Hume reluctantly acquiesced in this typographical butchery, insisting only that the divisions not occur within a chapter. Were he present now to witness his best text in its best form, an ideal state unobtainable in his Edition: current; Page: [ xxiii ] own day, he would surely commend what the Liberty Fund has here accomplished. The only difficulty would be to restrain him from transforming this classic in historiography into yet another version! William B. It is difficult for a man to speak long of himself without vanity; therefore, I shall be short. It may be thought an instance of vanity that I pretend at all to write my life; but this Narrative shall contain little more than the History of my Writings; as, indeed, almost all my life has been spent in literary pursuits and occupations.
The first success of most of my writings was not such as to be an object of vanity. I was born the 26th of April , old style, at Edinburgh. My family, however, was not rich, and being myself a younger brother, my patrimony, according to the mode of my country, was of course very slender. My father, who passed for a man of parts, died when I was an infant, leaving me, with an elder brother and a sister, under the care of our mother, a woman of singular merit, who though young and handsome, devoted herself entirely to the rearing and educating of her children.
I passed through the ordinary course of education with success, and was seized very early with a passion for literature, which has been the ruling passion of my life, and the great source of my enjoyments. My studious disposition, my sobriety, and my industry, gave my family a notion that the law was a proper profession for me; but I found an unsurmountable aversion to every thing but the pursuits of philosophy and general learning; and while they fancied I was poring upon Voet and Vinnius, Cicero and Virgil were the authors which I was secretly devouring. My very slender fortune, however, being unsuitable to this plan of life, and my health being a little broken by my ardent application, I was tempted, or rather forced, to make a very feeble trial for entering into a more active scene of life.
In , I went to Bristol, with some recommendations to eminent merchants, but in a few months found that scene totally unsuitable to me. I went over to France, with a view of prosecuting my studies in a country retreat; and I there laid that plan of life, which I have steadily and successfully pursued. I resolved to make a very rigid frugality supply my deficiency of fortune, to maintain unimpaired my independency, and to regard every object as contemptible, except the improvement of my talents in literature. After passing three years very agreeably in that country, I came over to London in In the end of , I published my Treatise, and immediately went down to my mother and my brother, who lived at his country-house, and was employing himself very judiciously and successfully in the improvement of his fortune.
Never literary attempt was more unfortunate than my Treatise of Human Nature. It fell dead-born from the press, without reaching such distinction, as even to excite a murmur among the zealots. But being naturally of a cheerful and sanguine temper, I very soon recovered the blow, and prosecuted with great ardour my studies in the country.
In , I printed at Edinburgh the first part of my Essays: the work was favourably received, and soon made me entirely forget my former disappointment. I continued with my mother and brother in the country, and in that time recovered the knowledge of the Greek language, which I had too much neglected in my early youth. In , I received a letter from the Marquis of Annandale, inviting me to come and live with him in England; I found also, that the friends and family of that young nobleman were desirous of putting him under my care and direction, for the state of his mind and health required it.
My appointments during that time made a considerable accession to my small fortune. I then received an invitation from General St. Clair to attend him as a secretary to his expedition, which was at Edition: current; Page: [ xxix ] first meant against Canada, but ended in an incursion on the coast of France. Next year, to wit, , I received an invitation from the General to attend him in the same station in his military embassy to the courts of Vienna and Turin. I then wore the uniform of an officer, and was introduced at these courts as aid-de-camp to the general, along with Sir Harry Erskine and Captain Grant, now General Grant.
These two years were almost the only interruptions which my studies have received during the course of my life: I passed them agreeably, and in good company; and my appointments, with my frugality, had made me reach a fortune, which I called independent, though most of my friends were inclined to smile when I said so: in short, I was now master of near a thousand pounds.
I had always entertained a notion, that my want of success in publishing the Treatise of Human Nature, had proceeded more from the manner than the matter, and that I had been guilty of a very usual indiscretion, in going to the press too early. I, therefore, cast the first part of that work anew in the Enquiry concerning Human Understanding, which was published while I was at Turin. But this piece was at first little more successful than the Treatise of Human Nature. On my return from Italy, I had the mortification to find all England in a ferment, on account of Dr.
A new edition, which had been published at London, of my Essays, moral and political, met not with a much better reception. Such is the source of natural temper, that these disappointments made little or no impression on me. I went down in , and lived two years with my brother at his country-house, for my mother was now dead. I there composed the second part of my Essay, which I called Political Discourses, and also my Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals, which is another part of my treatise, that I cast anew.
Meanwhile, my bookseller, A. Millar, informed me, that my former publications all but the unfortunate Treatise were beginning to be the subject of conversation; that the sale of them was gradually increasing, and that new editions were demanded. However, I had fixed a resolution, which I inflexibly maintained, never to reply to any body; and not being very irascible in my temper, I have easily kept myself clear of all literary squabbles. These symptoms of a rising reputation gave me encouragement, as I was ever more disposed to see the favourable than unfavourable side of things; a turn of mind which it is more happy to possess, than to be born to an estate of ten thousand a-year.
In , I removed from the country to the town, the true scene for a man of letters. In , were published at Edinburgh, where I then lived, my Political Discourses, the only work of mine that was successful on the first publication. It was well received abroad and at home.
In the same year was published at London, my Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals; which, in my own opinion who ought not to judge on that subject is of all my writings, historical, philosophical, or literary, incomparably the best. It came unnoticed and unobserved into the world. In , the Faculty of Advocates chose me their Librarian, an office from which I received little or no emolument, but which gave me the command of a large library. I then formed the plan of writing the History of England; but being frightened with the notion of continuing a narrative through a period of years, I commenced with the accession of the House of Stuart, an epoch when, I thought, the misrepresentations of faction began chiefly to take place.
I was, I own, sanguine in my expectation of the success of this work. I thought that I was the only historian, that had at once neglected present power, interest, and authority, and the cry of popular prejudices; and as the subject was suited to every capacity, I expected proportional applause. But miserable was my disappointment: I was assailed by one cry of reproach, disapprobation, and even detestation; English, Scotch, and Irish, Whig and Tory, churchman and sectary, freethinker and religionist, patriot and courtier, united in their rage against the man, who had presumed to shed a generous tear for the fate of Charles I, and the earl of Strafford; and after the first ebullitions of their fury were over, what was still more mortifying, the book seemed to sink into oblivion.
Millar told me, that in a twelvemonth he sold only forty-five copies of it. I scarcely, indeed, heard of one man in the three Edition: current; Page: [ xxxi ] kingdoms, considerable for rank or letters, that could endure the book. I must only except the primate of England, Dr. Herring, and the primate of Ireland, Dr. Stone, which seem two odd exceptions. These dignified prelates separately sent me messages not to be discouraged.
I was, however, I confess, discouraged; and had not the war been at that time breaking out between France and England, I had certainly retired to some provincial town of the former kingdom, have changed my name, and never more have returned to my native country. But as this scheme was not now practicable, and the subsequent volume was considerably advanced, I resolved to pick up courage and to persevere.
In this interval, I published at London my Natural History of Religion, along with some other small pieces; its public entry was rather obscure except only that Dr. Hurd wrote a pamphlet against it, with all the illiberal petulance, arrogance, and scurrility, which distinguish the Warburtonian school. This pamphlet gave me some consolation for the otherwise indifferent reception of my performance. In , two years after the fall of the first volume, was published the second volume of my History, containing the period from the death of Charles I.
