Treatise on Grace


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Chapter 1 [I.]— The Occasion and Argument of This Work.

As far as the Lord shall assist you, understand it, and commit it to memory. In this work you will see how he so appeals to the free will of those whom he edifies in his treatise, as to show them, that whatever they have to fulfil in the law, they must ask for in the prayer. But this, of course, would be utterly empty if the human will were sufficient for the performance without the help of God.


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It has, however, been shown to demonstration that instead of really maintaining free will , they have only inflated a theory of it, which, having no stability, has fallen to the ground. Neither the knowledge of God's law, nor nature, nor the mere remission of sins is that grace which is given to us through our Lord Jesus Christ ; but it is this very grace which accomplishes the fulfilment of the law, and the liberation of nature, and the removal of the dominion of sin.

Being, therefore, convicted on these points, they resort to another expedient, and endeavour to show in some way or other that the grace of God is given us according to our merits. For they say: Granted that it is not given to us according to the merits of good works, inasmuch as it is through it that we do any good thing, still it is given to us according to the merits of a good will; for, say they, the good will of him who prays precedes his prayer , even as the will of the believer preceded his faith , so that according to these merits the grace of God who hears, follows.

I have already discussed the point concerning faith , that is, concerning the will of him who believes, even so far as to show that it appertains to grace — so that the apostle did not tell us, I have obtained mercy because I was faithful; but he said, I have obtained mercy in order to be faithful. For how, says he, shall they call upon Him in whom they have not believed? On this account the apostle himself constantly puts faith before the law; since we are not able to do what the law commands unless we obtain the strength to do it by the prayer of faith.

Now if faith is simply of free will , and is not given by God , why do we pray for those who will not believe , that they may believe? This it would be absolutely useless to do, unless we believe , with perfect propriety, that Almighty God is able to turn to belief wills that are perverse and opposed to faith. Man's free will is addressed when it is said, Today, if you will hear His voice, harden not your hearts.

But if God were not able to remove from the human heart even its obstinacy and hardness, He would not say, through the prophet , I will take from them their heart of stone, and will give them a heart of flesh. For this is what is said by the prophet Ezekiel: I will give them another heart, and I will put a new spirit within you; and I will take the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them a heart of flesh; that they may walk in my statutes, and keep mine ordinances, and do them: and they shall be my people, and I will be their God , says the Lord. For where a good will precedes, there is, of course, no longer a heart of stone.

In another passage, also, by the same prophet , God , in the clearest language, shows us that it is not owing to any good merits on the part of men , but for His own name's sake, that He does these things. This is His language: This I do, O house of Israel , but for mine holy name's sake, which you have profaned among the heathen , whither ye went. And I will sanctify my great name, which was profaned among the heathen , which you have profaned in the midst of them; and the heathen shall know that I am the Lord, says the Lord God , when I shall be sanctified in you before their eyes.

For I will take you from among the heathen , and gather you out of all countries, and will bring you into your own land. Then will I sprinkle you with clean water, and you shall be clean: from all your own filthiness, and from all your idols will I cleanse you. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you; and the stony heart shall be taken away out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh.

And I will put my Spirit within you, and will cause you to walk in my statutes, and you shall keep my judgments, and do them. Now why did He say It is I that do it, but for my holy name's sake, were it not that they should not think that it was owing to their own good merits that these things were happening, as the Pelagians hesitate not unblushingly to say? But there were not only no good merits of theirs, but the Lord shows that evil ones actually preceded; for He says, But for my holy name's sake, which you have profaned among the heathen.

Who can fail to observe how dreadful is the evil of profaning the Lord's own holy name? And yet, for the sake of this very name of mine, says He, which you have profaned, I, even I, will make you good, but not for your own sakes; and, as He adds, I will sanctify my great name, which was profaned among the heathen , which you have profaned in the midst of them. He says that He sanctifies His name, which He had already declared to be holy. Therefore, this is just what we pray for in the Lord's Prayer — Hallowed be Your name.

