At this point many patients would fall into crises, and, again, awaken relieved of their symptoms. The success of Mesmer's technique, not to mention his success at attracting clientele from among the ladies of the royal court, prompted King Louis to appoint a commission to investigate him in The members of the Royal Commission included two distinguished French scientists, Lavoisier and Guillotin, and was chaired by Benjamin Franklin, then serving as ambassador for the newly founded United States of America. There was also another commission, appointed by the French Academy of Sciences.
Mesmer would not permit himself to be investigated, and so the Franklin commission turned its inquiry to one of his disciples, Georges Debeouf. In the course of their work they conducted what may well stand as the earliest controlled psychological experiments.
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In one, Debeouf was asked to magnetize one of a stand of trees, and then a patient, known to be susceptible to the effects of animal magnetism, was asked to walk through the grove, passing near each tree in turn. Nothing happened when he passed the tree that had been magnetized. But upon reaching the last one, the patient promptly fell into a crisis. In another, a susceptible patient and a mesmerist were placed in adjoining rooms, separated by a curtain. When the mesmerist made magnetic passes unbeknownst to the patient, nothing happened; but when she was told that he was making his passes, although he was actually doing nothing at the time, she fell into a crisis.
The Franklin Commission concluded that Mesmer's cures were genuine, but his theory was wrong. The crises were the product of "imagination" rather than of physical forces. Mesmerism itself did not die, however. The practices were maintained by a small cult that had some impact on political events by virtue of its association with Freemasonry Darnton, ref.
The classic mesmeric convulsions had disappeared from sight after the discovery by the Abbe Faria of the "perfect crisis", in which the patient fell into a sleeplike state. The technique of mesmerism was the common stuff of charlatans and travelling stage shows: Mark Twain ref offers an amusing account of one. However, it was also revived twice as part of scientific medicine. A number of physicians, notably Braid ref and Esdaille ref , employed the technique to induce anesthesia before surgery.
Braid coined the term hypnotism for the procedure, after the Greek word for sleep. But the introduction of chloroform and other chemical anesthetics, which were both more reliable and more acceptable to the materialist world view of the scientific establishment, led quickly to its demise. Later, the technique was rediscovered by Jean-Marie Charcot and Hippolyte Bernheim as a cure for hysteria, syndromes that mimicked the symptoms of physical disease but for which no organic cause could be found.
For example, a patient might complain of deafness, but no defect could be detected in his auditory system, and subtle tests clearly indicated that he was actually processing auditory information despite his denial. Similarly, a woman might complain of glove anesthesia -- a lack of feeling in the hand and wrist -- despite the fact that such an experience is physiologically impossible given the distribution of the peripheral nerves.
These symptoms all seemed to reflect a change in consciousness, as percepts, memories, thoughts, and actions occurred outside the individual's phenomenal awareness and voluntary control. Interestingly, similar phenomena could be induced by means of hypnotic suggestion. This suggested to Charcot that hypnotizable individuals shared the same underlying pathology as hysterics -- an assumption that has since been disproved by a wealth of evidence which shows that hypnotizable people are quite normal J.
Hilgard, Bernheim, on the other hand, concluded that hysteria, like hypnosis, was a product of psychological processes. In any event, both Charcot and Bernheim, along with their followers, agreed that the phenomena represented, at some level, the power of ideas to turn into actions. This is one of the meanings of the term dynamic in the psychological sense. Thus was born the First Dynamic Psychiatry and the emergence of psychogenic rather than somatogenic theories of the etiology of mental illness. As a student and young professional, Freud studied with both Charcot and Bernheim.
He translated their works into German, and wrote favorable articles describing their work. He began a successful clinical practice using hypnosis to cure hysteria, but he soon discovered that it was not enough merely to suggest the symptoms away. Pierre Janet and Morton Prince , among others, continued to promote the theories of the First Dynamic Psychiatry.
In fact, Prince founded the Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology , which as the Journal of Abnormal Psychology has remained the world's most important journal for research on psychopathology. However, Freud himself quickly moved away to develop his own theory. Janet was invited to lecture at Harvard largely at the instigation of Prince and James; Freud, lacking an inside contact, lectured at the newly founded Clark University, outside Boston. Eventually psychoanalysis came to dominate the field leading to many editorial complaints by Prince in his journal , although recently the theory of dissociation has been revived Hilgard, ; Kihlstrom, But the First Dynamic Psychiatry had convinced Freud that the psychogenic theory was correct, and that the psychological causes of mental illness lay in mental states that were outside our awareness and free of our control.
