Die Aussen- und Sicherheitspolitik der rot-grünen Koalition nach dem 11. September (German Edition)

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This will be a monumental struggle of good versus evil, but good will prevail. Thank you very much. Guests were ordered to evacuate the story Westin Hotel in the Back Bay section, according to a guest leaving the hotel who declined to give his name. Agents wearing bulletproof vests and carrying shields were seen bringing fiber-optic equipment into the hotel, which can be slipped under doors to see inside rooms.

As a large crowd gathered outside, one person was seen taken out of the hotel and put in a van, but a law enforcement official said said no one connected to the terror attacks had been arrested. Ryan, who joined hundreds of other onlookers. A law enforcement official who spoke on condition of anonymity said two hotel rooms in the Boston area believed to have been used in the attacks were searched.

While no arrests were made in connection with the attacks, searchers did find information with a link to a name on the manifest of one of the hijacked flights, the source said. Liste der Opfer Am. Flight www. Huffman Aviation is shown Wednesday morning, Sept. Rudy Dekkers, president and owner of Huffman Aviation, said the FBI was looking at student records at the flight school, including copies of passports from the men.

Festnahmen habe es noch nicht gegeben. Friends or family members who want more information on United Flights 93 or should contact in the US. United also will post all available information it has on this website. United also has established international toll-free numbers for friends or family members who want more information. Those numbers are: The Netherlands: Germany: Italy: Belgium: France: United Kingdom: or China: Japan: Hopes of finding more survivors in the rubble were all but extinguished, too. Rescuers worked cautiously, wary of a repeat of the building collapses that killed firefighters in the World Trade Center.

About military personnel and an undetermined number of civilian employees were missing. Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld said an earlier estimate by fire officials of as many as dead was too high. About 40, people had worked in the story skyscrapers. At the Pentagon, also partially demolished by a third hijacked airliner in the coordinated attacks, about people were still missing in the smoking ruins on Wednesday.

A bipartisan resolution vowing U. The House of Representatives passed the nonbinding measure by a vote of , about 12 hours after the Senate approved it The Afghan capital Kabul, which lies mostly in ruins after years of conflict, was calm on Thursday despite the rumbles from Washington.

General Pervez Musharraf, military ruler of neighboring Pakistan which is the main supporter of the Taliban, has promised the United States full cooperation in the fight against terror, official media reported. Some of the hijackers were trained as pilots in the United States, U. Attorney General John Ashcroft said, giving details of what he called perhaps the "most massive and intensive investigation" in U.

Mieter war sein Cousin, Marwan Al S. Es sieht so aus. Multiple cells of terrorist groups participated in the operation and the hijackers had possible ties to countries that included Saudi Arabia and Egypt, said law enforcement officials, speaking on condition of anonymity. The identities of more than a dozen of the men who hijacked the four planes with knives and threats of bombs has been ascertained, the officials said. Attorney General John Ashcroft news - web sites said 12 to 24 hijackers commandeered the four planes, and a government official said another two dozen or so are believed to have assisted them.

About 40 of the men have been accounted for, including those killed in the suicide attacks, but 10 remain at large, the Los Angeles Times reported Wednesday night on its Web site, citing an unidentified source with knowledge of the investigation. The Times reported at least one of the suspects receiving advanced flight training in Florida was a commercial pilot from Saudi Arabia.

Some of those involved in the plot left suicide notes, but they are not believed to have been the hijackers, a government source told The Associated Press. At least one hijacker on each of the four planes was trained at a U. The Times said authorities believe 27 suspected terrorists received pilot training. Authorities detained at least a half dozen people in Massachusetts and Florida on unrelated local warrants and immigration charges and were questioning them about their possible ties to the hijackers.

Search warrants were executed in Florida, New Jersey and Massachusetts. Sealed warrants went out in several other states, officials said. Officials said authorities were gathering evidence that the terrorist cells may have had prior involvement in earlier plots against the United States, and may have been involved with Saudi exile Osama bin Laden news - web sites. Charles Grassley news - bio - voting record of Iowa, the top Republican on the Senate Finance Committee, said the briefing he received Wednesday from law enforcement left him with the same impression. The officials, who spoke on condition of anonymity, said they were investigating whether one group of hijackers crossed the Canadian border at a checkpoint and made their way to Boston, where two jetliners were hijacked and flown into the World Trade Center.

Angus King said. Der Wert der Transaktion betrug insgesamt 3,2 Mrd. Dollar hinterlegt und bei Vertragsschluss im Juli weitere Mill. Dollar gezahlt, berichtete das "Wall Street Journal" am Mittwoch. Der Rest der 3,2 Mrd. Dollar sollte von der Gruppe durch Mietzahlungen der im World Trade Center angesiedelten vielen hundert Unternehmen hereingeholt werden.

Police declined to identify the man and did not say what his job had been. It was not immediately clear where he had worked. Mueller said the man had been living in Germany legally. Police also said two of the suspected aircraft hijackers in the suicide attacks had lived in Hamburg and were enrolled as students there. Scholz said Mohammed Atta, 33, whose name has already been cited in media reports as a suspect and who was on the passenger list of one of the hijacked planes used in the attack, had lived in Hamburg in one of the apartments that were searched.

He was registered as being from the United Arab Emirates, as was Marvan Yusef Mohammed Alshadi, 23, who Scholz said was on one of the other planes involved in the terror attack. Alshadi had also lived in Germany, sometimes in the same apartment as Atta, Scholz said. Alshadi left Germany for the United States on May 2. He said police had interviewed a number of people but made no arrests. Dramatic transcripts and reports of hurried cell phone conversations suggest that Glick and a few other passengers aboard the doomed United Airlines Flight 93 may have struggled with hijackers who commandeered the airliner.

In so doing, they may have thwarted an attempt to crash the airliner into a target in or near Washington. The plane crashed in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, at about a. But that was my brother-in-law. He was a take-charge guy. He was not the only passenger who knew he was going to die. Frank Colacicco, told the newspaper. The plane had left Newark bound for Los Angeles with 38 passengers and seven crew.

He also said passengers knew a plane had crashed into the World Trade Center in New York just minutes before and said some of them were talking about retaking control of their plane. At this point the aircraft was flying at 35, feet near Cleveland. Remain in your seat. There is a bomb on board. Stay quiet. We are meeting with their demands. We are returning to the airport. Pennsylvania Rep. Wir sehen in die Augen von Mohammed Atta.

Sie raste in das World Trade Center. Atta und Al-Shehi lebten mitten unter uns. Bei einer Flugschule, die auch schon John F. Kennedy Jr. In einem Objekt wurde ein Mann festgenommen. Generalbundesanwalt Kay Nehm leitete ein Ermittlungsverfahren gegen eine terroristische Gruppe ein. Sie soll sich Anfang des Jahres in Hamburg gebildet haben. Im Mohammed Atta 33 :.

Berliner Morgenpost Nachdem er sein Heim verlassen hatte, war er fromm geworden. Am Wer das Land verlassen will, fasst seinen Beschluss schneller. Israelische Soldaten entdeckten das, als sie den verletzten Mann entkleideten, nachdem er einen Eselskarren gesprengt hatte. Ein israelischer Geheimdienstmann fragte ihn, ob es im Paradies auch Juden gebe. Das schlimmste Selbstmordattentat fand in Tel Aviv am 1. Am Sonntag sprengte sich erstmals ein israelischer Araber am Bahnhof von Naharia. Ich vermisse ihn sehr.

Musharraf said in a statement following a late night meeting Wednesday with his military. Embassy in Pakistan said. The radical Islamic militia has denied bin Laden was involved in the terror. Musharraf also met on Thursday in Islamabad with incoming U. Since the terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington, there has been considerable speculation of a retaliatory strike against Afghanistan.

Powell, at a news conference Thursday, became the first senior Bush administration official to say for the record what many have been saying privately: that bin Laden is suspected of engineering the attacks. Bin Laden has enjoyed sanctuary in neighboring Afghanistan, most of which is controlled by the Taliban, a fiercely Muslim fundamentalist movement. Meanwhile, Armitage scheduled a trip to Moscow on Wednesday to follow up on a Russian offer to help in the investigation. Russia fought a year war with Muslim fundamentalists after invading Afghanistan in The United States opposed the Soviet invasion and provided weapons to the insurgents through Pakistan.

