The first version of his history appeared in , and it may have been completed with a view to circulation as propaganda for a new crusade. Its enthusiastic reception encouraged Fulcher to continue his work in , summarizing events in the intervening four years; thereafter he revised the early part of the work twice, and continued to write year by year until , when his chronicle ends abruptly.
Fulcher was the best educated of the Latin eyewitnesses of the First Crusade. He quoted, sometimes rather ineptly, from a range of classical and biblical texts and occasionally included short verse passages, some of them making enigmatic use of astrological dates and times. Although Fulcher was at the side of Baldwin I during his entire reign as king of Jerusalem , he is disappointingly reticent about the politics of church and state.
He describes with enthusiasm an expedition beyond the Dead Sea in and seems to have been present on campaigns until or , leaving detailed accounts of them. Want to Read Currently Reading Read.
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More filters. Knopf, John Julius Norwich was a twentieth century English historian who studied at among other locations, Cambridge University. He was released from the military to begin a writing career. His work here entitled; A Short History of Byzantium, was published in This here is a condensed version of his prior version, released form This section has a lot to do with the build up to the First Crusade.
John Julius discusses how Alexius did not want the Crusaders army marching through his city of Constantinople. Then what I got out of it was, Alexius grudgingly did and was forced to kick them out due to their atrocious behavior. Then Norwich, discusses the slaughtering of the Crusaders at the hands of the Muslims.
I consider this a good source which shows the leading up to the Crusade, and the interactions and relationships between the Byzantines and the Western Europeans. Paul Magadalino. In his book The Byzantine Background to the First Crusade, Magadalaino gives an extremely creative and insightful view on the events leading up to and occurring during the First Crusade.
The First Crusade: The Accounts of Eyewitnesses and Participants by August C. Krey
His arguments are well backed with primary and secondary sources alike. His work goes inside the conflicts of the time and continues on to guess at the intentions of Alexius. This inquisitive source deduces that Alexius mistakenly saw the crusaders as mercenaries and ignored their religious zeal. The argument is made that Alexius was blinded by his intentions of restoration to his Empire in Asia Minor. This source has convincing information about the years leading to the First Crusade.
In his letter to Cardinal Peter, Innocent displayed his anger at the actions Peter had taken in leaving Jerusalem to capture Constantinople. Innocent begins by explaining how the lack of the churches presents in Jerusalem left the Holy Land in a worse state than it had begun. Innocent argues that the Greek Church could not be brought back into unity with the Latin Church since the Empire then saw the Latins as the enemy. The Pope also criticizes the actions of the crusaders themselves questioning their use of violence against women and children. This is a very interesting source because it makes Pope Innocent III appear to be very anti-crusade when in reality he was the one who proposed the Fourth Crusade and raised the money to fund it.
Robert of Clari was a knight during the Fourth Crusade fighting on the side of the Crusaders. His story starts out with the Crusading army in Venice. The Pope is trying to get more money for the Crusaders to go out on another Crusade. They are indebted to the Venetians, who take them planned of ferrying them across the Mediterranean Sea, but the winter time came and they were forced to wait.
The First Crusade: The Accounts of Eyewitnesses and Participants
The Crusaders raided a town a Zara and camped there during the winter, plundering the town and its people. The Crusaders are then told by the Venetians they can should go to Constantinople and get their resources.
They go and crown Alexis emperor and once this happens Alexis refuses to help the Crusaders anymore. This enrages the Crusaders who besiege the city and are unable to take it, yet during the siege Emperor Alexis dies. This series of articles felt like to me that the Venetians were puppet masters to the Crusaders, and were the cause of the Fourth Crusade. It shows how the actual fighters of the Crusade new nothing only the nobles, because the men fighting just did what they were told.
I consider that helps to learn about the Byzantines by showing how the western Christians were planning to attack and capture Constantinople. Sir Steven Runciman was a twentieth century historian. He studied at Trinity College, of Cambridge. His three volume series History of the Crusades originally published in He them later revised it into a shorter series. In this third chapter of his shortened series, Confusion in the East, he examined the power struggle in the Byzantine Empire, and war with the Turks. The major point in the battle between the Byzantines and the Turks is the Battle of Manzikart.
The battle takes place in and the result of it is a complete obliteration of the Byzantines from the hands of the Turks. I believe, this article is going to be used on our website, to show how the Byzantines were an empire in disarray. Also it will show their clash with the Turks and the period building up to the First Crusade. Schmandt, Raymound H. Thomas, Raymound H. Schmandt was a professor of History at St. He had a PhD from University of Michigan and established a program of medieval history and church studies. He wrote many books focusing on these subjects and gave an annual speech on the Crusades.
In his book The Crusades , he gives a well informed view of the events leading up to and throughout the Fourth Crusade.
Warfare and the Miraculous in the Chronicles of the First Crusade
The crusaders, who had been shamed and excommunicated by their own pope, helped Alexius IV gain the throne in hopes that he would further their holy war. This plan was ultimately thwarted and the Byzantine and the Greek Church were thrust back into the hands of the Latins.
This source is excellent in its relatively unprejudiced and knowledgeable view of the Fourth Crusade. In his essay Byzantium and the Crusades , Runciman attempts to describe the actions, caused mainly by misunderstandings, which begin to diminish the bond between the Byzantines and Western Christians. Runciman partially blames the poorly executed, yet well intentioned, actions of Pope Urban II in when he calls for the first crusade to push back the Turks from Constantinople with the eventual goal of capturing Jerusalem.
In this work Runciman also details other reasons for their weakened relations such as the economic struggles between Byzantine and Venetian merchants along with the tolerant principles of Byzantium versus the strict anti-Muslim policies of the West. This source provides an excellent insight to the causes of the tense and ultimately violent relationship among Byzantium and Western Christendom.
Runciman discusses Byzantine history, and major turning points in this book. He goes over different important events, and briefly describes the chronology of the throne and how each got the position, and lost it. Also, the Normans and Turks were moving into the area capturing land and making Byzantines uncomfortable. Runciman also noted that the major turning point for the Byzantine Empire was the Battle of Manzikert, and two emperors later, Alexius took charge with many new problems facing him.
The Crusades movement started to take place, which would ultimately harm the Empire in many ways, economically and commercially. Not really anything good came out of the Crusades for the Byzantine Empire. This secondary source is very helpful in understanding some of the chronology and people involved. This also sets up the stage for the Crusades, but it also shows the struggles within the empire.
Eustathius Of Thessalonik was a scholar who was born in Constantinople.
- Internet History Sourcebooks Project.
- THE CRUSADER STATES.
- Lévolution psychologique de lenfant (Psychologie) (French Edition).
- The first crusade; the accounts of eyewitnesses and participants.
His work here, Norman Atrocities and Devastation in Thessalonika , is a direct account of the sack of Constantinople. His manuscript details the Crusaders entering the city and cutting down the Byzantine men. Later, Eustathius Of Thessalonik discusses how the Crusaders desecrate the places of worship.
Related The First Crusade against the Dead: The Accounts of Eye-witnesses and Participants
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