Learning A Living: Career Success Without Formal Credentials


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And they are also are more likely to come from economic privilege. So, not only does the self-direction factor pose a problem for teaching at scale, the fact that a high degree of self-direction may be required for successful completion of coursework towards the new workforce means that existing structures of inequality will be replicated in the future if we rely on these large-scale programs.

The problem of future jobs is not one of skills training — it is one of diminishing jobs. How will we cope with a workforce that is simply irrelevant? Jennifer Zickerman. But in the next decade or two, there is likely to be a significant amount of technological innovation in machine intelligence and personal assistants that takes a real swipe out of the jobs we want humans to have in education, health care, transportation, agriculture and public safety. As for the skills for the employed fraction of advanced countries, I think they will be difficult to teach.

Nathaniel Borenstein. Algorithms, automation and robotics will result in capital no longer needing labor to progress the economic agenda. Labor becomes, in many ways, surplus to economic requirements. By the time the training programs are widely available, the required skills will no longer be required.

The whole emphasis of training must now be directed towards personal life skills development rather than the traditional working career-based approach. There is also the massive sociological economic impact of general automation and AI that must be addressed to redistribute wealth and focus life skills at lifelong learning.

We urgently need to explore how to distribute the increasing wealth of complex goods and services our civilization produces to a populace that will be increasingly jobless in the traditional sense. The current trend of concentrating wealth in the hands of a diminishing number of ultra-rich individuals is unsustainable. All of this while dealing with the destabilizing effects of climate change and the adaptations necessary to mitigate its worst impacts. Some of these experts projected further out into the future, imagining a world where the machines themselves learn and overtake core human emotional and cognitive capacities.

Timothy C. This section features responses by several more of the many top analysts who participated in this canvassing. Following this wide-ranging set of comments on the topic, a much more expansive set of quotations directly tied to the set of four themes begins on Page From the employer perspective, this type of learning will only grow.

The automation of human labor will grow significantly. And having a workforce trained in discrete and atomizable bits of skills will be seen as a benefit by employers. This of course is a terrible, soulless, insecure life for the workers, but since when did that really change anything? There will also be a parallel call for benefits, professional development, and compensation that smooths out the rough patches in this on-demand labor life, but such efforts will lag behind the exploitation of said labor because big business has more resources and big tech moves too fast for human-scale responses of accountability and responsibility.

Look at Linux and open-source development. The world runs on both now, and they employ millions of human beings. Many, or most, of the new open-source programmers building and running our world today are self-taught, or teach each other, to a higher degree than they are educated by formal schooling. Look at Khan Academy and the home-schooling movement, both of which in many ways outperform formal institutional education. This model for employment of self and others will also spread to other professions. The great educator John Taylor Gatto , who won many awards for his teaching and rarely obeyed curricular requirements, says nearly all attempts to reform education make it worse.

We are by nature learning animals. We are each also very different: both from each other and from who we were yesterday. As a society we need to take advantage of that, and nurture our natural hunger for knowledge and productive work while respecting and encouraging our diversity, a fundamental balancing feature of all nature, human and otherwise. But we will likely see a radical economic disruption in education — using new tools and means to learn and certify learning — and that is the way by which we will manage to train many more people in many new skills.

An earlier and more enduring focus on stats and statistical literacy — which can readily be taught using current affairs, for example, analyzing the poll numbers from elections, the claims made by climate change scientists, or even the excellent oral arguments in the Supreme Court Texas abortion law case — would impart skills that transferred well into IT, programming and, especially, security. About , years ago, Earth experienced its first Cambrian Explosion — a period of rapid cellular evolution and diversification that resulted in the foundation of life as we know it today.

We are clearly in the dawn of a new age, one that is marked not just by advanced machines but, rather, machines that are starting to learn how to think. Soon, those machines that can think will augment humankind, helping to unlock our creative and industrial potential. Some of the workforce will find itself displaced by automation. That includes anyone whose primary job functions are transactional bank tellers, drivers, mortgage brokers. However, there are many fields that will begin to work alongside smart machines: doctors, journalists, teachers.