The Colin Powell for President Draft Exploratory Committee has discontinued operations, but we will hold on to the hope that he will run for President in Whatever his political destiny may be, we have faith that this fine man and dedicated patriot will continue to serve our country in important ways and will continue to be a model of integrity and excellence for our young people and an inspiration to us all. We will leave this web site up for a few more months for the convenience of those who have grown accustomed to using its links, but will no longer maintain it or respond to correspondence.

The son of Jamaican immigrants, Powell was raised in the South Bronx. Powell served two tours of duty in Vietnam, and as a battalion commander in Korea. General Powell has been the recipient of numerous U. He retired from the U. Army in General Powell was selected by President George W. Bush as his Secrerary of State in January, This article appears in the July 16, issue of New Federalist newspaper. According to the sources, shortly after he was elected, Sharon met with a small group of trusted political and military allies, and spelled out, in confidential memos, a war plan targetting the Palestinian Authority, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, and other Arab neighbors.


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Two factors were identified by the sources as key to the "Sharon Plan": 1. To this end, Sharon, who was instrumental in the launching of the Hamas movement earlier in his career, has dispatched his son as a personal back-channel emissary to the Islamist group. In many ways, the Sharon-backed Hamas targetting of Jordan is a replay of the early s "Black September" destabilization which involved Abu Nidal, long suspected of being an asset of British and Israeli intelligence.

Sharon has been operating on the assumption that President Bush can be manipulated into supporting Israeli war provocations because Bush et al. Sharon also assessed that Colin Powell and others in senior positions, who might not favor a war provocation, would be outmaneuvered by Israel and by wealthy and well-connected U. Israeli Lobby assets.

Hamas teams are also reportedly activated—with clandestine Israeli backing—to target American assets in Europe and the Middle East. Further, the sources say, Sharon is conducting a vicious psychological operation in Israel, to secure popular support for a war by staging nearly non-stop terror scares. A prominent Israeli businessman confirmed to this news service that almost nightly, Israeli police enter restaurants, hotels, shops, etc. Sharon has, according to the U. Sharon will soon seek a meeting with Russian President Putin, in an effort to win some degree of Moscow support for the war moves.

Now, the sources add, Sharon is preparing to use a new terrorist attack against Israeli civilians—an attack likely to come from Hamas-linked terrorists under de facto Sharon control—to justify a general war. For a majority of Israeli military professionals, this means Israel must accept a meaningful peace agreement with the Palestinian Authority. For Sharon and his rabid allies, it means that Israel must provoke a general war, under cover of which Israel could occupy the territories currently under the control of the Palestinian Authority, and either eliminate or exile the PA leadership from the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.

The sources warned that Sharon would use any pretext to justify a military strike against Iraq, probably in a ground invasion of Jordan that would also topple King Abdullah II. Israel has already attacked radar installations in Syrian territory, in hopes of forcing Damascus into war. By launching such a regional war "in reaction" to a terrorist attack, particularly in the context of simultaneous terrorist actions against American targets, Sharon would hope to assure that Israel would win the solid support of the U.

Ultimately, the sources concluded, Sharon would move to "transfer" large portions of the Arab population of Israel—along with a majority of West Bank and Gaza Palestinians—to the east bank of the Jordan River, under a Sharon-sponsored Hamas regime, thus achieving the "final solution" to the "Palestinian problem. The Powell doctrine can be summed up as a reluctance to intervene, but using overwhelming force for quick victory once a decision is taken. This applies to both his military and civilian lives. Vietnam In the s he completed two tours of duty in Vietnam, the first as a military adviser to the South Vietnamese Army.

During his second tour, the helicopter in which he was travelling crashed and Powell was decorated for rescuing his troops from the blazing wreckage. Preparing for action in the Gulf From that moment on Colin Powell enjoyed a rapid rise to the top. After alternating between military commands and staff jobs in Washington, he became senior military assistant to Defence Secretary Caspar Weinberger in , where he played a major role in operations such as the invasion of Grenada and the US bombing of Libya.

But Colin Powell became a world famous figure in when, as chairman of the Joint Chiefs, he was a major architect in the successful campaign against the Iraqi forces which had invaded Kuwait. He summarised the plan thus: "Our strategy for going after this army is very, very, simple. First we are going to cut it off, then we are going to kill it.

General Powell opposed sending US forces in to Kuwait, preferring merely to defend the Saudi oilfields. He has dedicated himself to improving race relations. Though he has ruled himself out of running for the White House his wife fears he would be assassinated , he has long been strongly tipped for the job of Secretary of State.

The appointment will make him the most powerful black man in American history. In den USA habe man ihm aber nicht geglaubt. Der Mann soll dem Bericht zufolge an diesem Donnerstag von der Bundesanwaltschaft und amerikanischen Geheimdienstleuten vernommen worden sein. Dies sei ihm erlaubt worden, schrieb die Zeitung. Bush, George Walker , 43d president of the United States. He attended the exclusive Phillips Academy--Andover Mass.

He married Laura Welsh, a librarian, in Early Career Bush was first elected to public office relatively late in life. Indeed, Bush admitted on a number of occasions that he lacked a focus in life until he reached his forties. In , at age 48, he won election as governor of Texas. Prior to winning elective office Bush had a varied career. He spent much of the s and s working in the oil and gas business in Texas. He lost the race badly and turned his attention back to oil prospecting, where his business ran into difficulties.

After the elder Bush won the presidency, George W. Bush turned his attention to major league baseball. He put together a group of investors to purchase the Texas Rangers team and ultimately became managing general partner of the team from to In Bush undertook what most observers believed was a futile campaign to unseat popular incumbent Democratic governor Ann Richards. During the campaign Richards had mocked Bush as intellectually vacuous, but her obvious contempt for the GOP Grand Old Party, or Republican candidate ultimately backfired. Bush proved to be an adept campaigner with strong voter appeal, and he won the election with Governor of Texas During his first term as governor, Bush enjoyed growing popularity in Texas.

The state enjoyed substantial prosperity, and the governor seemed to have a knack for pleasing almost all constituencies. He held firm on antidrug and anticrime measures and on the death penalty, all of which pleased conservatives. He also gratified those same voters with large tax cuts and a far-reaching welfare reform program that required benefit recipients to work. Bush promoted substantial new spending on public education and bilingual programs, to the approval of many Democrats and Hispanic residents and immigrants.

He substantially increased state funding for public schools while at the same time promoting the conservative goals of educational choice through programs such as charter schools and teacher accountability. His ability to attract major party and donor support the latter on an unprecedented scale early on so demoralized the rest of the field that a number of prominent candidates dropped out of the race before a single primary had been held. It appeared to many that Bush would coast to an easy nomination and that the GOP would be united against the presumptive Democratic candidate, Vice Pres.

Al Gore. But the Bush campaign and its backers did not anticipate the broad electoral appeal of Arizona senator John McCain, a decorated war hero and national leader for campaign finance reform. McCain decisively won the New Hampshire primary, and suddenly Bush was no longer the front-runner for the nomination by his party. Once again, however, Bush overcame the doubts that others had about his ability to run a good campaign, and he defeated McCain in a sequence of crucial primaries.

The Bush-McCain battle at times was a bitter and personal one, and in defeat McCain waited a considerable amount of time before issuing a rather tepid endorsement of the victor. Bush proved those observers wrong when he began a quick climb in the national opinion polls and opened a strong lead against Vice President Gore. Cheney strengthened the GOP ticket by adding what Bush clearly lacked, foreign policy and defense-issues experience. Although widely considered weak and inexperienced in foreign policy, Bush offered an appealing set of policy proposals on the domestic front--the more important area for influencing presidential election outcomes.

His social security plan to partially privatize retirement accounts and his education initiatives, including school choice, enabled the GOP presidential nominee to challenge the traditional Democratic advantage on these issues. In line with long-standing Republican interests, he promised massive tax cuts as well.

His campaign in fact seemed to lose focus, and many independent observers and Republicans alike suggested that Bush was in real danger of losing. For weeks he seemed more interested in discussing campaign minutiae such as the format of the candidate debates than the larger policy issues that had made him a strong candidate to begin with.