This performance happened to give less displeasure to the Whigs, and was better received. It not only rose itself, but helped to buoy up its unfortunate brother. But though I had been taught by experience, that the Whig party were in possession of bestowing all places, both in the state and in literature, I was so little inclined to yield to their senseless clamour, that in above a hundred alterations, which farther study, reading, or reflection engaged me to make in the reigns of the two first Stuarts, I have made all of them invariably to the Tory side.
It is ridiculous to consider the English constitution before that period as a regular plan of liberty. In , I published my History of the House of Tudor. The clamour against this performance was almost equal to that against the History of the two first Stuarts. The reign of Elizabeth was particularly obnoxious.
But I was now callous against the impressions of public folly, and continued very peaceably and contentedly Edition: current; Page: [ xxxii ] in my retreat at Edinburgh, to finish, in two volumes, the more early part of the English History, which I gave to the public in , with tolerable, and but tolerable success.
But, notwithstanding this variety of winds and seasons, to which my writings had been exposed, they had still been making such advances, that the copy-money given me by the booksellers, much exceeded any thing formerly known in England; I was become not only independent, but opulent. I retired to my native country of Scotland, determined never more to set my foot out of it; and retaining the satisfaction of never having preferred a request to one great man, or even making advances of friendship to any of them.
As I was now turned of fifty, I thought of passing all the rest of my life in this philosophical manner, when I received, in , an invitation from the Earl of Hertford, with whom I was not in the least acquainted, to attend him on his embassy to Paris, with a near prospect of being appointed secretary to the embassy; and, in the meanwhile, of performing the functions of that office. I have every reason, both of pleasure and interest, to think myself happy in my connexions with that nobleman, as well as afterwards with his brother, General Conway.
Those who have not seen the strange effects of modes, will never imagine the reception I met with at Paris, from men and women of all ranks and stations. The more I recoiled from their excessive civilities, the more I was loaded with them. There is, however, a real satisfaction in living at Paris, from the great number of sensible, knowing and polite company with which that city abounds above all places in the universe.
I thought once of settling there for life. I was appointed secretary to the embassy; and, in summer , Lord Hertford left me, being appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. In the beginning of , I left Paris, and next summer went to Edinburgh, with the same view as formerly, of burying myself in a philosophical retreat. But in , I received from Mr. Conway an invitation to be Under-secretary and this invitation, both the character of the person, and my connexions with Lord Hertford, prevented me from declining. I returned to Edinburgh in , very opulent for I possessed a revenue of l.
In spring , I was struck with a disorder in my bowels, which at first gave me no alarm, but has since, as I apprehend it, become mortal and incurable. I now reckon upon a speedy dissolution. I possess the same ardour as ever in study, and the same gaiety in company. It is difficult to be more detached from life than I am at present.
To conclude historically with my own character. I am, or rather was for that is the style I must now use in speaking of myself, which emboldens me the more to speak my sentiments ; I was, I say, a man of mild disposition, of command of temper, of an open, social, and cheerful humour, capable of attachment, but little susceptible of enmity, and of great moderation in all my passions. Even my love of literary fame, my ruling passion, never soured my temper, notwithstanding my frequent disappointments. My company was not unacceptable to the young and careless, as well as to the studious and literary; and as I took a particular pleasure in the company of modest women, I had no reason to be displeased with the reception I met with from them.
Dee-Mentions of This Journey
In a word, though most men, any wise eminent, have found reason to complain of calumny, I never was touched, or even attacked by her baleful tooth: and Edition: current; Page: [ xxxiv ] though I wantonly exposed myself to the rage of both civil and religious factions, they seemed to be disarmed in my behalf of their wonted fury. My friends never had occasion to vindicate any one circumstance of my character and conduct: Not but that the zealots, we may well suppose, would have been glad to invent and propagate any story to my disadvantage, but they could never find any which they thought would wear the face of probability.
I cannot say there is no vanity in making this funeral oration of myself, but I hope it is not a misplaced one; and this is a matter of fact which is easily cleared and ascertained. It is with a real, though a very melancholy pleasure, that I sit down to give you some account of the behaviour of our late excellent friend, Mr. Hume, during his last illness. Though, in his own judgment, his disease was mortal and incurable, yet he allowed himself to be prevailed upon, by the entreaty of his friends, to try what might be the effects of a long journey. A few days before he set out, he wrote that account of his own life, which, together with his other papers, he has left to your care.
My account, therefore, shall begin where his ends. He set out for London towards the end of April, and at Morpeth met with Mr. John Home and myself, who had both come down from London on purpose to see him, expecting to have found him at Edinburgh. Home returned with him, and attended him during the whole of his stay in England, with that care and attention which might be expected from a temper so perfectly friendly and affectionate.
As I had written to my mother that she might expect me in Scotland, I was under the necessity of continuing my journey. His disease seemed to yield to exercise and change of air, and when he arrived in London, he was apparently in much better health than when he left Edinburgh. He was advised to go to Bath to drink the waters, which appeared for some time to have so good an effect upon him, that even he himself began to entertain, what he was not apt to do, a better opinion of his Edition: current; Page: [ xxxvi ] own health.
His symptoms, however, soon returned with their usual violence, and from that moment he gave up all thoughts of recovery, but submitted with the utmost cheerfulness, and the most perfect complacency and resignation. Upon his return to Edinburgh, though he found himself much weaker, yet his cheerfulness never abated, and he continued to divert himself, as usual, with correcting his own works for a new edition, with reading books of amusement, with the conversation of his friends; and, sometimes in the evening, with a party at his favourite game of whist.
His cheerfulness was so great, and his conversation and amusements run so much in their usual strain, that, notwithstanding all bad symptoms, many people could not believe he was dying. I happened to come into his room while he was reading this letter, which he had just received, and which he immediately showed me. I told him, that though I was sensible how very much he was weakened, and that appearances were in many respects very bad, yet his cheerfulness was still so great, the spirit of life seemed still to be so very strong in him, that I could not help entertaining some faint hopes.
When I lie down in the evening, I feel myself weaker than when I rose in the morning; and when I rise in the morning, weaker than when I lay down Edition: current; Page: [ xxxvii ] in the evening. I am sensible, besides, that some of my vital parts are affected, so that I must soon die. I have done everything of consequence which I ever meant to do, and I could at no time expect to leave my relations and friends in a better situation than that in which I am now likely to leave them: I, therefore, have all reason to die contented. Allow me a little time, that I may see how the Public receives the alterations.
There will be no end of such excuses; so, honest friend, please step into the boat. If I live a few years longer, I may have the satisfaction of seeing the downfal of some of the prevailing systems of superstition. Do you fancy I will grant you a lease for so long a term? Get into the boat this instant, you lazy, loitering rogue. But, though Mr. Hume always talked of his approaching dissolution with great cheerfulness, he never affected to make any parade of his magnanimity.
He never mentioned the subject but when the conversation naturally led to it, and never dwelt longer upon it than the course of the conversation happened to require: it was a subject indeed which occurred pretty frequently, in consequence of the inquiries which his friends, who came to see him, Edition: current; Page: [ xxxviii ] naturally made concerning the state of his health. The conversation which I mentioned above, and which passed on Thursday the 8th of August, was the last, except one, that I ever had with him. He had now become so very weak, that the company of his most intimate friends fatigued him; for his cheerfulness was still so great, his complaisance and social disposition were still so entire, that when any friend was with him, he could not help talking more, and with greater exertion, than suited the weakness of his body.