The psychogenic theory was developed by Charcot's pupil and successor Pierre Janet and by Morton Prince, an American psychologist who founded the psychological clinic at Harvard. Janet argued that the elementary structures of the mind were psychological automatisms : complex acts, tuned to environmental demands and personal goals, which were preceded by an idea and accompanied by an emotion.
Each of these psychological automatisms, by combining thought, emotion, motivation, and action, represented a kind of rudimentary primitive consciousness. In normal people, according to Janet, all of these automatisms were bound together into a single, unified stream of consciousness, operating in awareness and under voluntary control. Under certain circumstances, however, one or more of these automatisms could be split off -- Janet's term was disaggregation, Prince's dissociation -- from the rest, functioning outside of awareness, voluntary control, or both.
This view of the mind was further elaborated by Prince. He referred to dissociated mental activity as co- conscious if the simultaneous streams were both performed in consciousness or subconscious if one or more streams were outside awareness rather than unconscious , because this last term seemed to connote a lack of mental activity. Freud was initially trained as a neurologist, and he distinguished himself in both neuroanatomy and neurosurgery, and did research on aphasia and the effects of cocaine. However, the young Freud was first and foremost a clinical practitioner interested in the problems of individual patients.
It was this concern that led him to study with Charcot and Bernheim in France, where the study of hysteria was well advanced. Although drawn at first toward Charcot and his somatogenic theorizing, Freud eventually sided with Bernheim and those members of the First Dynamic Psychiatry who were attempting to develop a psychogenic account of these mysterious syndromes.
The Surface Effect The Screen Of Fantasy In Psychoanalysis
Following his postgraduate studies Freud returned to Vienna and set up a practice with a more senior physician, Joseph Breuer, specializing in the treatment of hysteria. Following Bernheim's lead, Breuer and Freud began by treating hysteria with direct hypnotic suggestion -- more or less suggesting that the symptoms would disappear. However, they gradually abandoned hypnosis, in part because not all of their patients were hypnotizable, and in part because they stumbled on a new technique, called the cathartic method , which appeared to be more reliable for an historical account of Freud's interest in hypnosis, see Kline, ref.
The case that marked the shift from hypnosis to catharsis was that of Bertha Pappenheim, who later became a famous German social worker, but who was known in the Studies merely as Anna O. Anna O. At the age of 21, however, she fell ill and manifested classic symptoms of hysteria. While nursing her dying father she became weak, anorectic, and anemic, with a chronic headache and squinting eyes. She complained of hallucinations of snakes and falling walls, paralysis of the neck and extremities, and anesthesia in the extremities.
Her family reported periods in which she would become irresponsible and antisocial, for which she later had no memory. She would also occasionally show loss of speech, followed by a period in which she could speak English but not her native German. Breuer first treated Anna O. When this strategy failed, he coaxed her to talk about her symptoms while she was hypnotized.
As she talked, it became apparent that the manifest symptoms of her illness had been anticipated by earlier events -- memories of which were not available to her in the normal waking state. Breuer noted, remarkably, that symptoms disappeared when she described the circumstances under which they first appeared. However, they returned when she was not hypnotized. Eventually, the origin of her hysteria became clear.
While keeping a deathwatch over her father, she heard the sounds of a neighbor's party and felt guilty for wanting to join in the fun. She dozed off with her right arm over the back of the chair, and had a dream in which her father was attached by a black snake. Awaking in a panic, she found that her right arm had "fallen asleep", rendering her unable to defend him.
Not realizing that she had been dreaming, she became very frightened and tried to pray. But in her confusion all she could bring to mind were some English nursery-rhymes. When she remembered this event, the symptoms disappeared completely. Each of these yielded similar findings. In each case, the hysterical symptoms disappeared when the event evoking them was recalled, along with the affective experience which initially accompanied it. This emotional reliving of a forgotten event, called abreaction , lies at the heart of the cathartic method. Later clinical investigation revealed that hypnosis was not necessary for the success of the procedure.
Freud replaced hypnosis with the method of free association , in which the patient reports whatever is on his or her mind. Beginning with a symptom, dream, childhood memory, or any other material, Freud found that patients would eventually uncover for themselves the decisive traumatic event. From this kind of clinical investigation, Breuer and Freud concluded that "hysterics suffer from reminiscences" ref.
- The surface effect : the screen of fantasy in psychoanalysis (Book, ) [cojobocile.tk].
- Psychoanalytic Perspectives.