Although polls showed that most voters believed that Gore had won the debate because of his superior command of the issues, those same polls suggested that the electorate found Bush to be the more likable and believable candidate. Although foreign policy experts did not widely praise his performance, Bush nonetheless proved himself to voters as capable enough to be a leader of the free world. Subsequent polls showed that voter concerns about his abilities were easily retired by his debate performance.

He continued to hold his ground following the third debate on October Voter surveys indicated that people perceived Bush as the candidate of change and Gore the man who represented the status quo. With some uncertainty over the continued strength of the economy and stability abroad, voters seemed to decide that a change in leadership was good for the country. Bush was narrowly declared the victor on the basis of the electoral vote, although he lost the popular vote. Because of the extreme closeness of the results in Florida, however, where a decisive 25 electoral votes were at stake, an unprecedented recount was automatically triggered there under state law.

After more than two weeks had passed during which Gore campaign officials predicted vindication on the basis of manual recounts in selected balloting precincts, and Bush representatives sued in the federal courts to enjoin the action, Bush was certified the winner. He was credited with Gore, however, immediately challenged these results on the basis of apparent problems involving the balloting procedures used and an allegedly flawed certification process. The matter quickly made its way to the U. Supreme Court, which, in a sharply divided ruling , decided the case in favor of Bush.

Rozell Catholic University of America. Le Figaro afp. Durch US-Spionage-Satelliten. Warum ist der Pate des Terrors so reich? Warum konnten die Geheimdienste die Katastrophe nicht stoppen? Die USA-Spione sind hoch technologisiert. Eine unheimliche Lawine von Informationen.

Bin Laden hat ca. Investigators said they recovered the flight data recorder from United Flight 93, the jet that crashed in a field about 80 miles from Pittsburgh. Investigators hope the so-called black box will provide vital clues from the final minutes before the plane crashed. The Justice Department said it will release names and photographs of the 18 tomorrow.

In New York, officials compiled a list of 4, people missing in the smoldering and shifting ruins of the World Trade Center. The Pentagon reported that Pentagon personnel are missing in the attack along with 64 people aboard the plane that crashed into the building. A Justice Department official who briefed reporters said some people had been arrested for immigration violations that might be related to the terrorism case. The official did not say how many people were arrested or where, and said formal charges had not yet been filed.

Bukhari and his brother Ameer, 39, were among a group of flight engineers with Saudi Arabian Airlines who were brought to the U. CNN reported investigators had initially identified the brothers as possible hijackers. CNN quoted an unnamed lawyer for Adnan Bukhari as saying it appeared their identifications were stolen and that Adnan Bukhari had no role in the hijackings.

Ameer Bukhari died in a midair collision while flying a Piper Cherokee from the academy. The accident occurred on Sept. The government typically only sends Saudi nationals to the U. Atta, who also received pilot training in Florida, was listed as aboard one of the planes that left Boston and crashed into the World Trade Center. Huffman often advertises for students in Europe and trains on small aircraft such as Pipers and Cessnas, Voss said.

Five hijackers entered the United States through Canada, probably through border points in Quebec and Nova Scotia, including the ferry depot, said Vincent Cannistraro, a former CIA counterintelligence official, according to the Montreal Gazette. Mueller said all the hijackers were ticketed passengers. ABC reported early Friday that authorities arrested 10 suspects -- nine men and one woman -- and believed that there were plans to hijack planes at both Kennedy and LaGuardia airports in New York.

New York transportation authorities said they could not comment on the report. The three New York area airports were shut down after the reported incidents and remained closed early Friday. ABC said at least some of those arrested were carrying knives and false identification. Passenger Jim Hunter said he and others aboard American Airlines Flight , scheduled to fly from New York to Los Angeles, had sat on the plane for hours before police entered the jetliner. And then two other passengers that were right in front of me were ultimately asked to go with authorities as well.

The incidents took place two days after hijackers commandeered four planes, crashing two into the twin towers of the World Trade Centers in New York and one into the Pentagon news - web sites outside Washington. A fourth plane crashed in Pennsylvania. Some were Arabs, Kerik told a news conference. Our joint terrorism task force and the FBI news - web sites are looking into the matter and there are three other incidents at airports into which FBI and joint chairs and task force are conducting an investigation.

John G. Tower to be his secretary of defense. When the Senate in March rejected his nomination, Bush selected Rep. Richard B. Dick Cheney of Wyoming. He went on to further graduate study in political science at the University of Wisconsin, and moved to Washington as a congressional fellow for the year. Cheney entered federal service in as a special assistant to the director of the Office of Economic Opportunity.

In he became a White House staff assistant, and soon moved on to become assistant director of the Cost of Living Council, where he stayed until After a year in private business, he returned to the White House to become deputy assistant to President Gerald Ford and then White House chief of staff Reelected for five additional terms, he served several years on the House Intelligence Committee and the House Intelligence Budget Subcommittee. In December House Republicans chose him to serve as whip in the incoming st Congress. Less than a week after Bush nominated him, the Senate confirmed Cheney as secretary of defense; he entered office on 21 March Cheney generally focused on external matters and delegated most internal Pentagon management details to Deputy Secretary of Defense Donald J.

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Atwood, Jr. He worked closely with Louis A. Pete Williams, assistant secretary of defense for public affairs, and Paul Wolfowitz, under secretary of defense for policy. Powell, who assumed the post on 1 October Occasionally Bush consulted with Cheney on matters unrelated to defense, such as White House organization and management. He understood how Congress, and more particularly the legislative process, operated, and he used this knowledge and experience to avoid the kind of difficulties Caspar Weinberger had encountered with Congress.

Although some of the usual turf battles between the State and Defense Departments continued during his term, Cheney and Secretary of State Baker were old friends and avoided the acrimony that sometimes occurred between the two departments during the Weinberger period. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in , Cheney worried about the dangers of nuclear proliferation and effective control of nuclear weapons from the Soviet nuclear arsenal that had come under the control of newly independent republics-Belarus, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan-as well as in Russia itself.

Cheney warned about the possibility that other nations, such as Iraq, Iran, and North Korea, would acquire nuclear components after the Soviet collapse. He supported the initiatives that President Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin took in and to cut back the production and deployment of nuclear weapons and to move toward new arms control agreements. How to restructure the alliance and modify its strategy to reflect changes in the military situation posed major questions for Cheney.

He believed that NATO had to remain the foundation of European security relationships and that it would continue to be important to the United States in the long term. Central and Eastern Europe, he told his NATO colleagues, presented the most threatening potential security problems in the years ahead.

The current problem, rather than East versus West, was East and West versus instability. He saw high potential for uncertainty and instability, and he felt that the Bush administration was too optimistic in supporting Mikhail Gorbachev and his successor, Boris Yeltsin. Cheney believed that as the United States downsized its military forces, reduced its troops in Europe, and moved forward with arms control, it needed to keep a watchful eye on Russia and other successor states of the Soviet Union. The DoD budget faced Cheney with his most immediate and pressing problem when he came to the Pentagon.

Cheney recognized the necessity of cutting the budget and downsizing the military establishment, but he favored a cautious approach. In making decisions on the FY budget, the secretary had to confront the wish list of each of the services. What direction to go with ballistic missiles also posed difficult choices. A decision had to be made on how to base the MX-whether on railroad cars or in some other mode. Welch, the Air Force chief of staff, just three days after Cheney entered office. The Washington Post reported on 24 March that Welch had been canvassing members of Congress on their opinions on a plan to deploy the existing 50 MX missiles and build and deploy Midgetman missiles.

At a news conference the same day, Cheney indicated that no decision had been made on the MX-Midgetman question, and that Welch was not speaking for the Defense Department. Cheney made his views known to Welch in a meeting shortly after the news conference. They resolved their differences when Welch informed Cheney that he had, indeed, cleared his actions with OSD. Nevertheless, Cheney had plainly carried out his intention of making a statement about the respective roles of the civilian and military leadership in the Pentagon. While not unalterably opposed to the Midgetman, Cheney questioned how to pay for it in a time of shrinking defense budgets.

In making broad budget decisions, Cheney held to two overriding priorities-protecting people programs including training, pay, housing allowances, and medical care , and using proven hardware rather than rushing into complicated new technologies. Like Carlucci he thought it better, if cuts had to be made, to have a smaller but highly trained and equipped force rather than maintain previous levels of strength without sufficient readiness. Cheney preferred to cut some conventional weapon systems rather than strategic systems.