Hume has passed his time pretty easily, but is much weaker. He sits up, goes down stairs once a day, and amuses himself with reading, but seldom sees any body. He finds, that even the conversation of his most intimate friends fatigues and oppresses him; and it is happy that he does not need it, for he is quite free from anxiety, impatience, or low spirits, and passes his time very well with the assistance of amusing books.
I received the day after a letter from Mr. Hume himself, of which the following is an extract. I cannot submit to your coming over here on my account, as it is possible for me to see you so small a part of the day, but Doctor Black can better inform you concerning the degree of strength which may from time to time remain with me. Hume expired. The near approach of his death became evident in the night between Thursday and Friday, when his disease became excessive, and soon weakened him so much, that he could no longer rise out of his bed.
He continued to the last perfectly sensible, and free from much pain or feelings of distress. He never dropped the smallest expression of impatience; but when he had occasion to speak to the people about him, always did it with affection and tenderness. I thought it improper to write to bring you over, especially as I heard that he had dictated a letter to you, desiring you not to come.
When he became very weak, it cost him an effort to speak, and he died in such a happy composure of mind, that nothing could exceed it. Thus died our most excellent, and never to be forgotten friend; concerning whose philosophical opinions men will, no doubt, judge variously, every one approving, or condemning them, according as they happen to coincide or disagree with his own; but concerning whose character and conduct there can scarce be a difference of opinion.
His temper, indeed, seemed to be more happily balanced, if I may be allowed such an expression, than that perhaps of any other man I have ever known. Even in the lowest state of his fortune, his great and necessary frugality never hindered him from exercising, upon proper occasions, acts both of charity and generosity. It was a frugality founded not upon avarice, but upon the love of independency.
The extreme gentleness of his nature never weakened either the firmness of his mind, or the steadiness of his resolutions.
His constant pleasantry was the genuine effusion of good-nature and good-humour, tempered with delicacy and modesty, and without even the slightest tincture of malignity, so frequently the disagreeable source of what is called wit in other men. It never was the meaning of his raillery to mortify; and therefore, far from offending, it seldom failed to please and delight, even those who were the objects of it.
To his friends, who were frequently the objects of it, there was not perhaps any one of all his great and amiable qualities, which contributed more Edition: current; Page: [ xl ] to endear his conversation. And that gaiety of temper, so agreeable in society, but which is so often accompanied with frivolous and superficial qualities, was in him certainly attended with the most severe application, the most extensive learning, the greatest depth of thought and a capacity in every respect the most comprehensive.
Upon the whole, I have always considered him, both in his lifetime and since his death, as approaching as nearly to the idea of a perfectly wise and virtuous man, as perhaps the nature of human frailty will permit. The curiosity , entertained by all civilized nations, of enquiring into the exploits and adventures of their ancestors, commonly excites a regret that the history of remote ages should always be so much involved in obscurity, uncertainty, and contradiction.
Ingenious men, possessed of leisure, are apt to push their researches beyond the period, in which literary monuments are framed or preserved; without reflecting, that the history of past events is immediately lost or disfigured, when intrusted to memory and oral tradition, and that the adventures of barbarous nations, even if they were recorded, could afford little or no entertainment to men born in a more cultivated age.
The convulsions of a civilized state usually compose the most instructive and most interesting part of its history; but the sudden, violent, and unprepared revolutions, incident to Barbarians, are so much guided by caprice, and terminate so often in cruelty that they disgust us by Edition: current; Page: [ 4 ] the uniformity of their appearance; and it is rather fortunate for letters that they are buried in silence and oblivion.
The only certain means, by which nations can indulge their curiosity in researches concerning their remote origin, is to consider the language, manners, and customs of their ancestors, and to compare them with those of the neighbouring nations. The fables, which are commonly employed to supply the place of true history, ought entirely to be disregarded; or if any exception be admitted to this general rule, it can only be in favour of the ancient Grecian fictions, which are so celebrated and so agreeable, that they will ever be the objects of the attention of mankind.
Neglecting, therefore, all traditions or rather tales concerning the more early history of Britain, we shall only consider the state of the inhabitants, as it appeared to the Romans on their invasion of this country: We shall briefly run over the events, which attended the conquest made by that empire, as belonging more to Roman than British story: We shall hasten through the obscure and uninteresting period of Saxon annals: And shall reserve a more full narration for those times, when the truth is both so well ascertained and so complete as to promise entertainment and instruction to the reader.
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All ancient writers agree in representing the first inhabitants of Britain as a tribe of the Gauls or Celtae, who peopled that island from the neighbouring continent. Their language was the same, their manners, their government, their superstition; varied only by those small differences, which time or a communication with the bordering nations must necessarily introduce. The inhabitants of Gaul, especially in those parts which lie contiguous to Italy, had acquired, from a commerce with their southern neighbours, some refinement in the arts, which gradually diffused themselves northwards, and spread but a very faint light over this island.
The Greek and Roman navigators or merchants for there were scarcely any other travellers in those ages brought back the most shocking accounts of the ferocity of the people, which they magnified, as usual, in order to excite the admiration of their countrymen. The south-east parts, however, of Britain, had already, before the age of Caesar, made the first and most requisite step toward a civil settlement; and the Britons, by tillage and agriculture, had there encreased to a great multitude. The Britons were divided into many small nations or tribes; and being a military people, whose sole property was their arms and their cattle, it was impossible, after they had acquired a relish of liberty, for their princes or chieftains to establish any despotic authority over them.
Their governments, though monarchical, b were free, as well as those of all the Celtic nations; and the common people seem even to have enjoyed more liberty among them, c than among the nations of Gaul, d from whom they were descended. Each state was divided into factions within itself. The religion of the Britons was one of the most considerable parts of their government; and the Druids, who were their priests, possessed great authority among them. Besides ministering at the altar, and directing all religious duties, they presided over the education of youth; they enjoyed an immunity from wars and taxes; they possessed both the civil and criminal jurisdiction; they decided all controversies among states as well as among private persons, and whoever refused to submit to their decree was exposed to the most severe penalties.
The sentence of excommunication was pronounced against him: He was forbidden access to the sacrifices or public worship: He was debarred all intercourse with his fellow-citizens, even in the common affairs of life: His company was universally shunned, as profane and dangerous: He was refused the protection of law: f And death itself became an acceptable relief from the misery and infamy to which he was exposed. Thus, the bands of government, which were naturally Edition: current; Page: [ 6 ] loose among that rude and turbulent people, were happily corroborated by the terrors of their superstition.
No species of superstition was ever more terrible than that of the Druids. Besides the severe penalties, which it was in the power of the ecclesiastics to inflict in this world, they inculcated the eternal transmigration of souls; and thereby extended their authority as far as the fears of their timorous votaries. They practised their rites in dark groves or other secret recesses; g and in order to throw a greater mystery over their religion, they communicated their doctrines only to the initiated, and strictly forbad the committing of them to writing, lest they should at any time be exposed to the examination of the profane vulgar.
Full text of "A journey to Ashango-Land : and futher penetration into equatorial Africa"
Human sacrifices were practised among them: The spoils of war were often devoted to their divinities; and they punished with the severest tortures whoever dared to secrete any part of the consecrated offering: These treasures they kept in woods and forests, secured by no other guard than the terrors of their religion; h and this steddy conquest over human avidity may be regarded as more signal than their prompting men to the most extraordinary and most violent efforts.