The most important skill of any future worker will be adaptability. This current Cambrian Explosion of machines will mean diversification in our systems, our interfaces, our code. Workers who have the temperament and fortitude to quickly learn new menu screens, who can find information quickly, and the like will fare well. I do not see the wide-scale emergence of training programs during the next 10 years due to the emergence of smart machines alone.

The jury is very much out on the extent to which acquisition of knowledge and reasoning skills requires human interaction. We now have empirical evidence that a substantial percentage — half or more — can be gained through self-study using computer-assisted techniques. The path forward for society as a whole is strewn with obstacles of self-interest, ignorance, flawed economics, etc. Here I want to focus on other areas. The issue is not just training but cultural re-evaluation of teaching and healing as highly respected skills. Few of us make anything we use — from the building we live in to the objects we own — and these things are mostly manufactured as cheaply as possible, to be easily bought, discarded, and bought again, in a process of relentless acquisition that often brings little happiness.

Very easily accessible learning for how to fix these things themselves and making it economically rewarding, in the case of a common good — is a simple, basic example of the kind of ubiquitous craft learning that at scale would be enormously valuable. Some of this can be taught online — a key component is also online coordination.

Certainly science and technology are important, but we need to refocus liberal education, not ignore it. History, in all its complexity. Critical thinking — how to debate, how to recognize persuasive techniques, how to understand multiple perspectives, how to mediate between different viewpoints. Key skill: how to research, how to evaluate what you see and read.

Sites like Stack Overflow for software engineers demonstrate a new moral sense that learning in private is selfish. Public learning is becoming the norm. Instead, most focus will be on childhood education for the poorer sectors of the world. Udacity is a good example of the trajectory.

After starting a company to pursue the idea, he pivoted, focusing specifically on skill-oriented education that is coupled directly to the job market. These need not be MOOCs. Even mobiles can be sources of education. I hope we will see more opportunities arising for sharing this kind of knowledge. New online credential systems will first complement, then gradually replace the old ones. The skills of the future? Those are the skills a robot cannot master yet. Leadership, design, human meta communication, critical thinking, motivating, cooperating, innovating.

In my black-and-white moments I say: Skip all knowledge training in high schools. We make you better than a robot.

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We turn you into a decent, polite, social person. And most importantly, we do not mix education with religion — never. The subject-matter-specific part of a B. A large part of this time is spent not in a classroom but becoming fluent through monitored practice, including group work, internships and other high-intensity, high-interaction apprentice-like programs.

There are possibilities for adding limited skill sets to otherwise qualified workers, e. Jobs that seem viable may fall victim to a surprising development in automation see, for example, filmmaking ; new categories of work may not last long enough to support large numbers of employees. Automation and semi-automation e. Training is useful but not the end of education — only a kind of education.

As for sipping: you need not know the name of every bear to know you should avoid bears. Yet the continual construction of knowledge and cultures requires more from us. So far, training formally as in Kahn Academy and Lynda. No programmer or developer could keep up without the informal training of Stack Overflow. No need for debate. A little information sip will let us know. But what is left out? Collaborative construction of knowledge in new areas, deeper investigation into known areas, and the discovery of entirely new areas of knowledge.

This is our challenge: how to create wisdom from knowledge, not just jobs from training and information. Today programming is increasingly become a trade. The problem with many websites is not so much the training of the programmers as much as getting managers and C-level people who understand the new concepts of a world being redefined by software. We need to think about co-evolving work and workers. And, as always, critical thinking will remain the biggest challenge.

Rigorous science and humanities courses help students learn how to learn. Skills training all too often does not. Of course, it can complement core academic courses, and is likely to be part of a lifetime of learning for those switching occupations. But turning high school and college into narrow vocational education programs would make their graduates more vulnerable to robotic replacement, not less.

