-Semitism. These taunts and their relative acceptance are a manifestation of a lingering hatred. The current Jewish population of Poland appears to be somewhere around 30, out of general population of 38,, or. In numeric terms,I think we can both agree that the actual presence of Jews on Polish soil is extremely small. I am trying to understand if the phenomenon of any anti-Semitism in a country that is essentially devoid of Jews.
Do you believe that the anti-Semitic manifestation in Polish football stadia have anything to do with the ideologies and open presence in Poland of Radio Maryja, the League for Polish Families and politicians like Roman Giertych? Just look at what happened in Rwanda between the Tutsis and the Hutus to see what I mean. To understand modern attitudes you have to explore ancient enmities from both perspectives.
Thanks for your thoughtful response Stan. The BNP and the EDL are political reaction by some White Britons, who often come from the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum to the influx and presence of what they see as a large, growing and threatening non-White population in the country. However, this is not the case in Poland. From what I read, the Polish economy is doing a lot better than the EU average. To my knowledge, there is no large influx of foreigners documented or undocumented into the country. It baffles me that phenomena like Radio Maryja, the League for Polish Families and politicians like Gierytych can find any support, when one can empirically demonstrate that any perceived Jewish threat has been eliminated from Polish public life.
And the BNP are not only anti white immigrant, they campaigned actively against Polish immigration too. For example, why are the Irish still the butt of jokes in the UK which suggests that they are ignorant and uneducated? This obviously goes back to the 19th century immigrations when large numbers of poor, uneducated Irish emigrated to the UK and maybe before that when many Irish were forcibly conscripted into the British army. Even though the Irish are now a very well educated people compared to when they were under the yoke of the British Empire, those prejudices still remain.
I feel that it is too easy for people to tar Poles as being anti Semitic without examining the historical relationship that existed between the two communities, not just in inter-war Poland but throughout the centuries. There are two sides to every story but we only hear the side that labels us as anti Semites because it suits their political agenda.
Stan, I hope you realize that I believe labelling an entire people as one thing or another is idiotic and counterproductive to a substantive discussion on any topic. Regardless of the class or ethnic origins of any BNP supporter, I think we can both agree that the UK has experienced and is experiencing a massive influx of foreigners White and non-White since the Second World. Like most European countries, the UK was essentially ethnically monolithic, especially outside of London. Please correct me if you feel I am wrong here. As you and others have pointed out, Poland is not the only country in Europe where anti-Semitism revives its ugly head at football matches.
In simple terms, I perceived a culture clash happening in Poland, at least that was what I felt on my three visits to the country. In any case Stan, these are a few of my thoughts and I would be most interested in hearing how you respond to them. In the 19th century there was a lot if immigration into mainland Britain including Irish, Jews from Eastern Europe and the new united Germany and also people from the Indian sub continent and other parts of South East Asia that were under the rule of the British Empire.
The Irish were subjected to a lot of discrimination lasting well beyond WW2. Neither am I labelling an entire people as one thing or another. I was brought up in a very multi cultural area of a large industrial town in the north of England so I am well aware that there are good and bad in all people of all races and nationalities. The returning Jews were a problem for the Communists for several reasons. Many were educated, middle class property owners and were returning to their former homes.
The Kielce pogrom is always portrayed as an example of Polish anti Semitism but there were other motives behind the violence that occured in Kielce that day. I am not denying that Poles were involved but there were other political motivations involved here and no blatant anti Semitism.
Stan, I see your point about the Irish but I think we can both agree that the Irish migrants to the UK did not challenge the self-perception of the British as a nation as did the massive migration of West Indians, Indians, Pakistanis and to a far lesser extent, African Blacks and Hong Kong Chinese after the war. Regarding the Polish expulsion of ethnic Germans and Ukrainians, I found the following reference in Wiki regarding the expulsion of Reichsdeutch and Volksdeutch residents.
I think it would be a little almost soft pedalling to conclude that the Poles had no input whatsoever into the expulsion of former ethnically German residents and that the matter was ENTIRELY a Russian enterprise from start to finish. I understand the disgust many Poles must have felt with everything German after 5 terrible years of the Nazi occupation. I can also understand their desire to chuck any ethnic German from the territory ceded to Poland. But unless Polish historians Witold Sienkiewicz and Grzegorz Hryciuk are outright liars, there was some Polish input into the expulsion and mistreatment of ethnic Germans.
Again, please correct me if you believe I am wrong. In order to achieve the political objective of relocating the Ukrainiain ethnic population from Poland, the Polish government abandoned the relatively benign character of the policy in favor of a more aggressive approach because the plan met with significant resistance, as most Ukrainians did not wish to abandon their ancestral lands and resettle to Soviet Ukraine. Polish authorities conducted mass arrests of local Ukrainian elites usually clergy an applied a variety of coercive measures to pressure families and individuals to relocate.