No idolatrous worship ever attained such an ascendant over mankind as that of the ancient Gauls and Britons; and the Romans, after their conquest, finding it impossible to reconcile those nations to the laws and institutions of their masters, while it maintained its authority, were at last obliged to abolish it by penal statutes; a violence, which had never in any other instance been practised by those tolerating conquerors. The britons had long remained in this rude but independent state, when Caesar, having over-run all Gaul by his victories, first cast his eye on their island.
He was not allured either by its riches or its renown; but being ambitious of carrying the Roman arms into a new world, then mostly unknown, he took advantage of a short interval in his Gaulic wars, and made an Edition: current; Page: [ 7 ] invasion on Britain. The natives, informed of his intention, were sensible of the unequal contest, and endeavoured to appease him by submissions, which, however, retarded not the execution of his design.
After some resistance, he landed, as is supposed, at Deal; and having obtained several advantages over the Britons and obliged them to promise hostages for their future obedience, Anno ante C. The Britons, relieved from the terror of his arms, neglected the performance of their stipulations; and that haughty conqueror resolved next summer to chastise them for this breach of treaty.
He landed with a greater force; and though he found a more regular resistance from the Britons, who had united under Cassivelaunus, one of their petty princes; he discomfited them in every action. He advanced into the country; passed the Thames in the face of the enemy; took and burned the capital of Cassivelaunus; established his ally, Mandubratius, in the sovereignty of the Trinobantes; and having obliged the inhabitants to make him new submissions, he again returned with his army into Gaul, and left the authority of the Romans more nominal than real in this island.
The civil wars, which ensued, and which prepared the way for the establishment of monarchy in Rome, saved the Britons from that yoke, which was ready to be imposed upon them. Augustus, the successor of Caesar, content with the victory obtained over the liberties of his own country, was little ambitious of acquiring fame by foreign wars; and being apprehensive lest the same unlimited extent of dominion, which had subverted the republic, might also overwhelm the empire, he recommended it to his successors never to enlarge the territories of the Romans.
Tiberius, jealous of the fame, which might be acquired by his generals, made this advice of Augustus a pretence for his inactivity. Without seeking any more justifiable reasons of hostility than were employed by the Edition: current; Page: [ 8 ] late Europeans in subjecting the Africans and Americans, A. Claudius himself, finding matters sufficiently prepared for his reception, made a journey into Britain; and received the submission of several British states, the Cantii, Atrebates, Regni, and Trinobantes, who inhabited the southeast parts of the island, and whom their possessions and more cultivated manner of life rendered willing to purchase peace at the expence of their liberty.
The other Britons, under the command of Caractacus, still maintained an obstinate resistance, and the Romans made little progress against them; till Ostorius Scapula was sent over to command their armies. This general advanced the Roman conquests over the Britons; pierced into the country of the Silures, a warlike nation, who inhabited the banks of the Severne; defeated Caractacus in a great battle; took him prisoner, and sent him to Rome, where his magnanimous behaviour procured him better treatment than those conquerors usually bestowed on captive princes.
Notwithstanding these misfortunes, the Britons were not subdued; and this island was regarded by the ambitious Romans as a field in which military honour might still be acquired. Under the reign of Nero, A. Suetonius Paulinus was invested with the command, and prepared to signalize his name by victories over those barbarians. Finding that the island of Mona, now Anglesey, was the chief seat of the Druids, he resolved to attack it, and to subject a place, which was the center of their superstition, and which afforded protection to all their baffled forces.
The Britons endeavoured to obstruct his landing on this sacred island, both by the force of their arms and the terrors of their religion. The women and priests were intermingled with the soldiers upon the shore; and running about with flaming torches in their hands, and tossing their dishevelled hair, they struck greater terror into the astonished Romans by their howlings, cries, and execrations, than the real danger from the armed forces was able to inspire. But Suetonius, exhorting his troops to despise the menaces of a superstition, which they despised, impelled them to the attack, drove the Britons off the field, Edition: current; Page: [ 9 ] burned the Druids in the same fires which those priests had prepared for their captive enemies, destroyed all the consecrated groves and altars; and, having thus triumphed over the religion of the Britons, he thought his future progress would be easy, in reducing the people to subjection.
But he was disappointed in his expectations. The Britons, taking advantage of his absence, were all in arms; and headed by Boadicea, queen of the Iceni, who had been treated in the most ignominious manner by the Roman tribunes, had already attacked with success several settlements of their insulting conquerors. Suetonius hastened to the protection of London, which was already a flourishing Roman colony; but he found on his arrival, that it would be requisite for the general safety to abandon that place to the merciless fury of the enemy.
London was reduced to ashes; such of the inhabitants as remained in it, were cruelly massacred; the Romans and all strangers, to the number of 70,, were every where put to the sword without distinction; and the Britons, by rendering the war thus bloody, seemed determined to cut off all hopes of peace or composition with the enemy. But this cruelty was revenged by Suetonius in a great and decisive battle, where 80, of the Britons are said to have perished; and Boadicea herself, rather than fall into the hands of the enraged victor, put an end to her own life by poison.
After some interval, Cerealis received the command from Vespasian, and by his bravery propagated the terror of the Roman arms. Julius Frontinus succeeded Cerealis both in authority and in reputation: But the general, who finally established the dominion of the Romans in this island, was Julius Agricola, who governed it in the reigns of Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian, and distinguished himself in that scene of action.
This great commander formed a regular plan for subduing Britain, and rendering the acquisition useful to the conquerors. He carried his victorious arms northwards, defeated the Britons in every encounter, pierced into the inaccessible forests and mountains of Caledonia, reduced every state to subjection in the southern Edition: current; Page: [ 10 ] parts of the island, and chaced before him all the men of fiercer and more intractable spirits, who deemed war and death itself less intolerable than servitude under the victors.
He even defeated them in a decisive action, which they sought under Galgacus, their leader; and having fixed a chain of garrisons, between the friths of Clyde and Forth, he thereby cut off the ruder and more barren parts of the island, and secured the Roman province from the incursions of the barbarous inhabitants. During these military enterprizes, he neglected not the arts of peace. He introduced laws and civility among the Britons, taught them to desire and raise all the conveniencies of life, reconciled them to the Roman language and manners, instructed them in letters and science, and employed every expedient to render those chains, which he had forged, both easy and agreeable to them.
This was the last durable conquest made by the Romans; and Britain, once subdued, gave no farther inquietude to the victor. Caledonia alone, defended by barren mountains, and by the contempt which the Romans entertained for it, sometimes infested the more cultivated parts of the island by the incursions of its inhabitants. The better to secure the frontiers of the empire, Adrian, who visited this island, built a rampart between the river Tyne and the frith of Solway: Lollius Urbicus, under Antoninus Pius, erected one in the place where Agricola had formerly established his garrisons: Severus, who made an expedition into Britain, and carried his arms to the most northern extremity of it, added new fortifications to the wall of Adrian; and during the reign of all the Roman emperors, such a profound tranquillity prevailed in Britain, that little mention is made of the affairs of that island by any historian.