We need to invest in higher education, shoring up support for traditional universities and colleges, lest they eventually become bastions for reproduction of an elite, leaving the rest of society to untested experiments or online programs. Online learning is a good complement for existing colleges — but cannot replace them. Online-only programs emphasize the upside of high-tech approaches, but rarely grapple with the downside. Big-data surveillance will track the work students do, ostensibly in order to customize learning.

Get stuck on a lesson? Just keep interfacing with a keyboard, camera and perhaps haptic sensors. Just let cameras record your every move and keystroke — perhaps your eye movements and facial expressions, too. They will just verify that student X can do task Y. It could be a very profitable business. If students pay less for actual instruction by experts, they have more money to spend on badges. This is the for-profit model — shift money away from instruction and amenities and toward administrator salaries and marketing.

There are serious worries about rapid centralization and reuse of student data by under-regulated firms. How individuals develop the skills will be less important [than] having the skills. As mastery learning evolves, so will our performance-based assessment systems, providing universities and businesses a greater set of evidence and qualifications then is currently available.

K teachers are constantly pulled from class time with students for professional development or during class are required to take attendance, [complete] grade assessments, fill out grade checks, practice fire drills — all degrading quality teaching time. If online systems just removed these barriers they would be a great benefit, but there is so much more these systems can offer.

Many of the new skills necessary for jobs of the future require digital skills to be successful. Too often education leaders and politicians make unilateral decisions about the interaction between teacher and learner instead of building and maintaining an environment for great teaching and learning to take place. Three dynamics that will affect all learning and retraining efforts: 1 Newer tools are changing our sense of identity. Everyone in a technology-based profession will need to be a quant [ quantitative analyst ] or keep up with the quants. Because all human processes and activities can now be quantified, and there is considerable exploration and technology development in the application of quantification to everything from our sleep patterns and shopping habits to our emotions and online behaviors, many new and important business models are emerging from quantification and the learning algorithms that drive it.

Said simply, the greatest skill will be the ability to think through the cloud of facts, data, experience and strategic direction that products and services require. Design thinking or visual thinking will be a critical part of managing a data-driven world. Data mining and management can be taught effectively. Thinking, problem-solving, reflection and visioning are difficult to teach at scale. It offers a more true moving score. But platforms like Coursera can amplify the talents of gifted and effective instructors and reduce the cost of education in the coming decade for all.

Some schools and colleges will thrive and prosper at a level not seen in their history. The greatest thinker of the 21st century, [whoever] he or she is, will understand more about how she thinks and learns than any student in any previous generation, and all before ever stepping foot inside a schoolhouse. Imagine for a moment the power of knowing beforehand how well you would perform on a test. Telemetric education also offers the opportunity for everyone to raise his or her hand and be heard. This whole argument is a sham meant to attack the fundamental purpose and basis of education.

A wide range of activities may enable skills to be learned — especially multidisciplinary skills, such as critical thinking or social interaction — without specifically teaching those skills. Of course, they will continue to require the time and participation of the individual learner, and in many cases, social interaction with other learners, but the labor-intensive learning industry we have developed to this point will not be required.

However, in 10 years it will be arguable and probably demonstrable that your own computer networks will know you better than any individual instructor could, even an instructor who worked with you your entire life. Sure, there are disasters like the Facebook news stream, but people are already amazed at how much Google knows about them. And we know that with enough data analytics can outperform humans even in complex tasks.

Most actual assessment not to be confused with multiple-choice tests in school or professional programs is based on expert recognition. The submitted behavior an essay, performance in surgery, piloting an aircraft in a simulation is not assessed according to whether a set of indicators is achieved this would possibly be a necessary, but never a sufficient, condition. The expert looks at the overall behavior and assesses whether that competency has been met. The expert is serving as a proxy for the community at large. With modern communications technology, this proxy is no longer required.