Groups and entire villages were forced out of their homes and directed to embark on transports bound for the Soviet Union. Within the course of a single year, July — July , some , Ukrainians and Rusyns were uprooted and deported in this manner. The resettlement operation concluded in September , when for all intents and purposes the demographic foundation of the Ukrainian population in Poland was destroyed.
Now, how much of this was purely Soviet pressure and policy and how much was a Polish desire to consolidate the country into an ethnically monolithic state is also a very big question. Again, please correct me if I am raising facts that are entirely unsubstantiated. All of this notwithstanding, these issues stand aside from my personal interests which are: 1 the reasons behind the Kielce pogrom and to what degree the event was instigated by the threat of Jews returning to claim their property 2 public and governmental positions today on the question of restitution of private Jewish owned property 3 the role of Radio Maryja and similar ideological and political forces on the debate about the restitution of Jewish private property 4 the connection if any between such debates and public manifestations of anti-Semitism like those that have been recorded on football grounds in various locations around the country.
They had the full force of the Soviet secret police behind them and like I said before, anyone who was seen as a threat to the full imposition of a Soviet backed government were dealt with. The realpolitik of the day is difficult to understand just by reading selective texts that suit your pre-defined agenda. I have no predefined agenda Stan. And for that matter, nor is any other country in the world. Poland suffered horribly in the last century and in the century before that when the nation was literally wiped from the map.
No one with slightest idea about Polish history could deny that. It is only natural that Poland would have used any opportunity to rid itself of ethnic minorities, especially ones that made previous territorial or hegemonic claims upon the country or parts of the country. Please tell me if I have the facts wrong here and if so, how? Eric, do you not think that if Poland wanted rid of its ethnic minorities that it would have happened in the years after WW1? Instead Poland was led by a government that wanted revive a nation that was probably more liberal and protective of its ethnic minorities in the centuries prior to the partitions than any other country in the world at the time.
Furthermore with the adopting of the Constitution in there was plans to include protection of rights of minorities in Poland, especially the jews, within the Polish constitution but the final partitions stopped that from happening. Poland under Pilsudski was looking to revive the Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth following the collapse of the partitioning powers at the end of WW1.
Granted there were those who wanted a more ethnically homogenous Poland, eg the like of Roman Dmowski and his National Democrats but again, these people were a minority and the adopting of the March Constitution in set in law the banning of discrimination on racial and religious grounds. The ethnic cleansing of Poland and other states that came under the yoke of Soviet Russia post WW2 was agreed at the Potsdam Conference which took place between July 17th — August 2nd This conference fleshed out what had been outlined at the Yalta Conference held in February If you do a little research eric you will easily see that at no time did the Polish government-in-exile attend any of the major WW2 confernces nor were they signatories to any of the agreements that came out of them.
An interesting and thoughtful response Stan. Let me educate myself a little more and get back to you. Do you really think that Poles would vote on self-expulsion if they were given a chance? Polish militia etc. They were against the Polish nation, and if you think that it makes Poles somehow support them because they must have been ethnic Poles, then consider that at least some of them were Jewish.
It gets as absurd as that, Eric. He admitted that stirring hate for Poland and Poles was a part of an effort to consolidate the nation, and promised to stop it, starting with revision of textbooks on WW2 history. There are numerous examples of prominent Jews and Jewish organisations perceived as arrogant or excessively demanding. One can empirically demonstrate that the perceived Jewish threat has not been eliminated from Polish public life, despite the Jewish population being so tiny. Focusing on the Polish anti-Semitism by the media and authors is another factor.
Orwell extensively wrote about common British anti-Semitism before, during, and after the war. Recently discovered documents illustrated the surprisingly wide and willful extent of French cooperation in herding up Jews and handing them out to the Nazis. Several non-German SS-waffen formations actively participated in extermination of Jews. Can you give me some details here? Should they be?
Do you see any connection between events like the Kielce Pogrom, which as we both know happened AFTER the Nazis had left Polish soil and a generalized fear that returning Jews from the concentration camps, from Russia or from hiding posed a threat to Poles because they wanted their property back? It is my understanding that these same themes are repeated today by Radio Maryja, the League for Polish Families, the most conservative Catholic groups in Polish society etc. Is this true? How do you see the strength and influence of organizations like these and politicians like Giertych in Poland today?
You take a tiny group and make them seem like the Polish society at large. There are lots of enemies of the Radio within the Church itself. Moreover, Cracovia has never been a Jewish club. Before the war they were a Polish democratic club, so they accepted everyone, Jews included. So, in a nutshell, one could say that Mr. Thank you Nott. Your interesting observations give me much to ponder. Let me think carefully about what you have just said and get back to you. The roots are indeed ancient, Cracovia was a Jewish club in the beginning of the century, and, afaik, there are Jewish money involved today.