The only incidents, which occur, are some seditions or rebellions of the Roman legions quartered there, and some usurpations of the imperial dignity by the Roman governors. The natives, disarmed, dispirited, and submissive, had left all desire and even idea of their former liberty and independence. But the period was now come, when that enormous fabric of the Roman empire, which had diffused slavery and oppression, together with peace and civility, over so considerable a part of the globe, was approaching towards its final dissolution.
Italy, and the center of the empire, removed, during so many ages, from all concern in the wars, had entirely lost the military spirit, and were peopled by an enervated race, equally disposed to submit to a foreign yoke, or to the tyranny of their own rulers. The emperors found themselves obliged to recruit their legions from the frontier provinces, where the genius of war, though languishing, was not totally extinct; and these mercenary forces, careless of laws and civil institutions, established a military government, no less dangerous to the sovereign than to the people.
The farther progress of the same disorders introduced the bordering barbarians into the service of the Romans; and those fierce nations, having now added discipline to their native bravery, could no longer be restrained by the impotent policy of the emperors, who were accustomed to employ one in the destruction of the others. Sensible of their own force, and allured by the prospect of so rich a prize, the northern barbarians, in the reign of Arcadius and Honorius, assailed at once all the frontiers of the Roman empire; and having first satiated their avidity by plunder, began to think of fixing a settlement in the wasted provinces.
The more distant barbarians, who occupied the deserted habitations of the former, advanced in their acquisitions, and pressed with their incumbent weight the Roman state, already unequal to the load which it sustained. Instead of arming the people in their own defence, the emperors recalled all the distant legions, in whom alone they could repose confidence; and collected the whole military force for the defence of the capital and center of the empire. The necessity of self-preservation had superseded the ambition of power; and the ancient point of honour, never to contract the limits of the empire, could no longer be attended to in this desperate extremity.
Britain by its situation was removed from the fury of these barbarous incursions; and being also a remote province, not much valued by the Romans, the legions, which defended it, were carried over to the protection of Italy and Gaul. But that province, though secured by the sea against the inroads of the greater tribes of barbarians, found enemies on its frontiers, who took advantage of Edition: current; Page: [ 12 ] its present defenceless situation. The Picts and Scots, who dwelt in the northern parts, beyond the wall of Antoninus, made incursions upon their peaceable and effeminate neighbours; and besides the temporary depredations which they committed, these combined nations threatened the whole province with subjection, or, what the inhabitants more dreaded, with plunder and devastation.
The Picts seem to have been a tribe of the native British race, who, having been chaced into the northern parts by the conquests of Agricola, had there intermingled with the ancient inhabitants: The Scots were derived from the same Celtic origin, had first been established in Ireland, had migrated to the north-west coasts of this island, and had long been accustomed, as well from their old as their new feats, to infest the Roman province by pyracy and rapine. NOTE [A] These tribes, finding their more opulent neighbours exposed to invasion, soon broke over the Roman wall, no longer defended by the Roman arms; and though a contemptible enemy in themselves, met with no resistance from the unwarlike inhabitants.
The Britons, accustomed to have recourse to the emperors for defence as well as government, made supplications to Rome; and one legion was sent over for their protection. This force was an over-match for the barbarians, repelled their invasion, routed them in every engagement, and having chaced them into their ancient limits, returned in triumph to the defence of the southern provinces of the empire. The Britons made again an application to Rome, and again obtained the assistance of a legion, which proved effectual for their relief: But the Romans, reduced to extremities at home, and fatigued with those distant expeditions, informed the Britons that they must no longer look to them for succour, exhorted them to arm in their own defence, and urged, that, as they were now their own masters, it became them to protect by their valour that independence, which their ancient lords had conferred upon them.
The abject britons regarded this present of liberty as fatal to them; and were in no condition to put in practice the prudent counsel given them by the Romans, to arm in their own defence. Unaccustomed both to the perils of war, and to the cares of civil government, they found themselves incapable of forming or executing any measures for resisting the incursions of the barbarians. Gratian also and Constantine, two Romans who had a little before assumed the purple in Britain, had carried over to the continent the flower of the British youth; and having perished in their unsuccessful attempts on the imperial throne, had despoiled the island of those, who, in this desperate extremity, were best able to defend it.
The Picts and Scots, finding that the Romans had finally relinquished Britain, now regarded the whole as their prey, and attacked the northern wall with redoubled forces. The Britons, already subdued by their own fears, found the ramparts but a weak defence for them; and deserting their station, left the country entirely open to the inroads of the barbarous enemy.
The invaders carried devastation and ruin along with them; and exerted to the utmost their native ferocity, which was not mitigated by the helpless condition and submissive behaviour of the inhabitants. Aetius, the patrician, sustained, at that time, by his valour and magnanimity, the towering ruins of the empire, and revived for a moment among the degenerate Romans the spirit, as well as discipline, of their ancestors.
The British ambassadors carried to him the letter of their countrymen, which was inscribed, The Groans of the Britons. The tenor of the epistle was suitable to its superscription. The barbarians, say they, on the one hand, chace us into the Edition: current; Page: [ 14 ] sea; the sea, on the other, throws us back upon the barbarians; and we have only the hard choice left us, of perishing by the sword or by the waves. The barbarians themselves began to feel the pressures of famine in a country which they had ravaged; and being harassed by the dispersed Britons, who had not dared to resist them in a body, they retreated with their spoils into their own country.
The Britons, taking advantage of this interval, returned to their usual occupations; and the favourable seasons which succeeded, seconding their industry, made them soon forget their past miseries, and restored to them great plenty of all the necessaries of life. No more can be imagined to have been possessed by a people so rude, who had not, without the assistance of the Romans, art of masonry sufficient to raise a stone rampart for their own defence: Yet the Monkish historians, x who treat of those events, complain of the luxury of the Britons during this period, and ascribe to that vice, not to their cowardice or improvident counsels, all their subsequent calamities.
The Britons, entirely occupied in the enjoyment of the present interval of peace, made no provision for resisting the enemy, who, invited by their former timid behaviour, soon threatened them with a new invasion. We are not exactly informed what species of civil government the Romans on their departure had left among the Britons; but it appears probable, that the great men in the different districts assumed a kind of regal, though precarious authority; and lived in a great measure independant of each other. Of all the barbarous nations , known either in ancient or modern times, the Germans seem to have been the most distinguished both by their manners and political institutions, and to have carried to the highest pitch the virtues of valour and love of liberty; the only virtues which can have place among an uncivilized people, where justice and humanity are commonly neglected.
Kingly government, even when established among the Germans, for it was not universal possessed a very limited authority; and though the sovereign was usually chosen from among the royal family, he was directed in every measure by the common consent of the nation, over whom he presided. When any important affairs were transacted, all the warriors met in arms; the men of greatest authority employed persuasion to engage their consent; the people expressed their approbation by rattling their armour, or their dissent by murmurs; there was no necessity for a nice scrutiny of votes among a multitude, who were usually carried with a strong current to one side or the other; and the measure, thus suddenly chosen by general agreement, was executed with alacrity, and prosecuted with vigour.
Even in war, the princes governed more by example than by authority: But in peace, the civil union was in a great measure dissolved, and the inferior leaders administered justice, after an independant manner, each in his particular district. These were elected by the votes of the people in their great councils; and though regard was paid to nobility in the choice, their personal qualities, chiefly their valour, procured them, from the suffrages of their fellow-citizens, that honorable but dangerous distinction.