Each person responds to them in some way, not by testing them, but by for example engaging them in conversation, asking questions, following advice, etc. These responses, over time, form a comprehensive and constantly changing assessment of the person. How will autonomous factories in Chicago, U. What credentialing system will self-driving cars require? How will artificially intelligent laborers learn the skills needed to run a household, business, government institution, or political organization? When will universities allow artilect [ nonhuman artificial-intelligence ] students to enroll in their traditional undergraduate and graduate degree programs, and how would students learn the more ephemeral skills like critical thinking from a thinking machine?

About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research.

Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts. What jobs? Technological forces will fundamentally change work and the economic landscape Acknowledgments.

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Related Publications Mar 29, Publications Feb 8, Publications Mar 10, Publications Dec 7, Publications Aug 6, Research Areas U. In the hopefully near future, we will not segregate schooling from work and real-world thinking and development. And, again, the experience of being a student, now confined to grade school, secondary school and university, will expand to include workers, those looking for work, and those who want or need to retrain — as well as what we now think of as conventional education.

Via simulation, gaming, digital presentations — combined with hands-on, real-world experience — learning and re-education will move out of books and into the world. The more likely enhancement will be to take digital enhancements out into the world — again, breaking down the walls of the classroom and school — to inform and enhance experience.

Some respondents expressed confidence in the best of current online education and training options, saying online course options are cost-effective, evolving for the better, and game-changing because they are globally accessible. Already, today there are quite effective online training and education systems, but they are not being implemented to their full potential. Edward Friedman. These applications will become more widely used with familiarity that is gained during the next decade.

Also, populations will be more tech-savvy and be able to make use of these systems with greater personal ease. In addition, the development of virtual reality, AI assistants and other technological advances will add to the effectiveness of these systems. There will be a greater need for such systems as the needs for new expertise in the workforce [increase] and the capacity of traditional education systems proves that it is not capable of meeting the need in a cost-effective manner. These career changes will require retooling, training and education.

The adult learners will not be able to visit physical campuses to access this learning; they will learn online. I anticipate the further development and distribution of holoportation technologies such as those developed by Microsoft using HoloLens for real-time, three-dimensional augmented reality. These teaching tools will enable highly sophisticated interactions and engagement with students at a distance. They will further fuel the scaling of learning to reach even more massive online classes. As these tools evolve over the next decade, the academics we work with expect to see radical change in training and workforce development, which will roll into although probably against a longer timeline more traditional institutions of higher learning.

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Many respondents said real-world, campus-based higher education will continue to thrive during the next decade. They said a residential university education helps build intangible skills that are not replicable online and thus deepens the skills base of those who can afford to pay for such an education, but they expect that job-specific training will be managed by employers on the job and via novel approaches.

The most important skills to have in life are gained through interpersonal experiences and the liberal arts. Frank Elavsky. Traditional four-year and graduate programs will better prepare people for jobs in the future, as such an education gives people a general understanding and knowledge about their field, and here people learn how to approach new things, ask questions and find answers, deal with new situations, etc. Special skills for a particular job will be learned on the job.

These skills are imperative to focus on, as the future is in danger of losing these skillsets from the workforce. Many people have gained these skills throughout history without any kind of formal schooling, but with the growing emphasis on virtual and digital mediums of production, education and commerce, people will have less and less exposure to other humans in person and other human perspectives. But this does not mean that alternative means and paths of learning and accreditation would not be useful as … complementary to the traditional system that has limitations as well.

Will training for skills most important in the jobs of the future work well in large-scale settings by ? Respondents in this canvassing overwhelmingly said yes, anticipating that improvements in such education would continue. However, many believe the most vital skills are not easy to teach, learn or evaluate in any education or training setting available today. These skills, interestingly, are the skills specific to human beings that machines and robots cannot do … Tiffany Shlain.

There will be an increasing economic incentive to develop mass training that better unlocks this value. Functions requiring emotional intelligence, empathy, compassion, and creative judgment and discernment will expand and be increasingly valued in our culture. These skills, interestingly, are the skills specific to human beings that machines and robots cannot do, and you can be taught to strengthen these skills through education.