The House and Senate in November finally settled on a budget somewhere between the preferences of the administration and the House committee. Funding for the FD was to continue for another year, providing 18 more aircraft in the program. In subsequent years under Cheney the budgets proposed and the final outcomes followed patterns similar to the FY budget experience. Early in the secretary unveiled a plan to reduce military strength by the mids to 1. In his budget proposal for FY , his last one, Cheney asked for termination of the B-2 program at 20 aircraft, cancellation of the Midgetman, and limitations on advanced cruise missile purchases to those already authorized.

When introducing this budget, Cheney complained that Congress had directed Defense to buy weapons it did not want, including the V, M-1 tanks, and F and F aircraft, and required it to maintain some unneeded reserve forces. During this same period total military personnel declined by The Army took the largest cut, from , to , The Air Force declined by The V question caused friction between Cheney and Congress throughout his tenure. DoD spent some of the money Congress appropriated to develop the aircraft, but congressional sources accused Cheney, who continued to oppose the Osprey, of violating the law by not moving ahead as Congress had directed.

Cheney argued that building and testing the prototype Osprey would cost more than the amount appropriated. In the spring of several congressional supporters of the V threatened to take Cheney to court over the issue. He made clear that he personally still opposed the Osprey and favored a less costly alternative. When some elements of the military in the Philippines attempted a coup against the government of President Corazon Aquino and strafed and bombed the presidential palace in November , Aquino asked for assistance from the United States. Bush and Cheney approved the use of U.

The buzzing by U. Using economic sanctions and political pressure, the United States mounted a campaign to drive Noriega from power. In May after Guillermo Endara had been duly elected president of Panama, Noriega nullified the election outcome, incurring intensified U. In October Noriega succeeded in quelling a military coup, but in December, after his defense forces shot a U. Within a few days they achieved control and Endara assumed the presidency. Cheney took a strong stand against use of U.

After the collapse of a collective presidency in Yugoslavia in the early s, the country split into several independent republics, including the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which declared its independence in March Whether and how to intervene in Bosnia evoked an emotional debate in the United States, but Cheney left office before any firm decisions were made, and his successors inherited the knotty issue. In August the United States began to provide humanitarian assistance, primarily food, through a military airlift.

Perry, had to contend with both the Bosnian and Somalian issues. On 1 August President Saddam Hussein of Iraq sent invading forces into neighboring Kuwait, a small oil-rich country long claimed by Iraq. Although taken by surprise, President Bush soon decided that the aggression could not stand. Fortunately, the United States had already begun to develop contingency plans for defense of Saudi Arabia by the U.

Central Command, headed by General H. Norman Schwartzkopf. Other nations, including Great Britain, Canada, France, Italy, Syria, and Egypt, contributed troops, and other allies, most notably Germany and Japan, agreed to provide financial support for the coalition effort, named Operation Desert Shield. In the meantime a congressional and public debate developed in the United States about whether to rely on economic sanctions against Iraq or to use military force. Cheney signed an order, not publicly released at the time, stating that the president would make the determination required by the joint resolution and that offensive operations against Iraq would begin on 17 January.

As the military buildup in Saudi Arabia Desert Shield proceeded in the fall of and as the UN coalition moved toward military action, Cheney worked closely with General Powell in directing the movement of U. He participated intently with Powell, Schwartzkopf, and others in overseeing planning for the operation. Cheney, according to Powell, "had become a glutton for information, with an appetite we could barely satisfy. He spent hours in the National Military Command Center peppering my staff with questions. Cheney spent many hours briefing Congress during the air and ground phases of the war.

In an incident in September involving General Michael J. Dugan, who had replaced General Welch as Air Force chief of staff, Cheney again demonstrated the primacy of civilian authority over the military. Targets included key Iraqi command and control centers, including Baghdad and Basra. Iraq retaliated by firing Scud missiles against locations in Saudi Arabia and Israel. The United States used Patriot missiles to defend against the Scuds, which were old and unsophisticated, and diverted some aircraft to seek out and bomb the missile sites.

The Israeli government wanted to use its own air power to hunt down and destroy Scud launch sites in western Iraq, but U. After an air offensive of more than five weeks, the UN coalition launched the ground war, with the first forces thrusting into Kuwait from Saudi Arabia early in the morning of 24 February. Within four days Iraqi forces had been routed from Kuwait and pushed into the interior of Iraq after suffering heavy losses. By 27 February General Schwartzkopf reported that the basic objective-expelling Iraqi forces from Kuwait-had been met.

After consultation with Cheney, Powell, and other members of his national security team, Bush declared a suspension of hostilities effective at midnight on 27 February, Washington time. A total of U. Iraq agreed to a formal truce on 3 March, and a permanent cease-fire on 6 April. Subsequently there was debate about whether the UN coalition should have driven all the way to Baghdad to oust Saddam Hussein from power. Bush and his advisers agreed unanimously on the decision to end the ground war when they did.

The UN resolutions on the war limited military action to expelling Iraq from Kuwait.

Der Tag im Überblick

Cheney thought that if the campaign continued, the invading force probably would get bogged down and suffer many casualties. The debate persisted for years after the war as Saddam Hussein remained in power, rebuilt his military forces, resisted full implementation of the cease-fire terms, and periodically threatened Kuwait.

Looking to the future, Cheney regarded the Gulf War as the first example of the kind of regional problem the United States was likely to face in the aftermath of the Cold War. He thought the successful campaign validated the broad strategy developed under his direction. A draft Defense Planning Guidance issued early in envisioned several scenarios in which the United States might have to fight two large regional wars at one time-for example, against Iraq again, against North Korea, or in Europe against a resurgent, expansionist Russia.

The Pentagon later modified this document, but it gave some indication of what the Defense Department saw as future threats to the United States. Just before he left office, Cheney released a paper dealing with defense strategy for the s in which he elaborated his strategic views, underscoring the importance of strategic deterrence and defense, forward presence, and crisis response. He added "science and technology" and "infrastructure and overhead" to the traditional pillars of military capability-readiness, sustainability, modernization, and force structure. Increasingly, toward the end of his tenure, Cheney had to consider social issues affecting the military forces, particularly the status of homosexuals in the military and the role of women in combat.

In the face of pressure from some members of Congress and the public at large, Cheney reviewed standing DoD policy on these matters. He decided that the existing policies-a ban on homosexuals serving in the military and the exclusion of women from combat positions-were correct and did not need to be changed. On 20 January when the Clinton administration took office, Cheney left the Pentagon and joined the American Enterprise Institute in Washington as a senior fellow. He maintained his interest in national security affairs, speaking and writing occasionally on the subject. Cheney regarded the successful planning and implementation of Desert Shield and Desert Storm as his most important achievement as secretary of defense.

The failure to make significant reforms in procurement was his biggest disappointment. Cheney contemplated becoming a candidate for the Republican nomination for president but decided against it in In October of that year he became president and chief executive officer of the Halliburton Company in Dallas, Texas. It is almost unknown, for instance, that the disastrous Iran-contra scandal might never have happened -- or would likely have been stopped much sooner -- except for the work of Colin Powell.

In early , it was Powell who short-circuited the Pentagon covert procurement system that otherwise would have alerted the military brass that thousands of missiles were headed to Iran, a terrorist state. Powell, then-assistant to Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger, used his bureaucratic skills to circumvent normal procedures and slip the missiles out of U.

Army inventories. At the Pentagon, some senior officers protested that one shipment endangered U. But if any remission is made by the brother of the slain, then grant any reasonable demand, and compensate him with handsome gratitude, this is a concession and a Mercy from your Lord. After this whoever exceeds the limits shall be in grave penalty.

If the deceased belonged to a people at war with you, and he was a believer, the freeing of a believing slave Is enough. If he belonged to a people with whom ye have treaty of Mutual alliance, compensation should be paid to his family, and a believing slave be freed. For those who find this beyond their means, is prescribed a fast for two months running: by way of repentance to God: for God hath all knowledge and all wisdom.