- The Surface Effect: The Screen of Fantasy in Psychoanalysis;
- Herb Seasoning.
- The psychic envelopes in psychoanalytic theories of infancy.
More generally, they asserted that all of us are affected by ideas and memories of which we are not directly aware. Moreover, there appears to be a "force" preventing them from becoming conscious. That force must be overcome in order to reveal the unconscious thought or memory that, in psychodynamic terms, is the ultimate cause of mental illness. Breuer and Freud dissolved their professional association after their work on hysteria, in part after a disagreement over Breuer's treatment of a patient.
Five years later, Freud published what he himself regarded as his most important work, The Interpretation of Dreams Freud, The book begins by reviewing the scientific literature on dreams available at the turn of the century -- a literature that is surprisingly large. For example, it was known that we can remember things in dreams that we cannot remember while awake, and that we often forget our dreams soon after awakening. Moreover, the mental life of the sleeper appeared to be quite different from that of waking consciousness. Dreams were full of rich and vivid sensory images and appear involuntary, while normal thought is deliberate and commonly based on language.
These and other observations raised the question of the nature of dreams, and whether they have any adaptive purpose. The bulk of the book contains Freud's attempt to uncover the meanings of his own dreams by means of the technique of free association. He began with "The Dream of Irma's Injection". Irma was both a family friend and a patient, a woman with symptoms of hysteria "Irma" was a pseudonym for Emma Eckstein, who later became a psychoanalyst herself.
Freud had applied his new psychoanalytic method to her, and she had shown some improvement. However, this strategy and its outcome were criticized by Otto, Freud's friend and junior colleague. Freud resolved to defend himself by documenting her case and submitting his report to Dr. During this period, Freud had the following dream. A large hall -- numerous guests, whom we were receiving.
I at once took her on one side, as though to answer her letter and to reproach her for not having accepted my "solution" yet. I said to her: "If you still get pains, it's really only your fault". She replied: "If you only knew what pains I've got now in my throat and stomach and abdomen -- it's choking me" -- I was alarmed and looked at her. She looked pale and puffy. I thought to myself that after all I must be missing some organic trouble. I took her to the window and looked down her throat, and she showed signs of recalcitrance, like women with artificial dentures.
I thought to myself that there was really no need for her to do that. My friend Otto was now standing beside her as well, and my friend Leopold was percussing her through her bodice and saying: "she has a dull area low down on the left". He also indicated that a portion of the skin on the left shoulder was infiltrated. I noticed this, just as he did, in spite of her dress. We were directly aware, too, of the origin of the infection. Not long before, when she was feeling unwell, my friend Otto had given her an injection of a preparation of propyl, propyls Injections of that sort ought not to be made so thoughtlessly And probably the syringe had not been clean.
Freud's interpretation began by identifying certain day residues , aspects of the dream that were clearly related to recent events.
Irma, Otto, and Dr. Moreover, Freud and Irma happened to be vacationing at the same resort at the time, and Irma was to be a guest at a forthcoming party. Most of Freud's patients were drawn from the upper strata of Viennese society, and it was remarkably common for physicians and their patients to move in the same social circles.
Wilhelm Fleiss, one of Freud's friends, had the theory that trimethylamine was a byproduct of sexual activity. Irma was a young widow, and Freud had suggested that her mental illness was caused by problems of a sexual nature. With these and other considerations in mind, the meaning of the dream was quite clear to Freud.
Otto, not Freud, was responsible for Irma's continuing illness. His skepticism prevented her from becoming fully involved in her treatment, abreacting, and achieving a complete cure. In the dream, Freud's diagnosis was confirmed not only by the impartial Dr. Thus, the dream represented Freud's much-desired revenge on his colleague.
Making the same point, Freud , pp. The story gains something in translation, and the reader should imagine the child using the equivalent of German baby-talk. My youngest daughter During the night after this day of starvation she was heard calling out excitedly in her sleep: Anna Fweud, stwabewwies, wild stwawbewwies, omblet, pudden! The menu included pretty well everything that must have seemed to her to make up a desirable meal. Analyses of other dreams led to similar conclusions.
For Freud, dreams represented the fulfillment of wishes, though in fantasy rather than reality. Often the wish is transparent, as in Freud's dream of Irma and Anna's dream of food. At other times, however, the wish is hidden by distortions, displacements, and symbolic transformations. Therefore, the manifest content of the dream, its surface appearance, must be interpreted to uncover its latent content , or hidden meaning.