We ask for the hallowing among men of that which is in itself undoubtedly always holy. Then it follows, And the heathen shall know that I am the Lord, says the Lord God , when I shall be sanctified in you. Although, then, He is Himself always holy , He is, nevertheless, sanctified in those on whom He bestows His grace , by taking from them that stony heart by which they profaned the name of the Lord. Lest, however, it should be thought that men themselves in this matter do nothing by free will , it is said in the Psalm, Harden not your hearts; and in Ezekiel himself, Cast away from you all your transgressions, which you have impiously committed against me; and make you a new heart and a new spirit; and keep all my commandments.

For why will you die, O house of Israel , says the Lord?

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For I have no pleasure in the death of him that dies, says the Lord God: and turn ye, and live. We should remember that He says, Cast away from you all your transgressions, when it is even He who justifies the ungodly. We should remember that He says, Make you a new heart and a new spirit, who also promises, I will give you a new heart, and a new spirit will I put within you.

Why does He command, if He is to give? Why does He give if man is to make, except it be that He gives what He commands when He helps him to obey whom He commands? There is, however, always within us a free will — but it is not always good; for it is either free from righteousness when it serves sin — and then it is evil — or else it is free from sin when it serves righteousness — and then it is good.

But the grace of God is always good; and by it it comes to pass that a man is of a good will, though he was before of an evil one. By it also it comes to pass that the very good will, which has now begun to be, is enlarged, and made so great that it is able to fulfil the divine commandments which it shall wish, when it shall once firmly and perfectly wish. And thus, indeed, he receives assistance to perform what he is commanded. Then is the will of use when we have ability; just as ability is also then of use when we have the will.

For what does it profit us if we will what we are unable to do, or else do not will what we are able to do? The Pelagians think that they know something great when they assert that God would not command what He knew could not be done by man. Who can be ignorant of this? But God commands some things which we cannot do, in order that we may know what we ought to ask of Him. For this is faith itself, which obtains by prayer what the law commands. He, indeed, who said, If you will, you shall keep the commandments, did in the same book of Ecclesiasticus afterwards say, Who shall give a watch before my mouth, and a seal of wisdom upon my lips, that I fall not suddenly thereby, and that my tongue destroy me not.

Forasmuch, then, as what he said is true : If you will, you shall keep the commandments, why does he want a watch to be given before his mouth, like him who says in the Psalm, Set a watch, O Lord, before my mouth? Why is he not satisfied with God's commandment and his own will; since, if he has the will, he shall keep the commandments?

How many of God's commandments are directed against pride! He is quite aware of them; if he will, he may keep them. Why, therefore, does he shortly afterwards say, O God , Father and God of my life, give me not a proud look? Why, therefore, does he afterwards say, Turn away from me concupiscence? Let a man observe them; because, if he will, he may keep the commandments. But what means that cry to God , Let not the greediness of the belly nor lust of the flesh take hold on me!

For it is certain that we keep the commandments if we will; but because the will is prepared by the Lord, we must ask of Him for such a force of will as suffices to make us act by the willing. It is certain that it is we that will when we will, but it is He who makes us will what is good , of whom it is said as he has just now expressed it , The will is prepared by the Lord. Of the same Lord again it is said, It is God who works in you, even to will! And what does this promise amount to but this: I will remove your hard heart, out of which you did not act, and I will give you an obedient heart, out of which you shall act?

It is He who causes us to act, to whom the human suppliant says, Set a watch, O Lord, before my mouth. That is to say: Make or enable me, O Lord, to set a watch before my mouth — a benefit which he had already obtained from God who thus described its influence: I set a watch upon my mouth. He, therefore, who wishes to do God's commandment, but is unable, already possesses a good will, but as yet a small and weak one; he will, however, become able when he shall have acquired a great and robust will.

When the martyrs did the great commandments which they obeyed , they acted by a great will, — that is, with great love. Of this love the Lord Himself thus speaks: Greater love has no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends. For this: You shall not commit adultery , You shall not kill, You shall not steal , You shall not covet ; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, You shall love your neighbour as yourself. And who was it that had begun to give him his love , however small, but He who prepares the will, and perfects by His co-operation what He initiates by His operation?

Forasmuch as in beginning He works in us that we may have the will, and in perfecting works with us when we have the will. On which account the apostle says, I am confident of this very thing, that He which has begun a good work in you will perform it until the day of Jesus Christ. We can, however, ourselves do nothing to effect good works of piety without Him either working that we may will, or co-working when we will. Now, concerning His working that we may will, it is said: It is God which works in you, even to will.