Consequently, you should call them philo-Semitic football hooligans, and this would be absurd as well. You follow the club, you take it all — the colours, the scarf, the badge, the lore, the traditional arsenal of insults targeted at the rivals — and the insults targeted at you. Some people need it.
But Mr Melikson is enjoying his new club. If I could find it in less than a minute, on the first page of Google results, then so could the Panorama journalists. Thus sensationalist journalism at best, or following some mysterious agenda at the worst. In short, anti-Semitic manifestations on Polish stadiums is a marginal thing, a non-issue blowed up out of proportion. Despite the anti Jewish sentiments being still, or again, present in the Polish society in general.
Even the latter, though, are not enough to sustain the myth of bloodthirsty Poles murdering Jews at the first opportunity. Nor does the Kielce Pogrom, which you mentioned, and neither does March , both coming from roots rather accidentally associated with Jews and Poles. And, ah, one thing in which I disagree with Stan. There was a story in , I think, about a school teacher who wanted to teach children about the evil of anti-Semitism still polluting Polish life and the dire need to fight it.
And was caught while doing it, the story made local headlines. Somewhere in Pomorze, if I remember well. Actually, you do. England expelled Jews in the 13th century, and yet Shakespeare was a great anti-Semite still four centuries later. Great Britain was with its Empire the most powerful of the major belligerents, the most politically and socially stable, and the best able to endure the strains of the war. Greece officially entered the Great War rather belatedly in June , despite informal involvement since The war divided Greek political elites, leading the whole country into a civil strife that lasted for decades.
When the First World War broke out in Europe, Latin Americans of all social strata soon felt that the conflict would plunge the world into a crisis of hitherto unknown dimensions. Despite its neutrality, Luxembourg was occupied in August , mainly for its strategic value. For four years, the national elite engaged in a difficult policy of cooperation with the German occupier. Montenegro entered the First World War politically and militarily exhausted. The outcome of the First and Second Balkan Wars in and had a devastating impact on the future of Montenegro. Newfoundland entered the Great War with great enthusiasm, but was unprepared for what lay ahead.
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On the one hand, it was a test to the neutrality policy. Concessions and violations of neutrality got consequences for both foreign affairs and the economy. As a neutral country, Switzerland was not involved in the devastating military conflicts of The Netherlands remained neutral during the First World War, but was nevertheless significantly affected by it. In , the Union of South Africa was four years old; its military only two. The American debate over neutrality ended when Woodrow Wilson decided in April that German aggression on the high seas threatened US national security.
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By Kyle Anthony. Decree on Peace By Siobhan Peeling. Delesalle, Charles By James E. Dual Power By Siobhan Peeling. Du Bois, W. By Nicholas Michael Sambaluk. Duma By Siobhan Peeling. Ebert, Friedrich By Bernd Braun. Erzberger, Matthias By Christopher Dowe. Eyschen, Paul By Denis Scuto. Flamenpolitik By Antoon Vrints. Fourteen Points By Chris Thomas. Frank, Ludwig By Sarah Panter. Garcez, Arnaldo By Carlos Silveira. Garrison, Lindley M. By Edward Salo. Generalgouvernement Belgien By Christoph Roolf.
Generalgouvernement Warschau By Stephan Lehnstaedt. Ghadar Conspiracy By Sunit Singh. Grimm, Robert By Adrian Zimmermann. Groener, Wilhelm By Peter Lieb. Hindenburg, Paul von By Anna von der Goltz.
Hitler, Adolf By Thomas Weber. Hoover, Herbert By Robert Shafer. Hoyek, Elias By Youssef Mouawad. Ionescu, Dumitru By Daniel Cain. Italian Irredentism By Matthew Stibbe. By Dalibor Denda. Khaki Election By Luke Blaxill. Laidoner, Johan By Ago Pajur.
German Camps,Polish Victims: The Irish Independent and its coverage of German-occupied Poland
Lansing, Robert By Nicholas J. Loucheur, Louis By Daniel Mollenhauer. Ludendorff, Erich By Roger Chickering. Luxburg Affair By Stefan Rinke. Marinegebiet By Sophie De Schaepdrijver. Martial Law By Steven R. Mata Hari By Marianne Walle. Max, Adolphe By Laurence van Ypersele.