Koran, 2. Diese Milde und Barmherzigkeit kommt von euerem Herrn. Koran-Ausgabe des Goldmann-Verlags At the Pentagon, spokesman Navy Lt. Jeff Davis said the United States had not attacked Iraq. British officials did not immediately comment. El Pais Eagleburger, secretary of state in the final months of the first Bush presidency, said he worries that the United States will be unable to maintain the support of allied and friendly governments. This is a war against terrorism, not an individual. The military strike options go far beyond the short-term cruise missile assaults of years past in Afghanistan and Sudan and isolated airstrikes against sites in Iraq.

Instead, they involve the potential lengthy use of military forces on the land, at sea and in the air. Options include the covert insertion of elite special forces and long-range bomb strikes from manned aircraft, said senior military and administration officials, all speaking on condition of anonymity.

The official also said Pakistan will be pressed to stop giving money to terror groups. Over a similar period, Pakistan had been losing favor with the United States after valued service as a Cold War ally. The strategic U. Earlier in the week, Powell had been circumspect about assigning blame for the terrorist attack. High-level meetings have been held in recent years to coordinate policy on that issue, and Armitage will be traveling to Moscow next week for another next round.

Russia has been alarmed by a Taliban-backed Islamic insurgency that threatens stability in a number of former Soviet republics in Central Asia. Russia has led U. It is not clear, however, whether the administration will seek tangible support from Moscow. Berlin, - www. Welche Bedeutung hat Art. Dies darf keinesfalls mit einem Alarmzustand verwechselt werden. Folglich fallen auch Terrorakte unter den Begriff "Angriff". Rumsfeld to call 30, to 50, members of the National Guard and Reserve to active duty in the next few days, a defense official said Thursday.

He said those called up would be used for defense duties in the United States. Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Vern Clark pointed out that the Navy already has two aircraft carrier battle groups, each with 75 warplanes, near the Arabian Sea. That is twice the usual number for that part of the world. Such battle groups normally include cruisers and submarines, which can be launch pads for long-range cruise missile strikes, perhaps a prelude to attacks by manned aircraft such as B-2 stealth bombers or B-1 Lancers.

There were no other indications Thursday of a buildup of American forces in the Middle East or elsewhere. India will allow U. Saddam, who faced a U. Saddam also warned the West against a war between Christians and Muslims. As in his first open letter to the West last week, Saddam also called on U. Iraqi officials, playing down any escalation between Washington and Baghdad, refuse to comment on whether Iraq would face U. Officials in Baghdad privately expressed relief after U.

But sources pointed out that just because Atta met with an Iraqi intelligence official did not necessarily mean that the government of Iraq had supported the attacks that demolished the World Trade Center and damaged the Pentagon. Some intelligence experts have advocated a closer look at whether Iraq had any ties to the assault. Former CIA Director James Woolsey has been very public about his belief that the high degree of coordination involved in the attack suggested a state sponsor such as Iraq could be involved.

But one U. Not at this time. Are we looking at that? Les cinq principaux suspects font partie de ce contingent. Oktober mit ersten Protestkundgebungen beantwortet wurde. Oktober an, dass er durch eine 10 Vgl. Eine Geschichte der Bundesrepublik von bis zur Gegenwart. Andreas Wirsching: Abschied vom Provisorium. Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Ein Schatten auf dieser Erfolgsbilanz war allerdings die Arbeitslosigkeit.

Aufgrund von Zuwanderung verringerte sich die Zahl der Arbeitslosen dadurch aber kaum. Immerhin stieg sie auch nicht weiter an. Gerhard Stoltenberg: Wendepunkte. Stationen deutscher Politik Genscher: Erinnerungen wie Anm. Mai zur Unterzeichnung in Ost-Berlin. November die 20 Zit. Leben mit Macht. Die Beweise. Regierungsstil und Entscheidungen Politik und Gesellschaft zwischen Wiedervereinigung und Globalisierung.

Opladen , S. Bulletin, Nr. Dezember , S. Regierungspolitik , Bd. Darstellung und Dokumentation Der erste Anlauf dazu war in den er Jahren noch gescheitert. London Der Abschlussbericht des Delors-Ausschusses, der am Er sah vor, in einer ersten Stufe zum 1. Bereits am In: Europa-Archiv 44 , S. D Dezember In: Deutsche Einheit. November Beide Konferenzen sollten so arbeiten, dass ihre Ergebnisse zeitgleich zum 1. Januar in Kraft treten konnten.

Dokumente von bis Deutsche Integrationsmotive und Integrationsziele nach der Wiedervereinigung. Februar unterzeichnet wurde, aber nach Problemen im Ratifizierungsverfahren erst am 1. November in Kraft treten konnte. In: Gasteyger: Europa wie Anm. In: Verhandlungen des Deutschen Bundestages. Auch nach Unterzeichnung des Zwei-plus-Vier-Vertrages am AdG , S. Hans-Dietrich Genscher, Interview. In: Die Zeit Nr. August , S. Von der Machtbesessenheit zur Machtvergessenheit. Weltmacht wider Willen? Der Golf-Krieg fand deshalb ohne die Deutschen statt. Der Gesamtwert aller staatlichen deutschen Leistungen in den Jahren und im Zusammenhang mit den multilateral koordinierten Reaktionen auf den irakischen Angriff belief sich auf knapp 18 Milliarden DM.

In: FDP-Tagesdienst , In: FDP-Tagesdienst , 9. In: Deutsche Einheit wie Anm. Die Deutschen in der Golfallianz. Bereits nach dem Tod von Staatschef Tito am 4. Internationale Sicherheitsverantwortung Deutschlands und Europas nach der deutschen Vereinigung. Forces in the Gulf. In: International Herald Tribune, 6.

Cold War Politics in Postwar Germany

Die Spaltung Jugoslawiens begann. Viktor Meier: Wie Jugoslawien verspielt wurde. Siehe ebenfalls Sabrina P. Boulder, CO Mai , S. In: Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 32, 4. Juli September in Den Haag ihre Arbeit aufnahm. August offen mit der einseitigen Anerkennung Kroatiens und Sloweniens drohte, wenn die Gewaltanwendung weitergehe.

Marburg , S. Siehe auch Michael Libal: Limits of Persuasion. Germany and the Yugoslav Crisis Januar als Rechtsnachfolger Jugoslawiens anerkannt werden. Die Bundesregierung wartete jedoch nicht einmal diesen Termin ab, sondern beschloss bereits am Vom Krieg zum Frieden in Bosnien. Siehe auch Zeitler: Deutschlands Rolle wie Anm. The Hague , S. Begrenztes Engagement und Konfliktdynamik. Die Reaktion des politischen Systems auf den Umbruch Die neuen Staaten und die Politik des Westens.

Der Kampf um Titos Erbe. Graz u. In: Richard H. Ullman Hrsg. In: Los Angeles Times, Siehe auch The Wall Street Journal, 9. Juli , S. Siegfried Schwarz: Deutschlands neue Rolle in Europa. Zentralmacht im Zielkonflikt? In: Wolfgang Thierse u. Eine Bilanz. Siehe auch Werner Weidenfeld Hrsg.

Deutschlands Standort in Europa. Die Entwicklung Deutschlands vom hegemonialen Aggressor zum verantwortungsvollen Mitglied in der internationalen Staatengemeinschaft. Strukturen, Aufgaben, Dokumente. Teil 3: Finanzierung des Systems der Vereinten Nationen. Deutsches Personal bei internationalen Organisationen. Juli seine Arbeit aufnahm.

September vor der Generalversammlung den Anspruch Deutschlands auf einen permanenten Sitz im Sicherheitsrat anmeldete. In: Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 46, 6. November , S. Versuch einer Zwischenbilanz. In: Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 18, April , S. Lutz: Krieg als ultima ratio? Doch diese erhoben im April Klage vor dem Bundesverfassungsgericht, um den Einsatz zu stoppen. Wichtig war zudem, dass das Gericht in seinem Urteil jeden bewaffneten Einsatz der Bundeswehr unter den Parlamentsvorbehalt stellte. Juni vgl. Der Begriff verkehrte sich dadurch in sein Gegenteil. From Unification to Euroization.