In such cases, Freud thought, the meaning is hidden because it arouses anxiety. The analysis of dream symbolism, then, suggested that there were other mental forces at work besides those which prevented unpleasant memories from becoming conscious. These additional forces disguised the true meaning and significance of ideas that were conscious. Just a year later, Freud published another of his most popular books, The Psychopathology of Everyday Life Freud, The topic of the piece was the psychology of errors, what have since come to be called "Freudian slips".
Such lapses are a common occurrence: all of us have stumbled over the name of someone we knew quite well, or a foreign word or phrase; all of us have made slips of the tongue, or pen, or typewriter. One often encounters the forgetting of impressions, as when a friend walks out of the cinema and cannot say what the film was al bout; or of intentions, as expressed by the familiar complaint, "I forgot what I was about to say".
Freud drew attention to errors in memory as well as in action, especially the phenomenon of screen memory : despite all that has occurred in the first five or six years of our lives, all that is preserved -- for most of us -- are a few fragments of utterly banal events, without any apparent significance or emotional involvement attached to them. Up until Freud's time, the general consensus was that these sorts of phenomena were of a random nature, merely reflecting the vicissitudes of mental functioning.
Freud thought differently, as illustrated by his story of "The Aliquis Episode". Last summer I renewed my acquaintance with a certain young man of academic background. I soon found that he was familiar with some of my psychological publications. We had fallen into conversation He ended a speech of impassioned fervour with the well-known line of Virgil's in which the unhappy Dido commits to posterity her vengeance on Aeneas: " Exoriare Why not help me?
There's something missing in the line; how does the whole thing really go? By the way, you claim that one never forgets a thing without some reason. I should be very curious to learn how I came to forget the indefinite pronoun " aliquis " in this case. I took up the challenge most readily, for I was hoping for a contribution to my collection. There ensued the following train of free-associations:. The words aliquis , a liquis , reliquen , liquefying , fluidity , fluid. Simon of Trent, whose relics the young man had seen.
The accusation that Jews engaged in ritual blood- sacrifice. An article he had recently read in an Italian newspaper, on St. Augustine's views on women. A series of Christian saints and church fathers: St. Simon, St. Augustine, St. Benedict, Origen. Januarius, whose blood is kept in a reliquary in a church at Naples.
According to legend, it liquifies on a particular day, and there is great turmoil if the miracle does not occur. Once, when the town was subject to military occupation, the commander threatened the parish priest with dire consequences if the miracle did not take place on schedule, which it did. Finally, the man came to the end of his story:. Besides, I don't see any connection, or any necessity for saying it. Of course, I can't force you to talk about something that you find distasteful; but then you mustn't insist on learning from me how you came to forget your aliquis.
Is that what you think? Well, then, I've suddenly thought of a lady from whom I might easily hear a piece of news that would me very awkward for both of us. Think of the calendar saints [Januarius and Augustine], the blood that starts to flow on a particular day, the disturbance when the event fails to take place, the open threats that the miracle must be vouchsafed, or else In fact, you've made use of the miracle of St. Januarius to manufacture a brilliant allusion to women's periods You need only recall the division you made into a-liquis , and your associations: relics, liquefying, fluid.
Simon was sacrificed as a child -- shall I go on and show how he comes in? I hope you don't take these thoughts of mine too seriously, if indeed I really had them. In return I will confess to you that the lade is Italian and that I went to Naples with her. But mayn't all this just be a matter of chance? What is important here is the apparent fact that the omitted word, far from being randomly selected, was plausibly associated with an unpleasant topic that was very much on the mind of Freud's companion, and which he would much rather have forgotten.
From this an many similar fascinating episodes, documented in the book and in the Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis Freud, , Freud concluded that our errors and lapses in thought and action are meaningful. Put briefly, in each case the target of the error was associated with some topic that evoked anxiety, and which had been forcibly put out of mind.
According to the theory, the mechanism which rendered threatening material unconscious also acted on related, but innocent, material. This material, therefore, was either suppressed entirely or distorted beyond recognition. In correspondence concerning drafts of the dream book, Freud's friend and colleague Wilhelm Fliess remarked that dreams were full of jokes. This led Freud to attempt an analysis of the psychology of humor.
In discussing this book, we should warn the reader that Freud's sense of humor was quite different from what is commonly accepted today. It was full of puns, plays on words, and double-entendres, and the German word which is translated as "jokes" in the Standard Edition of Freud's works is probably better rendered as wit.