The warriors of each tribe attached Edition: current; Page: [ 16 ] themselves to their leader, with the most devoted affection and most unshaken constancy. They attended him as his ornament in peace, as his defence in war, as his council in the administration of justice. Alarm , Index of 19th Century Naval Vessels. The Albion , a tonne, 37 m long barque, was owned by Burlinson Sedman.
Hinderwell as master and Captain William Brotchie as its supercargo. Although the licence to cut spars was specifically for Vancouver Island , Brotchie decided to cut spars on the American side, at New Dungeness , in the winter of Barry M. Gough, Forests and Sea Power, 8. Alert was a Royal Navy sloop propelled by both screw and sail.
Alert was converted into a survey ship for the British arctic exploration of , and it was later used by both the United States and Canada in its capacity as an arctic vessel. Lewis and Dryden mention a collision, in June of , between the big sternwheeler Alexandria , note the alternative spelling, and the steamer Fidelater , which sank the latter vessel off Clover Point , bringing on a damage suit.
On July 3, , the British Colonist reports that the steamer Alexandra is now finally laid up by her owners till the termination of her pending lawsuit. When it was not colliding with other ships, the Alexandra could be found trading across the border in Puget Sound , where, according to this despatch from , it was embroiled in a minor legal tussle when the the owner and master of the Alexandra had been obstructed in the prosecution of Lawful Voyages, between this Port [ Victoria , presumably] and Ports on Puget Sound.
Wright, Ed. Laid Up , British Colonist , July 3, James Cooper constructed the Alice , a tonne iron schooner, from pieces he had brought from England to Vancouver Island. It carried 74 guns, was 54 m long, 15 m wide and was built at Blackwall Yard, London. The Amethyst carried 26 guns, was 40 m long, According to this private correspondence , the Amphitrite expelled a group of prospectors, of which Easterby was a member, who attempted to unlawfully mine a vein of gold the group had discovered on Haida Gwaii in It was constructed of teak at Bombay [Mumbai] and carried 24 guns, and it sailed the BC coast from under two captains, Charles Frederick and Richard Burridge.
According to this document , Arabia was a mail packet ship. It was part of the Cunard Line, as this short article, presented verbatim, from the British Colonist confirms:. Putnam, a colored Boston woman, who was badly treated on board the Europa, on the voyage to England, and wrote a letter to Samuel Cunard complaning of it, returned on the Arabia and had every comfort purchased by her passage money.
Likely, this was the Arabia constructed in , which served as a Crimean War transport. British Colonist , October 17, According to this private letter , the Archer was a British Gov[ernment] Steamer upon which Cadell had requested, from Lytton , free transport from England to Vancouver Island. In the same despatch and included documents Merivale expresses that Cadell was a restless man and that free passage on the Archer was out of the question. Archer was a screw-propulsion sloop of 14 guns, and it had a dramatic career: it was involved in a variety of naval actions, captured slaver ships, endured several cases of mass-sickness, and spent most of its time on the politically volatile west coast of Africa.
Archer, , Index of 19th Century Naval Vessels. The Assistance , a tonne discovery-class ship, was purchased in March of This private correspondence , written by Chartres Brew , describes his survival of the wreck of the Austria on Sept 13th, The Ships List notes that the Austria was destroyed by fire while at sea, with a loss of lives. The HMS Bacchante was a screw-driven steam frigate with 51 guns and a complement of sailors. This large ship, at 72 m, frequented Esquimalt in the s under the command of Captain Donald Mackenzie and it served as flagship to Maitland , commander-in-chief of the Pacific squadron from The Bacchante was launched at Portsmouth in and commissioned for service on the Pacific station on 18 April This correspondence from Newcastle to Douglas notes the absence of guns at Victoria and Esquimalt and reports that arrangements have been made for landing two 68 [pounder] Guns which may be spared from H.
Bacchante and Topaze. Bacchante , Index of 19th Century Naval Vessels. Arguably, the most famous coastal ship of its era, the Beaver was a paddlewheel steamer built in England in for the Hudson's Bay Company's trade-business in the Pacific Northwest. The Beaver arrived at Fort Vancouver on April 10th, It was sold in to a company in Victoria , who used it for barge and cargo work until it wrecked off of Prospect Point in Vancouver Harbour.
- Vessels mentioned in the documents.
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This despatch reports that the Beaver was detained by American customs officers and notes this event's effects on trade, colony morale, and US relations. This despatch , in the following year, reports that the ship was employed as part of A difficulty which nearly led to a fatal affray with the Songies Tribe.
This despatch by Douglas reports that he proceeded to Fort Langley on the Beaver , having transfered from the Satellite and Otter , respectively, to proclaim the Act of Parliament providing for the Government of British Columbia. Judith Hudson Beattie and Helen M. Buss, eds.
Scott, The Encyclopedia of Raincoast Placenames , According to this despatch , Briseis was a freight ship chartered by the British government in to carry supplies to Vancouver Island and the mainland for the Royal Engineers. An enclosure with the same notes the destruction by Fire of the Barque Briseis on 8 December Both this private correspondence and this document confirm that Briseis never made its destination: it burned at sea off the coast of Brazil, with hundreds of tonnes of uninsured supplies on board. Finally, this private correspondence mentions that Shaw, Savill and Company acted as brokers for the ill-fated Briseis.
The Brisk was a Royal Navy sloop with screw propulsion. This ship was 58 m long, 11 m wide, and carried 14 guns; it was sold into mercantile service in This despatch notes that the Brisk and two other vessels were under orders to repair to Vancouver's Island. Brother Jonathan achieved fame in its era for both celebratory and tragic reasons.
As to the former, this ship carried the official announcement to Portland that Oregon Territory had become Oregon State. It avoided an earlier and greater disaster further up the coast, named as the Commodore at the time, in which it nearly sunk with passengers on board.
In this despatch , Douglas refers to the Commodore as an American Steamer, whose purpose at the time, in , was to disembark some passengers on board, the chief part of whom [were] gold miners for the Couteau country. In the same year, this ship carried a contingent of Black travelers from San Francisco to Vancouver Island , whose purpose was to determine the island's suitability for settlement and, apparently, the reports were favourable.
The Brother Jonathan was an impressive vessel at 67 m long and 10 m wide; its paddle wheels, one each side, were nearly 11 m in diameter and driven by an engine that had cylinders of 2 m in diameter. Powers, Brother Jonathan ship. The Cadboro , also spelled Cadborough , was a 17 m long, 5 m wide schooner built in and purchased by the Hudson's Bay Company; it arrived on the Pacific Coast on April 24th, From it carried the crew of the wrecked Shark to California.
Cadboro was wrecked in on its way out of Puget Sound. The Cadboro is mentioned several times in the correspondence collection. The Calcutta was a second-rate Royal Navy wooden sailing ship of 84 guns. It was built at Bombay [Mumbai] Dockyard and was 60 m long by 16 m wide. This despatch requests that the Calypso be employed in the military response to the murder of 42 miners, at the hands of, apparently, Indigenous men, at Fraser River.
And, in another correspondence in the same year, the Calypso is ordered to Vancouver Island to re-provision the Satellite and Plumper. The Cameleon , along with the Grappler , investigated the alleged seizure of the schooner Trader by a group of Nootka First Nations and was also under orders to assess the group's threatening attitude. Marks and Harvey were on their way to Mayne Island from Waldron Island when wind blew their sloop off course to Saturna Island , where the murders took place.
