Emphasis mine and subject to change. Yet, at least two other paradigms are difficult to ignore: the idea of filiation and that of legacy. After all, did his poetic alter ego not once ask:. Cahier It may be more fruitful to explore the contradictory meanings and values that our chosen metaphors of the poet help circulate like bees another metaphor I am afraid that carry pollen from flower to flower.
Self-defense or oil on the fire, the targets of her wrath greeted her intrusion on the West Indian scene with less than complimentary remarks. Perhaps more importantly for is it fair to allocate good points either for best polemic formula or for greater level of self-control and moderation? Perhaps other models might encourage us to treat the so-far aborted debate as a valid intellectual or poetic point of departure.
It is not that I systematically object to metaphors of filiation but I always suspect that the implicit allusions to family trees imply that some legitimate heirs inherit while others are excluded from the legacy. I cannot understand how the legacy of a poet could be limited, maimed, shrunk by the existence of any will.
I am not sure that this sentence refers to the transmission of his work as the deputy? What is being transmitted and how remains unclear. Transmission, however, is treated as a sacred duty. We normally think of wills as what ensures the existence of a transmission of goods, or ideas.
I suggest that poetic wills work the other way around: they interrupt legacies instead of preserving them. Poems deserve daring acts of re-appropriation, loyal as well blasphemous, accurate as well as inaccurate, thorough as well as superficial, academic as well as mercantile, or perhaps academically mercantile as well as disinterestedly commercial. Paradoxically then, even the idea of a discrepancy between contradictory aspects of his figure can be said to be part of the legacy.
Conference: Aimé Césaire & Negritude: Revisited | Race, Space, Place
And the question is not whether or not Violence, in the abstract, is desirable but whose violence, what type of violence is desirable at which moment. On ne lui extrait pas les fruits, on le laisse porter. Etre prudent! Semer, me dit-il, les graines de la civilisation.
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Laisser le temps au temps. What is crucial about this confrontation between two metaphorical constructions is that neither system is coherent enough to translate simply into a political platform and that whatever wisdom and model is proposed by the play comes from the confrontation not only between the two visions but also between the contradictory elements within each program.
They did not want war or cataclysms, they wanted more cities, more comfort, more consumers. But then again, who is to say that the voice of a community is ever perceptible even by those who seek to defend their interests? Those of us who have access to print can agree or disagree, celebrate or condemn, regret one step and claim another, but the principle of representation opens an infinite gap that no single voice can ever hope to bridge completely. A scream that seeks to awaken others does not have to be rational and it is necessarily violent.
But once the phatic function of the call has been established, is the poet condemned either to repetition or to a less spectacular form of expression? Is a cry necessarily unique and unrepeatable? Interestingly, that decisive dismissal is another form of successful cry, a sort of glistening upshot that we notice through the complicated fabric of the mangrove of interpretations. Tenuously linked to a powerful name, quoted and repeated, the sentence loses no strength from the fact that the critic does not securely attach it to an original text or context. This is all the more remarkable as the statement is both clever and highly problematic in this ambiguity.
In other words, is any cry useless today and why? In this climate of flame and fury that is the climate of poetry, money has no currency, courts pass no judgments, judges do not convict, juries do not acquit. The word is not only an instrument of knowing but also an act of resistance against the symbols of power: poetry on the same footing as other institutions that use the word to govern. Delas notices, for example, that the speeches made by the deputy at the National Assembly have not been included in the Complete Works published by Desormeaux.
Do they all have a literary value? Of course not.
But according to what criterion do we keep one and reject another? Do great events make great speeches? Not to mention that we have entered an era where those who have power over words the media for example determine whether events exist or not. But some poems are also like speeches or conversations. It is not true, for example, that violence was always absent from Martinique and Guadeloupe even if nothing compares to the brutality of the war of Algeria in the French West Indies see Confiant. It is also probably true that departmentalization was not the only alternative to violence; after all, not all African states had to wage wars before being granted their independence.
And yet, who is to say that Fanon was wrong to have appropriated the play as an incitation to insurrection and to violence?
See Fanon His responsibility as a reader is to have chosen his side among the characters that present us with many different political positions, many different ideological choices. The plays as a whole are neither an apology of violence nor an hymn to nonviolence but the recognition that violence may take different forms, that each type of violence has a price, and that choosing may be about accepting to pay that particular price.
Ultimately, I think that the awakener is waiting for the reader to choose. What are you really prepared to do? The attack against Cixous and Kristeva appears in Vagit-Prop 41ff. Legacies also create divisions if not rivalries. The roots of this sacred tree from Southeast Asia first develop as a unique trunk then send shoots back to the nourishing earth to ensure other future ascents towards the light.
The quotation is from Volume 3, p. Paris: Gallimard, and Burton, Richard. The Collected Poetry. Clayton Eshleman and Annette Smith.
Berkeley: U of California P, The Tragedy of King Christophe. Ralph Manhein.
New York: Grove Charlottesville: U of Virginia P, Feeble and obsolete as he may be, the old poet remains nonetheless involved with the future, as suggested by the child's figure encountered in "Speak Now. At this apex, political and poetic language become one, since the latter was able to generate and record the uprising of a small island Martinique, here referred to as a rock as well as to resonate universally, for the rock is "bound to the whole universe. Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.
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Related Le Cahier dun retour au pays natal dAimé Césaire (Pour comprendre) (French Edition)
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