Freud begins his treatise with an analysis of his favorite joke. In the part of his Reisebilder entitled "The Baths of Lucca", the German poet Heine introduces the character of Hirsch-Hyacinth of Hamburg, who makes a living as a lottery-agent and extractor of corns from people's feet. At one point, Hirsch-Hyacinth boasts to Heine of his acquaintance with Baron Rothschild, one of the wealthiest men in Europe.
At the end of his story, Hirsch-Hyacinth says,. The joke probably loses something in translation, but its meaning is clear. The manifest story is that a rich man treated a poor man as his equal. However, this was an act of condescension on the part of Rothschild, and not an entirely pleasant experience for Hirsch-Hyacinth. Freud wanted to know what made the joke funny as it was to Freud , when the underlying meaning is not.
The humor arose from certain transformations applied to the raw material, chiefly abbreviation and condensation. Freud says that the joke actually represents two different thoughts: "He treated me familiarly" and "He treated me the way a millionaire would". In the punchline, a word is coined which stands for both. However, the punch line has to be analyzed to extract the underlying meanings. In doing so, the audience "gets" the joke.
From experiences, anecdotes, and analyses such as these, Freud derived the insight that we do not necessarily know why we do what we do, and that behavior may have a deeper significance that its surface appearance might suggest. This deeper meaning is rooted in conflicts concerning ideas and impulses which are typically sexual in nature. These sorts of conflicts produce anxiety, leading the person to defend himself against this "mental pain" by rendering the conflictual ideas and impulses unconscious.
Nevertheless, Freud held, these unconscious ideas and impulses continue to strive for expression, and may actually be expressed in disguised form, as in dreams and errors of commission and substitution. This defensive mechanism also acts on innocent material which is associated with the conflict-laden material, as in errors of omission.
This en masse suppression helps to keep the offending material from slipping into subjective awareness and voluntary action. All of this was apparent to Freud by -- he wrote the book on jokes simply to illustrate his points about mental life in a different way, and to show how psychoanalysis could answer a frequent but puzzling psychological question: what makes a joke a joke? For the next 38 years he worked these insights into a comprehensive theory of the mind which made special reference to personality and sociocultural factors.
The theory was roundly criticized in academic circles. But it was also widely endorsed, especially by artists and writers, so that it has come to dominate every aspect of modern culture. As we begin our examination of what the theory actually says, we wish to caution the reader that Freud continuously revised and reworded his ideas right up until his death, so there is no full and final statement of the theory. What follows is a presentation of "classical" psychoanalytic theory, which emerged from to and which is best represented by Freud's Five Lectures on Psychoanalysis , Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis , , and the New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis While not intended in any way to be a historical account, we will have occasion to describe some of the ways in which the theory evolved in Freud's own mind.
Freud's fundamental assertion was that personality is rooted in a conflict between instinctual forces on the one hand, and environmental forces on the other. Essentially, Freud's view of personality is that of tension-reduction, based on a hydraulic model. Water in motion exerts pressure on its container, such as a dam or a valve, creating a flow that must be stopped or rechanneled. If it is stopped, it will continue to build up pressure, with damaging results as when a dam bursts or a pipe breaks.
If it is rechanneled, it may be given a controlled release -- thus averting disaster and , perhaps, making a potentially destructive force available for constructive purposes. As with a waterworks, so it is with personality. Media and Psychoanalysis: A Brief Overview Compared to in previous decades, psychoanalytic theories and meth- ods in media and communication studies now occupy a marginalised position and have largely fallen out of fashion.
As this book argues, media and communication research, audience studies in particular, can be enriched by psychoanalysis. Dahl- gren expresses dissatisfaction with the state of media research in general when it comes to theoretical conceptualisations and empirical research on the human subject as a media user, and he specifically suggests Freudian and post-Freudian psychoanalysis as a way forward. He advocates that psychoanalytic theories can help scholars to think about the complex processes of using and making sense of me- dia and mediums.
He goes on to specifically advocate a consideration of the Freudian unconscious and its relation to affect: The Freudian view of fear, desire, and pleasure accords affect a strong and volatile position, given that the unconscious usually slyly outwits conscious awareness and its rationalism.
In regard to pol- itics and communication, this means we need to analytically pay attention to not just information and formal argument but also to symbols, imagery, rhetoric, allegory, emotional pleas, ideology, and all the other communicative modes beyond the rational; it is through these that the civic subject takes on agency. As a discipline, psychoanalysis shifts the atten- tion from rationality to contradictions, incoherencies, ambivalent and seemingly nonsensical subjective experiences that also find expression in cultural products such as media texts and responses towards them.