The Grappler , Forward , Topaze and Devastation were among the other notable vessels involved in the search. According to the 11 May , edition of the British Colonist , the Cameleon , which was commissioned in , [was] considered by all nautical judges to be a beautiful specimen of her class. Akrigg and H. The Captain Cook was a Bombay-built copper-hulled snow, a type of brig, of tonnes. The expedition, which sailed out of India in , was plagued with problems.
From May 18th to the 26th of that year, Cecil visited Mitchell Inlet in a quest for gold but met with no success. The Chatham was a survey brig, built in Dover, England, in Chatham , Ships of the Old Navy. Davis lists Clio as a corvette class, screw-driven ship of 21 guns, with a length of 61 m and a displacement of 2, tonnes. Clio served twice on the British Columbia coast, the first from under the command of Captain Thomas Miller and the second from , under the command of Captian Nicholas Turnour.
Clio is mentioned in several correspondence, including this despatch from , in which Newcastle reports that Her Majesty's Government have ordered the Topaze and Clio to join the Squadron on the North West Coast of America. The Clio went on to serve at the Australian Station from , then it returned to the Wales coast to serve as a training vessel; in , it was broken up for scrap at Bangor. According to this despatch , the barque Colinda , owned by Mr.
This same despatch reports that off the coast of Chile, the passengers of Colinda incited a mutiny and forced Captain John Powell Mills to anchor at the Port of Valdivia , and that the passengers were tried at Valparaiso and acquitted based on lack of evidence. Apparently, they remained in Chile and refused to continue on under the command of Mills. This despatch , by Douglas , describes the mutiny. Moreover, Mills refused to pay the HBC in full for the undelivered goods and was arrested upon landing at Victoria.
Colinda eventually returned to London under the command of James M. He claims that Governor Douglas seized the Colinda in the Queen s Name and converted [the ship] into a brothel for prostitutes and drunkards. The Collingwood was a Royal Navy third-rate sailing ship. Both this document and this despatch mention the Collingwood , and refer to its anchorage in Valparaiso. The bark Columbia was an HBC ship of tonnes, 6 guns, and 24 crew. An despatch notes that the Columbia arrived in Victoria , from San Francisco , with reinforcements of Troops with munitions of War, in answer, presumably, to ongoing conflicts with Indigenous groups.
The Constance was a fourth-rate sailing ship of the Royal Navy. Constance is mentioned in these extracts , which are not transcribed, in reference to letters received from Captain Courtney , who was apparently on board HMS Constance at sea. In , with the gold rush in full swing, Grove brought the Constitution to Puget Sound , to use on the Fraser River route until the gold fever abated; after which, Grove sold the Constitution , and its new owner converted it to a barkentine for use in the Puget Sound lumber trade.
Hunt in ; 5 however, on May 20th, , the British Colonist reports the arrival of the Steamer Constitution from Puget Sound , from which it had brought 70 head of cattle. Wright, ed. The Constitution, British Colonist , May 20, HMS Cormorant was a diminutive warship, relatively speaking, at tonnes, 6 guns, and complement of men; 1 it was 52 m long and 11m wide. The Cormorant is mentioned in several correspondence. Garnham on 14 September According to this document from , Daedalus carried then-Governor of Vancouver Island Blanshard to Fort Rupert in search of four Indigenous men accused of murdering three British seamen.
The inhabitants of the camp fled before it was burned to the ground; it is unclear as to whether or not the murderers were ever apprehended. The Daedalus is mentioned in several despatches , mostly in The Daphne is mentioned in multiple despatches , mostly in and Decatur , spelled Decator in this despatch , was a sloop of war of the US Navy.
Staines notes that the ship sailed to Haida Gwaii in in search of gold; it did not stay long, as it was warned off by a letter that Captain Mitchell of the Una had left behind, presumably with a group of Haida people, who supposed it to be a letter of recommendation. Staines mentions that once the ship returned to Puget Sound it was charted as a Revenue Vessel by the U. The Devastation , launched in , was a steam-driven paddle-wheel sloop that measured 55 m long and 11 m wide.
Pike , it was involved in several missions on the coast of Vancouver Island and mainland British Columbia , which, among other duties, inluded sea-traffic checks near Nanaimo and the protection of British interests in Sitka Sound and the Stikine River region. In , the Devastation investigated the suspicious death of colonial agent Banfield at Barkley Sound , who was reported as drowned in October of The Devastation was broken up in The Discovery , which possessed 10 swivel guns, 10 four-pound guns, and a crew of men, spent three years on the Northwest coast before it returned to England.
The Discovery spent the remainder of its service as a bomb vessel, an army hospital ship, and, finally, as a convict hulk, before it was dismantled in Driver is mentioned in several despatches. The Dryad was a tonne brig, launched in and purchased in by the HBC, who employed it as a trade-vessel in the Pacific Northwest until it was sold in In the Dryad arrived at the mouth of the Stikine River under the command of Ogden , who intended to erect an HBC trading fort; 2 however, the Russians had already hurriedly erected Fort St.
Dionysius and claimed that the surrounding territory was off-limits to the HBC, despite the Convention of , which gave the British the right to access the Stikine.
The Akriggs state that before Ogden departed the site of old Fort Simpson he and his crew experienced hostilities with the First Nations people of the area; Ogden took two Aboriginal hostages aboard the Dryad until all HBC men were safely aboard the vessel. James R. N , HMS Surprise. The Eliza Anderson was in continual service for 10 years, and monopolized the Victoria and Puget Sound routes. The Olympia took over the Eliza Anderson 's routes in , but the Eliza Anderson continued to run as a spare vessel until From to the Eliza Anderson was laid up, and eventually sank while at a dock in Seattle ; however, it would be later refitted and used on the New Westminster - Seattle route.
Singular Coincidence , British Colonist , April 20, According to this document , England was a vessel from Liverpool and commanded by a Captain Brown. This document notes that the deserters were eventually caught and murdered by natives of the northern part of Vancouver's Island , who, according to this document , had been mistakenly told by George Blenkinsop that there would be a reward for the white mens[sic] heads. The vessel and party were sent as a police force, and, according to Lillard, by the late summer the Enterprise accessed Sooke Inlet with approximately commuters a day.
According to this private correspondence , Euphrates was a freight ship chartered by the British government in to carry men of the Royal Engineers and supplies to Vancouver Island and the mainland. As indicated in this document , Shaw, Savill and Company acted as brokers for Euphrates. On June 27, , the British Colonist reports that The Bark Euphrates arrived in Esquimalt , from London , and that during the day voyage, one Edward Ellingfield of Yarmouth was lost overboard, despite efforts to save him with Hen-coops.
According to this document , the Europa was a British contract packet. Akrigg and Akrigg note that in May of the Europa had been at the mouth of the Nass River , trading blankets, rum, and tobacco for beaver skins. According to this private correspondence , Exact was a US vessel. It sailed to Haida Gwaii in December in search of gold. It was presumed shipwrecked by Thomas Boys , from the evidence of pieces of a vessel that were found on the southwest side of Vancouver Island.
It is not clear from the despatches if it did, in fact, flounder. The Experiment was a Bombay-built copper-hulled snow, a type of brig, that weighed tonnes. The expedition, which departed from India in , was plagued with problems. The expedition was considered a financial disaster. According to this private correspondence , the Firwood was a screw steamer, dispatched in September , to transport passengers and trade from San Francisco to Victoria , and further up the Fraser River.