Sven T. Siefken: Expertenkommissionen im politischen Prozess. Aber ich bin sicher: Wir werden es erreichen. Wahlperiode, Sitzung, Berlin, Freitag, den In: Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus Hrsg. Leipzig , S. In: Politische Vierteljahresschrift 5 , 1, S. Es sind vier: 1. Parteibegriff 2. Parteienwettbewerb 22 Vgl. Botzenhart: Deutscher Parlamentarismus wie Anm. Dieter Hein: Partei und Bewegung.

Zwei Typen moderner politischer Willensbildung. In: Historische Zeitschrift , S. Historisches Lexikon zur politisch-sozialen Sprache in Deutschland. Der dritte Kreis zielt auf die Notwendigkeit von politischer Opposition und Fraktionsbildung innerhalb der parlamentarischen Kammern. Parteien im Parlament 4. Hatte man im politischen Den- 1. Gunn Hrsg. Attitudes to party in government and opposition in eighteenth-century England; extracts from contemporary sources. Altona , S. In: Geschichte und Gesellschaft 4 , S.

In: Dieter Langewiesche Hrsg. Parteizwecke zu verfolgen, ist eine patriotische und folglich sittliche Pflicht. Heinrich von Gagern: Briefe und Reden — Rede zum Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt , S. In: Bundesarchiv u. Heidelberg , S. In: Allgemeine politische Annalen 9 , S. Die Partei im Parlament: Kontrolle, Gesetzgebung und Gestaltwandel der politischen Opposition Im demokratischen Verfassungsstaat vollzieht sich die Vermittlung zwischen ungeregelter gesellschaftlicher Meinungs- und Interessenvielfalt und organisierter staatlicher Handlungs- und Wirkungseinheit institutionell vor allem 3.

Ein Parlament, das sich in ein Regierungs- und ein Oppositionslager aufgliedere, verliere seine Rechtsgrundlage. In: Horst Dreier Hrsg. Altenburg , S. Helmut Kramer: Fraktionsbindungen in den deutschen Volksvertretungen — Ein deutsches Parlament zwischen Reform und Revolution. Liberalismus in Kurhessen Kassel ; Ewald Grothe: Verfassungsgebung und Verfassungskonflikt.

In: Gerhard A. Ritter Hrsg. Im Gegenteil wird diese Anschauung bereits in der Restaurationszeit — unter anderem von Hegel! Zumindest im politischen Denken der Zeit waren die Parteien vielfach im Parlament — und damit im dritten Kreis unserer Argumentation — angekommen. Karlsruhe , S. Philipp Erbentraut: Ein kritischer Freund der Parteien. Hegels Auffassung der politischen Partei war differenzierter als bislang angenommen. In: Hegel-Studien 48 , S. Becht: Badischer Parlamentarismus wie Anm.

Hier gilt mit anderen Worten strikte Parteidisziplin. In: Otto Brunner u. Man habe auf diese Weise verhindern wollen, dass sich Parteien in der Kammer bilden. Stattdessen hatte sich am Vorabend der er Revolution der Charakter der Opposition zu innerparlamentarischen Gruppenbildungen hin verschoben, wobei die Hauptlinie des Parteienwettbewerbs nun zwischen Regierung plus Parlamentsmehrheit auf der einen und der Oppositionspartei auf der anderen Seite verlaufen sollte. Jenseits dieser Linie beginnt der 4. Dies ist gleichzeitig der innere und letzte Zirkel unserer Argumentation. Kammer seyn. Lediglich die zweite Variante, also die Praxis parlamentarischer Ministerbestellung, entspreche dem Geist der konstitutionellen Monarchie.

Anatomie eines deutschen Landtags. Erich Angermann: Robert von Mohl — Leben und Werk eines altliberalen Staatsgelehrten. Neuwied , S. Der Autor wollte mit solchen wenig schmeichelhaften Titulierungen sicherlich mehr bezwecken, als einzelne Abgeordnete zu beleidigen. Angermann wie Anm.

Damit ist nicht gesagt, dass es keine Parteienkritik gab. Reinhart Koselleck: Standortbindung und Zeitlichkeit. Zu den Intentionen von G. Hegels Reformbill-Schrift. Jahrhunderts1 Die belgische Verfassung von , so schrieb der englische Verfassungsrechtler Albert V. Jahrhundert in Belgien, England und Frankreich. Dicey: Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution, 1st ed. Allison Hrsg. Oxford , S. Deventer , S. Dordrecht , S. Louvain , S. Essai sur les sources du texte de la Constitution Belge.

Konstitutionalismus und Politik in Belgien im In: Detlef Lehnert Hrsg. Entwicklung und Interpretation. In: Lutz Raphael Hrsg. A Study in English Political Culture. Cambridge , S. Zur Geschichte des Manchester , S. Martin Kirsch et al. In: Christoph Gusy Hrsg. Auch ist die Forschungsperspektive einer kulturalistischen Verfassungsgeschichte noch immer kaum verbreitet. Eine staatsrechtlich-politische Abhandlung. Susanne Baer: Rechtssoziologie. Baden Baden , S. Edelman: Legal Rational Myths.

In: Law and Social Inquiry 21 3, S. Zur politischen Kultur des Konstitutionalismus in Deutschland. Probleme und Perspektiven aus der Sicht des Historikers. In: Helmut Neuhaus Hrsg. Volume 1: — In: Rainer Wahl Hrsg. In: Neuhaus Hrsg. In: Heinz Reif Hrsg. Entwicklungslinien und Wendepunkte im In: Alois Schmid Hrsg. Dies zeichnete sich auch in den Bildungsdebatten ab. Geschichte und Geschichtsschreibung. In: Johannes Koll Hrsg. Jahrhunderts in Deutschland. Unter anderem deshalb waren die Bildungsdebatten auch Verfassungsdebatten.

In: Lehnert Hrsg. Bielefeld , S. Beide II. In: Francis M. Thompson Hrsg. In: Historisches Jahrbuch , S. Das Board of Education wurde erst eingerichtet. Norman: Church and Society in England — A Historical Study. In: Midland History 3 2, S. Birmingham , S. Welche Legitimationsstrategien wandten die Ligen an, um eine Stimme in den Bildungsdebatten zu erlangen?

Die Legitimationsstrategien und -praktiken der Ligen Die Garantie der Vereinigungsfreiheit war sowohl in der englischen als auch in der belgischen Verfassung verbrieft. Jahrhunderts gezeigt hat, erfolgte in dieser Zeit eine Disziplinierung der politischen Kommunikation, die vor allem in deren Verschriftlichung aber auch in gesetzlichen Restriktionen bestand. Jahrhundert besonders in England keine Seltenheit mehr war.

An Introduction. In: Kirsch et al. In: Purvis Hrsg. Women in English Local Government — Oxford—New York Linz , S. Im Jahr jedoch versandte sie eine Einladung an die Ehefrauen ihrer Mitglieder, worin sie diese ausnahmsweise zur Teilnahme an der Jahresversammlung einlud. In: Ute Behning Hrsg. Vor allem die herausragende soziale Stellung der katholischen Kirche zwang die belgische Liga zu einem Legitimationsdiskurs.

Auch ein Mitglied aus Nil St. Gislain an Charles Buls. Nil St. Vincent Robert an Charles Buls, Bequette an Charles Buls. Lathny Frings an Charles Buls. Luicent Die belgische Liga suchte vor diesem Hintergrund nach alternativen Legitimationsquellen. Nord Hrsg. Der oftmals neidische Blick, den die belgischen Akteure somit nach England lenkten, richtete sich auch auf die von der NEL angewandten kommunikativen Praktiken, insbesondere das Petitionieren. Eine Petition mit dem Ziel der Verbesserung der sozialen Stellung der Grundschullehrer richtete sich an beide Kammern des Parlaments;58 dies tat auch eine Petition zur Reglementierung von Kinderarbeit aus dem Jahr LB ; dies.

In: Bulletin de la Ligue belge de l'enseignement. Jahrhunderts noch nicht erfolgt war. In: Bulletin. The Lords Spiritual and Temporal in Parliament assembled. The Humble Petition of […] Sheweth that […] Wherefore your petitioners pray that your honourable House […] And your petitioners [as in duty bound], will ever pray. Das Petitionieren entsprach hier eher einer sozialen Praxis als, wie im Falle Belgiens, einer bewussten, demonstrativen Nutzung oder gar Einforderung eines Verfassungsrechts. Perspektiven einer kulturwissenschaftlich-institutionalistischen Verfassungstheorie.