I look forward to seeing innovative live and online programs that can teach these at scale. A mindset of persistence and the necessary passion to succeed are also critical. Some who are pessimistic about the future of human work due to advances in capable AI and robotics mocked the current push in the U. An anonymous program director for a major U. The jobs of the future will not need large numbers of workers with a fixed set of skills — most things that we can train large numbers of workers for, we will also be able to train computers to do better.

Among the many other skills mentioned were: process-oriented and system-oriented thinking; journalistic skills, including research, evaluation of multiple sources, writing and speaking; understanding algorithms, computational thinking , networking and programming; grasping law and policy; an evidence-based way of looking at the world; time management; conflict resolution; decision-making; locating information in the flood of data; storytelling using data; and influencing and consensus building. This will include open, online learning experiences e.


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We will identify opportunities to build a digital version of the apprenticeship learning models that have existed in the past. Alternative credentials and digital badges will provide more granular opportunities to document and archive learning over time from traditional and nontraditional learning sources. Through evolving technologies e. You may get a degree in computer software development, but the truth is that you still need to be taught how to write software for, say, the mortgage company or insurance company that hires you. The key to the future will be flexibility and personal motivation to learn and tinker with new things.

Some predict that many more workers will begin using online and app-based learning systems. Employers will accept these more as they prove probative. And online learning will be more prevalent, even as an adjunct to formal classroom learning. New industries such as green energy and telemedicine will increase new employment opportunities. Despite all of these measures, the loss of jobs from artificial intelligence and robotics will exceed any retraining program, at least in the short run. William J. Online and credentialing systems are more transparent and do a better job on delivering skills.

People with new types of credentialing systems are seen as more qualified than traditional four-year and graduate programs. Some respondents hope to see change. Schools today turn out widget makers who can make widgets all the same. They are built on producing single right answers rather than creative solutions. Jeff Jarvis. The unfortunate reality is that many HR departments still post job listings saying degrees and certifications are required, as a way of screening candidates. Thus, the educational and training programs of the future will become in their best incarnations sophisticated combinations of classroom and hands-on training programs.

The specific models will necessarily be responding to individual industry requirements. They are built on an outmoded attention economy: Pay us for 45 hours of your attention and we will certify your knowledge. I believe that many — not all — areas of instruction should shift to competency-based education in which the outcomes needed are made clear and students are given multiple paths to achieve those outcomes, and they are certified not based on tests and grades but instead on portfolios of their work demonstrating their knowledge. Some even say the future of jobs for humans is so baleful that capitalism may fail as an economic system.

The next themes and subthemes examine these responses. A large share of respondents predicted that online formats for knowledge transfer will not advance significantly in the next decade. Interestingly, being able to adapt and respond to looming challenges was seen by nearly everyone in this canvassing as one of the most highly prized future capabilities; these respondents especially agree that it is important, and they say that our human institutions — government, business, education — are not adapting efficiently and are letting us down.

Many of them say that current K or K education programs are incapable of making adjustments within the next decade to serve the shifting needs of future jobs markets. Among the other reasons listed by people who do not expect these kinds of transformative advances in job creation and job skill upgrading:. Following are representative statements tied to these points and more from all respondents.

Traditional models train people to equate what they do with who they are i. Pamela Rutledge. Learning takes time and practice, which means it requires money, lots of money, to significantly change the skill set of a large cohort. As manufacturing and many labor-intensive jobs move overseas or are fully mechanized, we will see a bulge in service jobs. These require good people skills, something that is often hard to train online.

Individual training — like programming or learning how to cook — may not be what will be needed. The most important skills are advanced critical thinking and knowledge of globalization affecting diverse societies — culturally, religiously and politically. We have traditional institutions invested in learning as a supply-side model rather [than] demand-side that would create proactive, self-directed learners.

This bias impacts the entire process, from educators to employers. It is changing, but beliefs are sticky and institutions are cumbersome bureaucracies that are slow to adapt. New delivery systems for skills related to technology will be more readily accepted than traditional ones because they avoid much of the embedded bias. I have zero confidence in us having the political will to address the socio-economic factors that are underpinning skill training. Furthermore, we have serious geographic mismatches, underlying discriminatory attitudes, and limited opportunities for lower- [to] mid-level career advancement.