Metaxas, Ioannis By Elli Lemonidou. Mexican Revolution By Stephan Scheuzger. Michaelis, Georg By Bert Becker. Millerand, Alexandre By Daniel Mollenhauer. Mussolini, Benito By Brian R. Nicaragua By Dennis Arias Mora. Noske, Gustav By Julian Aulke. Occupation of Luxembourg By Richard Seiwerath. Pan Americanism By Mark T. Pasha, Cavit By Mesut Uyar. Payer, Friedrich von By Max Haberich. Pearse, Patrick By Joost Augusteijn. Prochaska Affair By Richard C. Provisional Government By Siobhan Peeling.
Punjab Disturbances By Ahmad Azhar. Radoslavov, Vasil By Vasil Paraskevov. Red Scare By Matthew F. Renner, Karl By Paul Dvorak. Salandra, Antonio By Stefano Marcuzzi. Sarajevo Incident By Samuel Foster. Scheidemann, Philipp By Bernd Braun. Schnee, Heinrich By Daniel Steinbach.
Scutari crisis By Marenglen Kasmi. Sea Power By Andrew Lambert. Sembat, Marcel By Daniel Mollenhauer. Sixtus Affair By Robert Rill. Sonnino, Sidney By Paola Carlucci. Stereotypes By Vanessa Ther. Stresemann, Gustav By Tara Windsor. Suttner, Bertha von By Laurie Cohen. Thomas, Albert By Daniel Mollenhauer. Toynbee, Arnold J. By Laura Di Fiore. Trialism By Mateusz Drozdowski.
Trotsky, Leon By Ian D. Ukraine By Liubov Zhvanko. Intervention in the Caribbean By Christian Cwik. Venizelos, Eleutherios By Elli Lemonidou. Vollmachtenregime By Oliver Schneider. Vorarlberg Referendum By Wolfgang Weber. Wangenheim, Hans von By Christos Bouris. Weber, Alfred By Eberhard Demm. Whitlock, Brand By Branden Little. Wilson, Woodrow By Mark E. Zetkin, Clara By Christina Morina.
Zhekov, Nikola By Deniza Petrova. Zimmermann Telegram By Stefan Rinke. Zimmerwald Conference By Bernard Degen. Zionism By Ofer Idels. Afghanistan By Hugh Beattie. Albania By Isa Blumi. Australia By Joan Beaumont. Belgium By Sophie De Schaepdrijver. Bulgaria By Richard C. Burma By Michael W. Germany By Gerhard Hirschfeld. Great Britain By Stephen Badsey. Greece By Loukianos Hassiotis. Ireland By Richard S. Newfoundland By James K. Hiller and Mike O'Brien. New Zealand By Kate Hunter. Norway By Karl Erik Haug. Poland By Piotr Szlanta. Russian Empire By Joshua A.
Serbia By Mile Bjelajac.
Siam By Stefan Hell. Spain By Javier Ponce. If Germany remains a hostile power, then the European Union can also be regarded as a malign vehicle for German influence. Such words, spoken by a German politician, have the worst possible connotations for Poles.
For me, too. Law and Justice demonstrations are adorned not only with Solidarity-era symbols, but with those of the Home Army that fought the Nazis; their opponents denounced not only as closet communists, but as the successors to the nobles who betrayed the commonwealth in Oh Poland mine! Remember us When we can feel no longer; remember How we framed and fashioned your cause Both as a prayer of sorrow and as a flash of thunder.
In doing so, he hopes to identify his private grief with the grief of all Poles — not just for Smolensk, but for all that has befallen the nation. If the state is illegitimate, the normal rules of political behaviour no longer apply. In this way, the takeover of state institutions is presented as national liberation; contempt for the existing legal order as a desire for natural justice. The Smolensk catastrophe is a perfect example.
Finally, it provides grounds for revenge: in November, a Law and Justice spokeswoman suggested that Donald Tusk might be put before a state tribunal for his role in the cover-up once his term as president of the European Council is over. The result is a peculiar alliance between the paranoid and the cynical that Poles and foreigners alike struggle to understand. It is no coincidence that faith in communism depended on exactly the same kind of logic.
Contempt for the rule of law; the identification of a minority faction with the interests of the nation; the separation of power from office by constructing extra-legal chains of command; the demonisation of opponents and purges of state structures; an ideological re-interpretation of history: these are all legacies of communist rule. A quarter of a century after the end of communism, the alleged hold of communists over the Polish state is still being used as a pretext to deploy communist-era methods to take hold of the Polish state. Antithetical to pluralism of any kind, the authoritarian logic of communism demands total victory not just when it comes to politics, but over history as well.
What is clear is that his refusal to accept that Poland might now be free has made him the most powerful man in one of the largest countries in Europe. Facebook Twitter Pinterest. Topics Poland The long read. Europe features. Reuse this content. Order by newest oldest recommendations.
Related German Camps,Polish Victims: The Irish Independent and its coverage of German-occupied Poland
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