Der Widerstreit zwischen Unterrichtspflicht und liberaler Verfassung Die Ligue belge de l'enseignement bildete zusammen mit den Freimaurerlogen auch innerhalb des liberalen Spektrums eine der Minderheitengruppen, in denen die staatliche Unterrichtspflicht bereits in den er Jahren nicht nur akzeptiert, sondern nahezu unumstritten war. Die NEL sah ihrerseits die Unterrichtspflicht als einen integra- 3. In: Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire 63 2, S. Birmingham Termonde Ar. Aufruf zur Beteiligung an Petitionsaktion.

In : Documents Parlementaires de Belgique. Die Ligue de l'enseignement interpretierte die Verfassungsartikel 14 und 15 jedoch auch im Sinne einer garantierten Gewissensfreiheit, die sie wiederum zu keiner Gelegenheit klar definierte. Leaflet No. Birmingham BCL. Its Gains.

Sie sind hier

Its Wants. Birmingham ; dies. Dixon's Motion. Declarations of Ministers. Proposed Amendment of the Elementary Education Act Birmingham, ; dies. A Letter addressed to the Right Hon. Gladstone, M. John W. Caldicott, M. Pamphlet No. Jahrhundert deuten — und zwar sowohl hinsichtlich der Art und Weise ihrer Austragung als auch im Hinblick auf die darin verhandelten Inhalte. Jahrhundert aufzeigen. Elke Seefried Hrsg. In der Defensive. Wilderotter: Richard Freudenberg. In: Badische Heimat. Die Entwicklung eines Familienunternehmens von der Gerberei zur internationalen Firmengruppe.

Weinheim Ein Familienunternehmen in Kaiserreich, Demokratie und Diktatur. Jahrhunderts zu einem der wichtigsten Lederhersteller Europas. An das Handwerk des Gerbens und das Renommee eines weltbekannten Lederherstellers wird im Unternehmen heute nur noch historisch erinnert. Der Aufstieg einer erfolgreichen Gerberei, die seit der Mitte des Mit Gewerkschaften und Sozialdemokratie konnte er hingegen nichts anfangen. Richard Freudenberg wurde am 9.

Februar in Weinheim als siebtes Kind seiner Eltern Hermann Ernst und Helene Freudenberg geboren und besuchte seit das dortige Realgymnasium, das er mit dem Abitur abschloss. Der Export, der inzwischen eine geradezu atemberaubende Quote von fast siebzig Prozent erreicht hatte, brach zusammen.

Weinheim , S. In: Weinheimer Anzeiger vom Dies war erstaunlich: Anders als noch im In: Weinheimer Anzeiger vom 7. Teilweise auch abgedruckt in: Richard Freudenberg 80 Jahre, o. Grundriss der verstehenden Soziologie, 5. In: Dies. Jahrhundert, Stuttgart , S. November ihre Mitglieder auf, in die DDP einzutreten.

Bei den Wahlen zur Badischen Nationalversammlung vom Richard Freudenberg 15 Vgl. In: Jahrbuch zur Liberalismus-Forschung 25 , S. Bangert: Das Postulat wie Anm. Ein Beitrag zur deutschen Innenpolitik, Berlin In: Rudolf von Thadden Hrsg. In: Der Freudenberger 2 , S. Wilderotter: Richard Freudenberg wie Anm. Zur Geschichte des deutschen Liberalismus im In: Historische Mitteilungen 7 , S. Landtagsperiode, 2. Sitzungsperiode, Karlsruhe , Januar , Sp. Er hatte Sibille Sternberg, eine Karlsruher Arzttochter, kennengelernt und geheiratet. In: Wolfgang Hardtwig Hrsg.

Zur Politischen Kulturgeschichte Deutschlands Lebensversuche moderner Demokratien. Hamburg ; ders. Baden- Baden , S. In: BArch N , Nr. Der Erste Weltkrieg hatte der deutschen Lederwirtschaft einen Schlag versetzt, von dem sie sich niemals wieder erholte. Adelheid von Saldern: Hermann Dietrich. Dieter Schuster: Die Lederarbeiter und ihre Gewerkschaften bis In: Klaus Tenfelde Hrsg. Chemie — Bergbau — Leder. Industriearbeiter und Gewerkschaften in Deutschland seit dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. Die Belegschaften im Wandel der Zeit, hrsg. Die Darstellung folgt hier der auf Zeitzeugenangaben beruhenden Darstellung in Jahre Freudenberg.

Die Belegschaften wie Anm. In: Richard Freudenberg 70 Jahre. In: Spruchkammerakte Richard Freudenberg vom 6. Juni , Generallandesarchiv Karlsruhe , p Nr. Josef Schober, dem Partei- und Fraktionsvorsitzenden des badischen Zentrums, ausgefochten. September In: Weinheimer Nachrichten vom Paul Sauer: Staat, Politik, Akteure.

In: Otto Borst Hrsg. In: Thomas Schnabel Hrsg. Stuttgart u. Ethnicity, national identity, and the decline of German liberalism New York u. Liberal Democrats in the Third Reich. New Haven In: Andreas Wirsching Hrsg. Politik, Literatur, Wissenschaft. Die Geschichte der Wirtschaft im Nationalsozialismus. Mai Jones: Sammlung oder Zersplitterung? Richard Freudenberg wurde badischer Landesvorsitzender der DStP, aber mit Wahlerfolgen war das nicht verbunden, im Gegenteil, wie die deprimierenden Ergebnisse der Reichstagswahl im September zeigten, bei der die neue Partei nur 3,8 Prozent der Stimmen erhielt.

Propaganda und Programme der politischen Parteien bei den Wahlen zum Deutschen Reichstag von bis In: Stadtarchiv Weinheim, S.

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Der Weg zur Macht. In: Schnabel Hrsg. In: Central European History 23 , S. Wir haben hiervon z. Der vom Das NS-Regime und seine Gegner. In: Peter Steinbach Hrsg. Ein Problem zwischen Theorie und Geschichte. Freudenberg wurde zwar erneut als Ratsherr berufen, meldete sich aber kaum noch zu Wort. In: Stadt Weinheim Hrsg.

In: Stadtarchiv Weinheim, Rep 1, Nr. Berlin , bes. Sibille Freudenberg: Gesammeltes Leben wie Anm. Abgedruckt auch in Jahre Freudenberg wie Anm. Neuausgabe Hamburg , S. Auch in anderer Hinsicht erweiterte die Unternehmensleitung den Aktionsradius durch richtungsweisende Impulse. Wir waren den Weg aus freier Unternehmer-Entschlusskraft schon einleitend vorher gegangen. Auf der schiefen Bahn, von der Richard Freudenberg keinen Absprung fand, ging es unerbittlich weiter bergab. Kapitel 6, 10 und Scholtyseck: Freudenberg wie Anm.

Die sog. Das Unternehmen Freudenberg war zwar nur eines von mehreren Dutzend Firmen, die an den Materialtests beteiligt waren, aber auch eines der wichtigsten. Gesammeltes Leben wie Anm. Eine Produktgeschichte im deutsch-britisch-amerikanischen Vergleich. Aber dies kann nicht als Entschuldigung dienen und unterstreicht nur die Perfidie, mit der das NS-System so reibungslos funktionierte. Hierin liegen seine Verantwortung und sein Versagen. Aber er war auch kein knorriger Hitlergegner wie der liberale Robert Bosch, der allerdings in mancher Hinsicht noch ein Unternehmer des Jahrhunderts war.

Studien zur deutschen Geschichte und internationalen Politik. Es folgte eine Odyssee durch zahlreiche Lager, bis er nach fast zwei Jahren in amerikanischer Ermittlungshaft entlassen wurde. Die deutsche Wirtschaftselite im In: ebd. Freudenberg erhielt mit rund 5. Ein 89 Vgl. Stuttgart , bes. Bernfeld vom Jahrhunderts erinnerte. Als ungebundener Kandidat wollte Freudenberg zudem seine Entscheidungen ohne Partei- bzw. Freudenbergs Hauptaugenmerk galt fortan wieder der Firma, die er, nicht anders als vor , gegen Rivalen wie Salamander industriepolitisch und strategisch in Position zu bringen wusste.