It just sounds nice. Many respondents emphasized that the most crucial skill is that people have to learn how to learn and be self-motivated to keep learning. My biggest concern with self-directed learning is that it requires a great deal of internal motivation. And I am not confident that individuals will find their way … David Berstein. So everyone will still need some basic skills interpersonal communications, basic arithmetic, along with some general culture awareness [so] they can have that flexibility.

What I worry about is how well they will adapt when they are 35 or This ability to adapt is what distinguished Homo sapiens from other species through natural selection. As the rate of technological innovation intensifies, the workforce of the future will need to adapt to new technology and new markets. The people who can adapt the best and fastest will win. This view means that any given set of skills will become obsolete quickly as innovations change the various economic sectors: precision agriculture, manufacturing 4.

Therefore, the challenge is not only to teach skills, but also how to adapt and learn new skills. Whether the traditional programs or new programs will be better at teaching adaptive learning remains to be seen. Many ambitious federal and state programs have fizzled, to produce dismal to no statistical change in the caliber of K education. Online mediums and self-directed approaches may be limited in effectiveness with certain labor segments unless supplemented by human coaching and support systems. It is true that most online courses require self-direction. But in-person courses may also be self-directed.

This works well for some students but not others. Students who are self-directed often have had a very good foundational education and supportive parents. They have been taught to think critically and they know that the most important thing you can learn is how to learn. And they are also are more likely to come from economic privilege.


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So, not only does the self-direction factor pose a problem for teaching at scale, the fact that a high degree of self-direction may be required for successful completion of coursework towards the new workforce means that existing structures of inequality will be replicated in the future if we rely on these large-scale programs. The problem of future jobs is not one of skills training — it is one of diminishing jobs. How will we cope with a workforce that is simply irrelevant? Jennifer Zickerman. But in the next decade or two, there is likely to be a significant amount of technological innovation in machine intelligence and personal assistants that takes a real swipe out of the jobs we want humans to have in education, health care, transportation, agriculture and public safety.

As for the skills for the employed fraction of advanced countries, I think they will be difficult to teach. Nathaniel Borenstein. Algorithms, automation and robotics will result in capital no longer needing labor to progress the economic agenda. Labor becomes, in many ways, surplus to economic requirements. By the time the training programs are widely available, the required skills will no longer be required. The whole emphasis of training must now be directed towards personal life skills development rather than the traditional working career-based approach.

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There is also the massive sociological economic impact of general automation and AI that must be addressed to redistribute wealth and focus life skills at lifelong learning. We urgently need to explore how to distribute the increasing wealth of complex goods and services our civilization produces to a populace that will be increasingly jobless in the traditional sense.

The current trend of concentrating wealth in the hands of a diminishing number of ultra-rich individuals is unsustainable. All of this while dealing with the destabilizing effects of climate change and the adaptations necessary to mitigate its worst impacts. Some of these experts projected further out into the future, imagining a world where the machines themselves learn and overtake core human emotional and cognitive capacities.

Timothy C.

Why Is Education so Important for Success?

This section features responses by several more of the many top analysts who participated in this canvassing. Following this wide-ranging set of comments on the topic, a much more expansive set of quotations directly tied to the set of four themes begins on Page From the employer perspective, this type of learning will only grow. The automation of human labor will grow significantly. And having a workforce trained in discrete and atomizable bits of skills will be seen as a benefit by employers. This of course is a terrible, soulless, insecure life for the workers, but since when did that really change anything?

There will also be a parallel call for benefits, professional development, and compensation that smooths out the rough patches in this on-demand labor life, but such efforts will lag behind the exploitation of said labor because big business has more resources and big tech moves too fast for human-scale responses of accountability and responsibility.