What does this phrase, all things, mean, but the terrible and cruel sufferings which affect our condition?


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That burden, indeed, of Christ , which is heavy for our infirmity, becomes light to love. This charity, that is, this will glowing with intensest love , the apostle eulogizes with these words: Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution , or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or the sword? As it is written, For Your sake we are killed all the day long; we are accounted as sheep for the slaughter. Nay, in all these things we are more than conquerors, through Him that loved us.

For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels , nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God , which is in Christ Jesus our Lord. Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels , and have not love , I have become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. And though I have the gift of prophecy , and understand all mysteries , and all knowledge ; and though I have all faith , so that I could remove mountains, and have not love , I am nothing.

And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor , and though I give my body to be burned, and have not love , it profits me nothing. Love suffers long, and is kind; love envies not; love vaunts not itself, is not puffed up, does not behave itself unseemly, seeks not her own, is not easily provoked, thinks no evil ; rejoices not in iniquity, but rejoices in the truth ; bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things.

Love never fails. And a little afterwards he says, And now abides faith , hope, love , these three; but the greatest of these is love. Follow after love. He also says to the Galatians, For, brethren, you have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another.

For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this, You shall love your neighbour as yourself. This is the same in effect as what he writes to the Romans: He that loves another has fulfilled the law. Accordingly, in another passage, after saying, Warn them that are unruly, comfort the feeble-minded, support the weak, be patient toward all men , he immediately added, See that none render evil for evil unto any man. However, what but love works all these things? The Apostle Peter, likewise, says, And, above all things, have fervent love among yourselves: for love shall cover the multitude of sins.

Moreover, the Lord Jesus Himself teaches us that the whole law and the prophets hang upon the two precepts of love to God and love to our neighbour. Concerning these two commandments the following is written in the Gospel according to St. Mark: And one of the scribes came, and having heard them reasoning together, and perceiving that He had answered them well, asked Him: Which is the first commandment of all?

Article 2. Whether man can wish or do any good without grace?

The Lord our God is one Lord; and you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul , and with all your mind , and with all your strength. And the second is like it: You shall love your neighbour as yourself. John, He says, A new commandment I give unto you, that you love one another; as I have loved you, that you also love one another. By this shall all men know that you are my disciples , if you have love to one another. All these commandments, however, respecting love or charity which are so great, and such that whatever action a man may think he does well is by no means well done if done without love would be given to men in vain if they had not free choice of will.

But forasmuch as these precepts are given in the law, both old and new although in the new came the grace which was promised in the old, but the law without grace is the letter which kills, but in grace the Spirit which gives life , from what source is there in men the love of God and of one's neighbour but from God Himself? For indeed, if it be not of God but of men , the Pelagians have gained the victory; but if it come from God , then we have vanquished the Pelagians. Let, then, the Apostle John sit in judgment between us; and let him say to us, Beloved, let us love one another.

Wherefore, then, is it said, Let us love one another, for love is of God , unless it be as a precept to our free will , admonishing it to seek the gift of God? Now, this would be indeed a thoroughly fruitless admonition if the will did not previously receive some donation of love , which might seek to be enlarged so as to fulfil whatever command was laid upon it.

When it is said, Let us love one another, it is law; when it is said, For love is of God , it is grace. For God's wisdom carries law and mercy upon her tongue. Let no one, then, deceive you, my brethren, for we should not love God unless He first loved us. John again gives us the plainest proof of this when he says, We love Him because He first loved us.

And nothing else than this is shown us by the words of our Lord when He says to His disciples , You have not chosen me, but I have chosen you. He, however, who is the Truth says otherwise, and flatly contradicts this vain conceit of men. You have not chosen me, He says. If, therefore, you have not chosen me, undoubtedly you have not loved me for how could they choose one whom they did not love? But I, says He, have chosen you. And then could they possibly help choosing Him afterwards, and preferring Him to all the blessings of this world?

But it was because they had been chosen, that they chose Him; not because they chose Him that they were chosen. There could be no merit in men's choice of Christ , if it were not that God's grace was prevenient in His choosing them. Whence the Apostle Paul pronounces in the Thessalonians this benediction: The Lord make you to increase and abound in love one toward another, and toward all men.