This is valuable because it can add levels of complexity to research on media use. Following Dahlgren , one may argue that the models of audiences commonly used in media and communication studies all harbour implicit and underpinning notions of the subject in relation to media. Audience studies in particular have not managed to adequately theorise the subject and her affective, conscious, and unconscious relationships with media use. Psychoanalytic explorations of culture have at times sounded overtly pa- thologising.
Psychoanalysis is sometimes at risk of becoming a master discourse, conveying an ultimate truth about subjects and their cultural investments. In this book, I do not engage in wild analysis that seeks to psychoanalyse everything or label everything with psychoanalytic lan- guage.
A key value of psychoanalysis is that it presents a notion of subjectivity which includes rational, conscious elements but also includes irrational dimensions and the unconscious. One of the fields that has made use of theoretical psychoanalytic con- cepts in a rigorous manner is film studies. This tradition is often referred to as Screen Theory. Those works, which often drew on Lacan and Freud, all remained at the theoretical level and imagined audiences. They operated with essentialist categories that posited effects on spectators in the cinema.
This has led to criticism within media and communication studies as well as cultural studies. During the s and s, a direct exchange of ideas and debate between psychoanalytic film studies and cultural studies emerged. Debates often concerned meaning and ideology in relation to the spectator see Hall ; Morley , ; Grossberg as well as, more recently, questions on meth- odology and how such interpretations were made without speaking to individuals Couldry ; Barker While valid points about the status of psychoanalysis as a kind of master discourse uncovering hidden desires and ideologies were raised by the authors mentioned earlier, such critiques have often been rather hastily dismissive of psychoanalysis as a whole and, at times, misunderstood some of its key concepts.
However, what Screen Theory lacked was empirical studies of audi- ences. This study was the first to use psychoanalysis as a prism through which to conduct ethnographic research see also Stacey Walkerdine made the crucial point that any media use, be it watching a film or television programme, listening to the radio, or something else, takes place in already historically established contexts and relational, intersubjective dynamics. These dynamics are anchored in both the social and the psyche, and their interplay. Being from a working-class background like the family, she identified with some of the fascination with and responses to the film.
An important media studies scholar who drew on psychoanalysis to a fuller extent was Roger Silverstone in his work on television. Television can be similar to a transitional object of the young infant e. It is unconsciously used to work through feelings of loss or anxiety, for instance Winnicott The fan studies scholar Matt Hills , , , has been key in in- troducing the transitional object into wider debates around the status of media objects for fans. However, I do not re- gard the transitional object as particularly useful when theorising media users who are not fans.
The transitional object may work well for that very particular category of media users. Furthermore, there are concep- tual irregularities and flaws that complicate the usage of the concept for digital media research. The transitional object is, like the skin ego, of an essentially relational nature that is about creating a secure and sen- sual environment for the subject.
For Anzieu, the skin ego comes into being in the imagined and experienced unity of baby and mother. While both concepts are about a relationality, materiality, and virtuality, it is the skin ego, I argue, that is not about omnipotence over an object like the transitional object but about communication and the emergence of affects and sensations in a relation. The psychosocial studies scholar Jo Whitehouse-Hart a , who draws on fan studies and object-relations psychoanalysis, has conducted detailed interviews with viewers about their favourite film and television texts.
Like myself, she uses the notion of free association, as developed by Wendy Hollway and Tony Jefferson , in her work see also Cohen Studies into Internet-based and networked media have increasingly relied on psychoanalysis, and one could say that they have ushered in a renewed interest in psychoanalytic concepts within different fields. This is because social media platforms and smartphone apps are, compared to mass media like television, aimed at the individual user and their subjectivity. Sherry Turkle , , , has been one of the most well-known scholars of psychoanalysis and technology.
Her early work, drawing on the psychoanalysts Jacques Lacan and Erik Erik- son, was pioneering in thinking about the relationship between virtual worlds and subjectivities. The Internet allowed for a playful creation of identities that the offline world did not allow.
Internet-based devices have made humans more narcissistic and less relational, as Turkle argues Individuals seem to trust ma- chines robots or devices equipped with artificial intelligence more than other humans when it comes to social interaction. There has been a shift, Turkle notes, in the willingness of subjects to accept machines as if they were humans.
The robotic culture has us demanding more of technology than technology can offer. Here, mobile communication and social media are key actors. Browne, Nick. Bill Nichols. Berkeley: University of California Press. Byars, Jackie. Carroll, Noel. Cavell, Stanley. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Chodorow, Nancy. Cioffi, Frank. Peter Wind. Clover, Carol. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
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