Der Fabrikant Freudenberg war ein Wegbereiter des Landes. In: Momente , Heft 4, S. Bonn, Freitag, den 5. Dezember , Bonn , S. Richard Freudenberg an Ludwig Erhard vom 8. Nach seinem Aber es ist nicht zu spekulativ zu vermuten, dass er den Eindruck hatte, nicht nur sein Familienunternehmen prosperiere. Ganz offenkundig war auch die liberale Demokratie der Bundesrepublik auf einem guten Weg. Ein nationalliberaler Jurist und Staatsmann Baden-Baden In: Vom Reichsjustizamt zum Bundesministerium der Justiz.

Deutschen Demokratischen Partei politisch aktiv gewesen war,3 musste nach um sein Leben bangen. Zu Schiffers Karriere bis vgl.

I. Einleitung

In: Berlin in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Jahrbuch des Landesarchivs Berlin , S. In: Berlin. Quellen und Dokumente Berlin West , 2. In: Gerhard Keiderling Hrsg. April bis Juni Eine Dokumentation. Wir haben einen verschiedenen Weg gehabt und wir haben sicher verschiedene Ziele. II: Berlin Ost , S. Rede im Nationaltheater Weimar. In: Neues Deutschland, 1. In: VfZ 45 , S. In: Telegraf, Berlin West , S. Juli auf Antrag Schiffers aufgenommen, der bei dieser Gelegenheit auf rechtsstaatlichen Verfahren auch bei Enteignungen beharrte.

In: Siegfried Suckut Hrsg. Die Sitzungsprotokolle des zentralen Einheitsfront-Ausschusses. In: Der Morgen, 3. Wege und Ziele der Liberal-Demokratischen Partei. In: Der Morgen, Ramm: Schiffer und die Reform wie Anm. In: Kritische Justiz 21 , S. Personalpolitik bis Anfang der 50er Jahre. Dokumente aus den Jahren Transformation und Rolle ihrer zentralen Institutionen. Und da Bertz aufgrund seiner mangelnden juristischen Kompetenz keinen fachlichen Einfluss geltend machen konnte, Melsheimer nur als Leiter der Abteilung Gesetzgebung und Benjamin lediglich als Referentin in die Personalabteilung eingestellt wurden, konnten die Kommunisten die Arbeit der DJV vorerst nicht dominieren.

Schiffer konnte hoffen, seine Vorstellungen durchzusetzen. Nathan: Aus der Geschichte wie Anm. Januar aus der DJV aus. Schiffer hatte es nicht vermocht, die beiden mit untergeordneten Funktionen abzuspeisen. Amos: Justizverwaltung wie Anm. Schiffer hingegen strebte eine zentralisierte Justizverwaltung an. Entstehung, Entwicklung, Struktur. Daraufhin forderte dieser am Karassjow, Schiffers Antrag am November ablehnte, ohne freilich die Kompetenzen der regionalen und der zentralen Justizverwaltung voneinander abzugrenzen. In: Archivmitteilungen 36 , S.

Verordnung betr. Hier dachte er vor allem an die Rechtspfleger. Damit biss er bei Karassjow allerdings auf Granit, der ihn am November auf- IV. Damit war klar, dass Schiffer mit seinen Vorstellungen gescheitert war. Sein Wimpel zeige die Worte: Demokratischer Rechtsstaat. Denn dieser wollte V. In: Neue Justiz 1 , S. Im Zuge des aufziehenden Kalten Krieges und der damit verbundenen Blockbildung wurde ihr dies von der Besatzungsmacht auch zugestanden.

Melsheimer ist ja jetzt der Leiter der Deutschen Justizverwaltung. Denn Schiffer hatte Becker Mitte Juli noch beschworen, in der SBZ zu bleiben, und ihm zugesichert, ihn gegebenenfalls aus der Haft zu befreien, was sich allerdings angesichts von dessen Verschleppung durch die sowjetische Geheimpolizei als illusorisch erwies. Darin spielte er auch 48 Vgl. Aber gerade in diesem Kampf wurde aus These und Antithese die Synthese geboren. Er muss noch am 4. In: Neue Justiz 2 , S. Eugen Schiffer und die liberalen Parteien in Deutschland bis In: Ramm Hrsg. So beschloss der DDR-Ministerrat am Juli , des Tages, an dem wir 56 Vgl.

In: VfZ 39 , S. In: Dokumente zur Deutschlandpolitik. Reihe, Bd. Oder wollte er Ulbricht verdeutlichen, wie weit sich dieser von der damaligen Verpflichtung auf Rechtsstaatlichkeit entfernt hatte? So beklagte sich ein Delegierter auf dem In: Christ und Welt, Nr. Sozialpolitik erhielt Verfassungsrang. Dieses Sozialstaatspostulat wurde von der Politik als Verpflichtung zu sozialpolitischem 3 Vgl. In: Hans-Dietrich Genscher Hrsg.

So bekannte sich die FDP zwar in dem vom Bundeshauptausschuss am 5. Juli beschlossenen Sozialprogramm zur Sozialen Marktwirtschaft und zu den sozialen Grundrechten der Menschen. Auch wurden ein modernes Arbeitsrecht und eine Neuausgestaltung und Neuorganisation des tradierten Sozialversicherungssystems reklamiert.

Aufgabe des Staates ist es, zu die- ser Sicherung beizutragen. Nicht minder wichtig aber ist die Selbsthilfe und die freiwillige Zusammenarbeit im Geiste der sozialen Gemeinschaft. Januar beschlossene Berliner Programm, die sozialpolitischen Vorstellungen der Partei. Sie will die Furcht vor Krankheit, Not und Alter nehmen und allen unverschuldet in Not Geratenen rasch und ausreichend helfen.

Der sozialen Dimension der liberalen Wirtschaftsordnung gaben einige Forderungen scharfe Konturen. Ein guter Arbeitsplatz ist mehr wert als die beste Rente. Juni , d. Volker Hentschel: Sozialpolitik in Deutschland — Soziale Sicherung und kollektives Arbeitsrecht. Zum Gesetzentwurf der Bundesregierung vgl. BT Drs. Dezember vgl. Bundesgesetzblatt BGBl. Oktober und am 9. In: ADL, A; und am Hier ging es anfangs nicht um eine Erweiterung, sondern um eine Konsolidierung der betrieblichen Mitbestimmungsrechte.

Golitscheks Rede am Als die Bundesregierung mit ihrem im Oktober eingebrachten Gesetzentwurf zur Neuordnung der Beziehungen zwischen Arbeitnehmern und Arbeitgebern in den Betrieben nur wenig Entgegenkommen in der Frage der wirtschaftlichen Mitbestimmung zeigte,15 drohten die Gewerkschaften mit Streik.

Michael Schneider: Kleine Geschichte der Gewerkschaften. In: VfZ 33 , S. Der Entwurf wurde am Archiv der Gegenwart AdG , S.

Die Aussen- und Sicherheitspolitik der rot-grünen Koalition nach dem 11. September (German Edition) Die Aussen- und Sicherheitspolitik der rot-grünen Koalition nach dem 11. September (German Edition)
Die Aussen- und Sicherheitspolitik der rot-grünen Koalition nach dem 11. September (German Edition) Die Aussen- und Sicherheitspolitik der rot-grünen Koalition nach dem 11. September (German Edition)
Die Aussen- und Sicherheitspolitik der rot-grünen Koalition nach dem 11. September (German Edition) Die Aussen- und Sicherheitspolitik der rot-grünen Koalition nach dem 11. September (German Edition)
Die Aussen- und Sicherheitspolitik der rot-grünen Koalition nach dem 11. September (German Edition) Die Aussen- und Sicherheitspolitik der rot-grünen Koalition nach dem 11. September (German Edition)
Die Aussen- und Sicherheitspolitik der rot-grünen Koalition nach dem 11. September (German Edition) Die Aussen- und Sicherheitspolitik der rot-grünen Koalition nach dem 11. September (German Edition)
Die Aussen- und Sicherheitspolitik der rot-grünen Koalition nach dem 11. September (German Edition) Die Aussen- und Sicherheitspolitik der rot-grünen Koalition nach dem 11. September (German Edition)

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