Then, in another passage addressed to the same church, seeing that there now existed in some of its members the disposition which he had wished them to cultivate, he says, We are bound to thank God always for you, brethren, as it is meet, because that your faith grows exceedingly, and the charity of every one of you all toward each other abounds.

Because, then, your faith has so great a growth this is the purport of his words , and the love of every one of you all toward each other so greatly abounds, we ought to thank God concerning you, but not to praise you, as if you possessed these gifts of yourselves. The apostle also says to Timothy, For God has not given to us the spirit of fear , but of power, and of love , and of a sound mind. And of this spirit the same Apostle Paul discourses to the Romans: We glory in tribulations, knowing that tribulation works patience; and patience, experience; and experience, hope; and hope makes not ashamed; because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost , which is given unto us.

Not by ourselves, therefore, but by the Holy Ghost which is given to us, does it come to pass that, through that very love , which he shows us to be the gift of God , tribulation does not do away with patience, but rather produces it. Again, he says to the Ephesians, Peace be to the brethren, and love with faith. Let him tell us, however, whence they come.

It is no wonder that light shines in darkness, and the darkness comprehends it not. Now, if they only possessed the true , that is, Christian love , they would also know whence they obtained possession of it; even as the apostle knew when he said, But we have received not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit which is of God , that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God.

And although they allow that we have the knowledge of the law from God , they will yet have it that love is from our very selves. Nor do they listen to the apostle when he says, Knowledge puffs up, but love edifies. For love envies not, vaunts not itself, is not puffed up. I think I have now discussed the point fully enough in opposition to those who vehemently oppose the grace of God , by which, however, the human will is not taken away, but changed from bad to good, and assisted when it is good. I think, too, that I have so discussed the subject, that it is not so much I myself as the inspired Scripture which has spoken to you, in the clearest testimonies of truth ; and if this divine record be looked into carefully, it shows us that not only men's good wills, which God Himself converts from bad ones, and, when converted by Him, directs to good actions and to eternal life, but also those which follow the world are so entirely at the disposal of God , that He turns them wherever He wills, and whenever He wills, — to bestow kindness on some, and to heap punishment on others, as He Himself judges right by a counsel most secret to Himself, indeed, but beyond all doubt most righteous.

What is the meaning of, They shall not be able to stand? Now, why did they not stand by free will , but, with a will perplexed by fear , took to flight, were it not that God has the lordship even over men's wills, and when He is angry turns to fear whomsoever He pleases? Was it not of their own will that the enemies of the children of Israel fought against the people of God , as led by Joshua, the son of Nun? And yet the Scripture says, It was of the Lord to harden their hearts, that they should come against Israel in battle, that they might be exterminated.

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And yet what says David, full of true , and deep, and pious wisdom? What did he say to him who wanted to smite the reviler? What, said he, have I to do with you, you sons of Zeruiah? Let him alone and let him curse, because the Lord has said to him, Curse David. Who, then, shall say, Wherefore have you done so? Let him alone, and let him curse; for the Lord has bidden him.

It may be that the Lord will look on my humiliation, and will requite me good for his cursing this day. It was not by a command that He bade him, in which case his obedience would be praiseworthy; but He inclined the man's will, which had become debased by his own perverseness, to commit this sin , by His own just and secret judgment.

Therefore it is said, The Lord said to him. Now if this person had obeyed a command of God , he would have deserved to be praised rather than punished, as we know he was afterwards punished for this sin. Nor is the reason an obscure one why the Lord told him after this manner to curse David. It may be, said the humbled king, that the Lord will look on my humiliation, and will requite me good for his cursing this day. See, then, what proof we have here that God uses the hearts of even wicked men for the praise and assistance of the good.

And how vast the blessings which from these instances He has bestowed upon the nations that should believe in Him! He also uses our worst enemy, the devil himself, but in the best way, to exercise and try the faith and piety of good men, — not for Himself indeed, who knows all things before they come to pass, but for our sakes, for whom it was necessary that such a discipline should be gone through with us.