Its presence, as a British-operated vessel, appears to have been necessitated by the number of competing American ships that were running the same route. According to a despatch sent by the officers in charge of Fort Victoria , the Fisgard anchored in the waters before the Fort in May of , with orders to remain on the coast until relieved. This imposing multi-gun vessel contributed to a growing British military presence on the coast at the time. The Flying Dutchman was a steamship built in Victoria in ; it was 28 m long and 5.
In this despatch from September of , Douglas reports on the ship's historic voyage: Steamer Flying Dutchman, lately employed in Fraser River , is now plying on the Stickeen , and has successfully accomplished its ascent to the distance of miles from the sea. Douglas adds that her enterprising owner intends to push on to about miles, to reach the Upper Narrows. The Flying Dutchman was broken up in John M. HMS Forward was a 4 gun, British-screw steam-vessel that, according to this despatch , was stationed on the Victoria and San Francisco route prior to The owners of the Forward were hoping to obtain the mail contract between Victoria and San Francisco , but the ship was withdrawn in , due to its inability to compete with the Pacific Mail Steam Ship Company.
It appears that, from this document , and another , the Forward was converted to a gunboat. Forward and its sister-ship, Grappler , were converted for the sole purpose of duty on the Northwest coast and each had a crew of 40 men.
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Forward , Index of 19th Century Naval Vessels. HMS Ganges was the the last sailing ship-of-the-line that the Royal Navy would ever commission to service abroad, and a transcribed minute in this despatch from notes that Ad. Baines would himself leave Callao for Vancouver [Island] the 28th of August in his Flag ship the Ganges , to bolster all adequate naval support to that important part of H. Ganges , launched in , was the first ship built in the Ganges , or Formidable , class of vessels. The Ganges was roughly 60 m long, carried 84 guns and men, and while it was in the Salish Sea it helped comprise a formidable British naval presence, which is illustrated in the minutes of this despatch from 8 August John T.
Georgianna sailed to Haida Gwaii in in search of gold. It was wrecked on the East side of Haida Gwaii and the crew were held by the Indigenous people. According to Scott, Captain Balch , with the Demaris Cove , managed to safely ransom all the detainees. According to various despatches from , the Gomelza transported books and documents between the colonial Government in British Columbia and London. Grappler was a 3-gun gunboat built in ; it arrived in Esquimalt from England, along with the Forward and the Termagant , on 12 July , with Lieutenant Commander Alfred Herby at its helm.
Grappler operated on the British Columbia coast from , until it was sold at public auction and then converted into a freighter, whereafter, it sailed under several owners for the following 15 years. Prior to its conversion and sale, Grappler had a rather storied history in the Salish Sea. It was involved in the Admiralty's efforts to, as this document puts it, prevent the illicit traffic in spirits on the East Coast of Vancouver Island , particularly for the Indigenous population, who had, according to the same correspondence, committed outrages on White Men.
A later despatch , from , notes the Grappler 's alleged illegal seizure of a vessel suspected of smuggling. Drama and controversy followed Grappler to its fiery fate on 29 April , when it burned on route up the eastern coast of the Island and, according to Walbran's account, lost a large number of persons, said to be seventy-two, principally Chinese passengers on their way to the canneries. Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names , They offered to bring British troops to Vancouver Island in , an offer which the Admiralty declined.
According to this despatch , the Grecian was a British bark tasked with transporting lighthouse apparatus from London to Vancouver Island , in order to construct lighthouses in the Juan de Fuca Strait. In the August 7th, edition of the British Colonist , the editor notes that when the ship arrived at Victoria the passengers and crew [spoke] in the severest terms of the conduct of captain Miller during the voyage. It arrived in Victoria in carrying labourers, miners, carpenters, bakers, and men recruited by Captain Grant. Hecate was a 50 m long, 11 m wide, paddle-wheel sloop armed with four guns; it was launched on 30 March, Hecate ran aground in , near Cape Flattery , and was, eventually, and after several repair stops along the way, relocated to England by , where it would be decommissioned the following year.
Inconstant, , Index of 19th Century Naval Vessels. Charles T. The January 28, edition of the Colonist mentions that the Hope served as a hotel at Wrangel when, during a storm on the 14th of January, it was washed from the beach up on the hill side, going through several houses and making the occupants scatter very quickly. Up River News. Sitka and Cassiar. Auction Sale. In June of the Imperial Eagle reached Nootka Sound ; Barkley was fortunate to find John Mackay, who shared with Barkley his geographic knowledge of Vancouver Island , as well as his knowledge of the Nuu-chah-nulth people, with whom Barkley wished to trade.
Barkley then re-discovered what is now Juan de Fuca Strait. A transcribed enclosure in this document notes that the Inconstant 's captain at the time, John Shepherd , refused passage to disgruntled HBC employees, who were dissatisfied about the absence of their Employer, and wanted to, in the character of Distressed British subjects, make for San Francisco. Its home port was Olympia. On February 4th, , the John Bright sailed out of Admiralty Inlet with a cargo of lumber and struck a reef near Estevan Point while caught in a gale.
The master of the schooner Surprise—not to be confused with the side-wheel steamer Surprise —carried news of the act back to Victoria , where the local newspapers and public opinion demanded retribution. Stephens was 84 m long and apparently named for one of founders of the Panama Rail-Road. It was placed on the Panama to San Francisco run, arriving in San Francisco on 3 April , where it remained in this service until October According to this Public Offices document and the attached minutes and documents, the John Stephenson was a vessel that, for a brief period, was believed to have gone missing while en route from London to Vancouver Island ; however, the vessel did eventually arrive.
In August , a group of 10 Ahousat First Nations individuals allegedly pillaged and [burned] the Kingfisher , a sloop involved in seal oil trade near the mouth of Matilda Creek , and murdered its crew. However, Chief Justice David Cameron acquitted the individuals arrested because he believed that he was not able to use the testimony of First Nations witnesses. By , it had arrived on the coast and began work as a trade vessel, and it was a skookum craft, indeed, built of Baltic oak and teak, and, no doubt, imposing at over 61 m in length.
Greater drama precluded the Labouchere 's demise. It was refit in , at considerable cost, for mail service between Vancouver Island and San Francisco , but on its first run it ran onto a reef in a fog near San Francisco. The British Colonist reported that Eliza brought news of the total loss of the steamer Labouchere to Victoria in April of , which, the paper adds, is an announcement not so melancholy in its nature or so important to the interests of mankind as this same ship's news that President Lincoln had been assassinated.
According to Douglas writing in this document in , We arrived at Port Anderson just in time to participate in the trial trip of the Lady of the Lake Steamer, and a most successful one it proved to be: the machinery working well, and no casualty whatever occurring to cause delay. This despatch reports that the La Plata is to be detained until the arrival of the Queen's Messenger from Osborne, at the behest of Lytton. And, another despatch, in an enclosure, suggests that the La Plata was commanded at the time by one Captain Meller , who appears as one node in a web of communications critical to the conveyance of the Royal Engineers to the Vancouver Island.
Lord Western was a British Barque of tonnes. This despatch , from , describes in detail the Lord Western 's ordeal and demise. Barrie H. Brew and eleven other passengers, who wanted to proceed quickly to North America, were given passage by Captain Trefry of the Lotus.
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