Look at Linux and open-source development. The world runs on both now, and they employ millions of human beings. Many, or most, of the new open-source programmers building and running our world today are self-taught, or teach each other, to a higher degree than they are educated by formal schooling.

Look at Khan Academy and the home-schooling movement, both of which in many ways outperform formal institutional education. This model for employment of self and others will also spread to other professions. The great educator John Taylor Gatto , who won many awards for his teaching and rarely obeyed curricular requirements, says nearly all attempts to reform education make it worse. We are by nature learning animals. We are each also very different: both from each other and from who we were yesterday. As a society we need to take advantage of that, and nurture our natural hunger for knowledge and productive work while respecting and encouraging our diversity, a fundamental balancing feature of all nature, human and otherwise.

But we will likely see a radical economic disruption in education — using new tools and means to learn and certify learning — and that is the way by which we will manage to train many more people in many new skills. An earlier and more enduring focus on stats and statistical literacy — which can readily be taught using current affairs, for example, analyzing the poll numbers from elections, the claims made by climate change scientists, or even the excellent oral arguments in the Supreme Court Texas abortion law case — would impart skills that transferred well into IT, programming and, especially, security.

About , years ago, Earth experienced its first Cambrian Explosion — a period of rapid cellular evolution and diversification that resulted in the foundation of life as we know it today. We are clearly in the dawn of a new age, one that is marked not just by advanced machines but, rather, machines that are starting to learn how to think. Soon, those machines that can think will augment humankind, helping to unlock our creative and industrial potential. Some of the workforce will find itself displaced by automation. That includes anyone whose primary job functions are transactional bank tellers, drivers, mortgage brokers.

However, there are many fields that will begin to work alongside smart machines: doctors, journalists, teachers. The most important skill of any future worker will be adaptability. This current Cambrian Explosion of machines will mean diversification in our systems, our interfaces, our code. Workers who have the temperament and fortitude to quickly learn new menu screens, who can find information quickly, and the like will fare well. I do not see the wide-scale emergence of training programs during the next 10 years due to the emergence of smart machines alone.

The jury is very much out on the extent to which acquisition of knowledge and reasoning skills requires human interaction. We now have empirical evidence that a substantial percentage — half or more — can be gained through self-study using computer-assisted techniques. The path forward for society as a whole is strewn with obstacles of self-interest, ignorance, flawed economics, etc.

Here I want to focus on other areas. The issue is not just training but cultural re-evaluation of teaching and healing as highly respected skills. Few of us make anything we use — from the building we live in to the objects we own — and these things are mostly manufactured as cheaply as possible, to be easily bought, discarded, and bought again, in a process of relentless acquisition that often brings little happiness.

Very easily accessible learning for how to fix these things themselves and making it economically rewarding, in the case of a common good — is a simple, basic example of the kind of ubiquitous craft learning that at scale would be enormously valuable. Some of this can be taught online — a key component is also online coordination. Certainly science and technology are important, but we need to refocus liberal education, not ignore it.

History, in all its complexity. Critical thinking — how to debate, how to recognize persuasive techniques, how to understand multiple perspectives, how to mediate between different viewpoints. Key skill: how to research, how to evaluate what you see and read.

Learning A Living: Career Success Without Formal Credentials Learning A Living: Career Success Without Formal Credentials
Learning A Living: Career Success Without Formal Credentials Learning A Living: Career Success Without Formal Credentials
Learning A Living: Career Success Without Formal Credentials Learning A Living: Career Success Without Formal Credentials
Learning A Living: Career Success Without Formal Credentials Learning A Living: Career Success Without Formal Credentials
Learning A Living: Career Success Without Formal Credentials Learning A Living: Career Success Without Formal Credentials
Learning A Living: Career Success Without Formal Credentials Learning A Living: Career Success Without Formal Credentials
Learning A Living: Career Success Without Formal Credentials Learning A Living: Career Success Without Formal Credentials
Learning A Living: Career Success Without Formal Credentials Learning A Living: Career Success Without Formal Credentials

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