Did not Absalom choose by his own will the counsel which was detrimental to him? And yet the reason of his doing so was that the Lord had heard his father's prayer that it might be so. Wherefore the Scripture says that the Lord appointed to defeat the good counsel of Ahithophel, to the intent that the Lord might bring all evils upon Absalom. It was in favour of the son against his father, against whom he had rebelled; and it might have crushed him, had not the Lord defeated the counsel which Ahithophel had given, by acting on the heart of Absalom so that he rejected this counsel, and chose another which was not expedient for him.

Who can help trembling at those judgments of God by which He does in the hearts of even wicked men whatsoever He wills, at the same time rendering to them according to their deeds? Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, rejected the salutary counsel of the old men, not to deal harshly with the people, and preferred listening to the words of the young men of his own age, by returning a rough answer to those to whom he should have spoken gently.

Now whence arose such conduct, except from his own will? Upon this, however, the ten tribes of Israel revolted from him, and chose for themselves another king, even Jeroboam , that the will of God in His anger might be accomplished which He had predicted would come to pass.

The king hearkened not unto the people; for the turning was from the Lord, that He might perform His saying, which the Lord spoke to Ahijah the Shilonite concerning Jeroboam the son of Nebat. Read the books of the Chronicles, and you will find the following passage in the second book: Moreover, the Lord stirred up against Jehoram the spirit of the Philistines , and of the Arabians, that were neighbours to the Ethiopians ; and they came up to the land of Judah, and ravaged it, and carried away all the substance which was found in the king's house.

Still, did these Philistines and Arabians invade the land of Judah to waste it with no will of their own? Or were their movements so directed by their own will that the Scripture lies which tells us that the Lord stirred up their spirit to do all this? Both statements to be sure are true , because they both came by their own will, and yet the Lord stirred up their spirit; and this may also with equal truth be stated the other way: The Lord both stirred up their spirit, and yet they came of their own will. For the Almighty sets in motion even in the innermost hearts of men the movement of their will, so that He does through their agency whatsoever He wishes to perform through them — even He who knows not how to will anything in unrighteousness.

What, again, is the purport of that which the man of God said to King Amaziah: Let not the army of Israel go with you; for the Lord is not with Israel , even with all the children of Ephraim: for if you shall think to obtain with these, the Lord shall put you to flight before your enemies: for God has power either to strengthen or to put to flight? We read also what Joash, king of Israel , said when he sent a message to Amaziah, king of Judah, who wanted to fight with him.

After certain other words, he added, Now tarry at home; why do you challenge me to your hurt, that you should fall, even you, and Judah with you? God says by the prophet Ezekiel, If the prophet be deceived when he has spoken a thing, I the Lord have deceived that prophet : I will stretch out my hand upon him, and will destroy him from the midst of my people Israel. In this book it is written, that, being driven by necessity to interpose in behalf of her people, whom the king had ordered to be slain in every part of his dominions, she prayed to the Lord.

So strongly was she urged by the necessity of the case, that she even ventured into the royal presence without the king's command, and contrary to her own custom. Now observe what the Scripture says: He looked at her like a bull in the vehemence of his indignation; and the queen was afraid, and her color changed as she fainted; and she bowed herself upon the head of her delicate maiden which went before her.

But God turned the king, and transformed his indignation into gentleness. The Scripture says in the Proverbs of Solomon, Even as the rush of water, so is the heart of a king in God's hand; He will turn it in whatever way He shall choose. Observe, likewise, what is written in the letters of the apostles. From these statements of the inspired word, and from similar passages which it would take too long to quote in full, it is, I think, sufficiently clear that God works in the hearts of men to incline their wills wherever He wills, whether to good deeds according to His mercy, or to evil after their own deserts; His own judgment being sometimes manifest, sometimes secret, but always righteous.

This ought to be the fixed and immoveable conviction of your heart, that there is no unrighteousness with God. Therefore, whenever you read in the Scriptures of Truth, that men are led aside, or that their hearts are blunted and hardened by God , never doubt that some ill deserts of their own have first occurred, so that they justly suffer these things.

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Thus you will not run counter to that proverb of Solomon: The foolishness of a man perverts his ways, yet he blames God in his heart. Now if God is able, either through the agency of angels whether good ones or evil , or in any other way whatever, to operate in the hearts even of the wicked , in return for their deserts, — whose wickedness was not made by Him, but was either derived originally from Adam, or increased by their own will, — what is there to wonder at if, through the Holy Spirit , He works good in the hearts of the elect , who has wrought it that their hearts become good instead of evil?

Men, however, may suppose that there are certain good deserts which they think are precedent to justification through God's grace ; all the while failing to see, when they express such an opinion, that they do nothing else than deny grace. But, as I have already remarked, let them suppose what they like respecting the case of adults, in the case of infants, at any rate, the Pelagians find no means of answering the difficulty.

For these in receiving grace have no will; from the influence of which they can pretend to any precedent merit. We see, moreover, how they cry and struggle when they are baptized , and feel the divine sacraments. Such conduct would, of course, be charged against them as a great impiety, if they already had free will in use; and notwithstanding this, grace cleaves to them even in their resisting struggles. But most certainly there is no prevenient merit, otherwise the grace would be no longer grace. Sometimes, too, this grace is bestowed upon the children of unbelievers, when they happen by some means or other to fall, by reason of God's secret providence , into the hands of pious persons ; but, on the other hand, the children of believers fail to obtain grace , some hindrance occurring to prevent the approach of help to rescue them in their danger.

These things, no doubt , happen through the secret providence of God , whose judgments are unsearchable, and His ways past finding out. These are the words of the apostle; and you should observe what he had previously said, to lead him to add such a remark. He was discoursing about the Jews and Gentiles , when he wrote to the Romans — themselves Gentiles — to this effect: For as you, in times past, have not believed God , yet have now obtained mercy through their unbelief; even so have these also now not believed , that through your mercy they also may obtain mercy; for God has concluded them all in unbelief, that He might have mercy upon all.

How unsearchable are His judgments, and His ways past finding out! God forbid that the apostle should say so! But men, without understanding, have thought that this was in fact said, when they heard these words of the apostle: Moreover, the law entered, that the offense might abound; but where sin abounded, grace did much more abound.

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Their language, therefore, ought not to be: Let us do evil , that good may come; but: We have done evil , and good has come; let us henceforth do good, that in the future world we may receive good for good, who in the present life are receiving good for evil. When the Son of man , therefore, first came into the world, it was not to judge the world, but that the world through Him might be saved. And yet even in this present time salvation itself does not eventuate without judgment — although it be a hidden one; therefore He says, For judgment I have come into this world, that they which see not may see, and that they which see may be made blind.

For this, too, is said of him, after the removal of the fly-plague from the Egyptians , in these words of the Scripture : And Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time also; neither would he let the people go. Be then well assured that your labour will never be in vain, if, setting before you a good purpose, you persevere in it to the last. For God , who fails to render, according to their deeds , only to those whom He liberates, will then recompense every man according to his works. He will, therefore, recompense evil for evil — punishment for unrighteousness; and He will recompense good for evil — grace for unrighteousness; and He will recompense good for good — grace for grace.

Peruse attentively this treatise, and if you understand it, give God the praise; but where you fail to understand it, pray for understanding, for God will give you understanding. Remember what the Scriptures say: If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God , who gives to all men liberally, and upbraids not; and it shall be given to him. There is, however, another wisdom, which you must repel from you, and pray against its remaining in you; this the same apostle expressed his detestation of when he said, But if you have bitter envying and strife in your hearts,. For wherever there is envying and strife, there is also confusion, and every evil work.

But the wisdom which is from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, and easy to be entreated, full of mercy and good works, without partiality, and without hypocrisy. And from this you may understand what grace is; because if this wisdom were of ourselves, it would not be from above; nor would it be an object to be asked for of the God who created us.

Edited by Philip Schaff. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Contact information. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. My email address is feedback at newadvent. To help fight spam, this address might change occasionally. Regrettably, I can't reply to every letter, but I greatly appreciate your feedback — especially notifications about typographical errors and inappropriate ads. About this page Source. Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Summary Edwards gives his usual thorough treatment as he examines the difference between common grace and saving grace, demonstrates the nature and qualities of saving grace, and emphasizes how the principle of grace is from the Spirit of God.

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Treatise on Grace Treatise on Grace
Treatise on Grace Treatise on Grace
Treatise on Grace Treatise on Grace
Treatise on Grace Treatise on Grace
Treatise on Grace Treatise on Grace
Treatise on Grace Treatise on Grace

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