Effective practices for developing reading comprehension. What research has to say about reading instruction , 3, Kamil, M. Vocabulary and Comprehension Instruction. McCardle and V. Kim, W. Critical factors in reading comprehension instruction for students with learning disabilities: A research synthesis. Differentiating instruction for struggling readers within the CORI classroom. Guthrie, A.
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Perencevich Eds. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Mastropieri, M. Best practices in promoting reading comprehension in students with learning disabilities. Pearson, P. Comprehension instruction. Barr, M. Kamil, P. Pearson Eds. White Plains, NY: Longman. Pressley, M. Summing up: What comprehension instruction could be. Pressley Eds. New York: Guilford Press. Reading aloud is the best way we have to immerse children in the glories of reading, showing both how and why one reads.
In most TCRWP classrooms, although texts are read aloud throughout the day for multiple purposes, there is one time, several days a week, that children refer to as read-aloud time, and this is an instructional, interactive read-aloud. This is often at an entirely different time than the reading workshop—and it generally lasts at least twenty minutes and often more like half an hour.
Interactive read alouds are also conducted across the curriculum—during social studies, for example, when appropriate. The interactive read aloud provides students with opportunities to talk and respond to texts, fosters a love of reading, and gives them additional opportunities to practice learned skills and strategies. It also provides teachers with opportunities to demonstrate and model through think alouds the practices, strategies and habits of proficient readers. The research is clear that reading aloud to children has enormous benefits for their intellectual and academic growth.
Bauman and colleagues also support the importance of think aloud as a tool for teaching students to self-monitor and comprehend while reading. There is also research supporting the importance of interactive read aloud for middle school students. In a survey of more than 1, middle school students, Ivey and Broaddus found that along with independent reading time, read aloud by their teacher was what students said most motivated them to want to read. Bolos also argues that interactive read aloud may be especially important for middle school students who are English Language Learners, as a review of the research suggested interactive read aloud to be an effective instructional strategies for middle grade English Language Learners the other two being comprehension strategies and vocabulary enrichment.
Baker, S. An evaluation of an explicit read aloud intervention taught in whole-classroom formats in first grade. The Elementary School Journal , 3 , Baumann, J. The Reading Teacher , Cummins, S.
The Reading Teacher , 64 6 , Davey, B. Think aloud: Modeling the cognitive processes of reading comprehension. Journal of Reading , Ecroyd, C. Motivating students through reading aloud. English Journal , Fisher, D. The Reading Teacher,58 1 , Flint, A. Item Lennox, S. Early Childhood Education Journal, 41 5 , Oster, L. Using the think-aloud for reading instruction. Sipe, L. Stead, T. The Reading Teacher , 67 7 , Wilhelm, J. Getting kids into the reading game: You gotta know the rules. Voices from the Middle , 8 4 , The thought collaborative that surrounds the TCRWP is focused on developing reading instruction which combines teaching higher order comprehension strategies with explicit, direct instruction in foundational skills.
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In all TCRWP primary classrooms and in a growing number of upper grade classrooms, balanced literacy components such as shared reading, shared writing, and interactive writing are incorporated into the curriculum, as appropriate, in addition to minilessons addressing foundational skills. These structures further support students in developing the skills needed to decode and compose texts drawing on an ever-growing knowledge of phonics and word analysis skills. TCRWP workshop teachers teach students how to draw on multiple sources of information when reading or composing text, including meaning, structural and visual cues.
That is whether sharing the pen, writing aloud, or having all eyes on the text, teachers provide students with multiple opportunities for guided and independent practice to support gradual release, and encourage student acquisition of the foundational skills of reading. There is research to support students learning phonics within a balanced literacy curriculum. There have been studies conducted which have compared reading growth between classrooms where students engage primarily in learning phonics, and classrooms where students are engaged in authentic reading and writing which have concluded that the students in the classrooms who were engaged in authentic activities made more progress.
For example, Kasten and Clarke conducted a year-long study of the emerging literacy of preschoolers and kindergarteners in two southwest Florida communities. They compared two preschool classes and two kindergarten classes that implemented strategies such as daily shared reading and weekly opportunities to write freely with matched comparison classes where there was more of a focus on letter-sound activities. Both groups were pretested and posttested with qualitative and quantitative measures.
The authors found that the preschool experimental classes performed significantly better than comparison groups on the Goodman Book Handling task, the story retelling inventory, and on subtest C of the ESI. Experimental subjects not only knew more than their comparison peers on meaningful aspects of reading, but exhibited enthusiasm for books and stories, and were observed developing attitudes toward literacy that are not measurable pp. The authors found that phonemic awareness is causally related to reading achievement at the beginning stages of reading development. Furthermore, although a significant improvement in reading achievement was observed for both experimental groups in kindergarten and first-grade children, the degree of improvement in reading ability of the first-grade children depended strongly upon the type of instruction received.
Other research studies demonstrate specific benefits of individual balanced literacy components. Beckett, A. Brotherton, S. Journal of Reading Education, 27 3 , Coyne, M. Teaching vocabulary during shared storybook readings: An examination of differential effects. Exceptionality, 12 3 , Explicit versus implicit instruction in phonemic awareness. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 50, Shared readings: Modeling comprehension, vocabulary, text structures, and text features for older readers.
The Reading Teacher, 61 7 , Kasten, W. Shaver, S. Ukrainetz, T. An investigation into teaching phonemic awareness through shared reading and writing. Early Childhood Research Quarterly , 15 3 , Williams, C. Strategy instruction during word study and interactive writing activities. The Reading Teacher , 61 3 , Kesler, T. Shared reading to build vocabulary and comprehension. The Reading Teacher , 64 4 , McCarrier, A. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Patterson, E.
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A closer look at interactive writing. The Reading Teacher , 61 6 , Wall, H. Interactive writing beyond the primary grades. The Reading Teacher , 62 2 , As with reading, the TCRWP advocates for long stretches of time where students are engaged in the act of writing at least four days a week for 45 minutes or longer each day. When students have time to write each day it leads to greater fluency and proficiency. This is well-supported by Hattie and Gladwell who both maintain that there is a direct correlation between the amount of time we spend in pursuit of a habit, goal or skill and our individual growth in relation to that habit, goal or skill.
In order for students to improve as writers, and build stamina, it important for them to have long stretches of time to practice. They located true or quasi experimental studies which met their criteria for analysis. All 20 studies where writing strategies were taught to both typically developing and struggling writers in Grades 2—6 resulted in a positive effect. The Teachers College Reading and Writing Project was borne out of a writing revolution that began in the s around a process approach to writing instruction, which helped educators recognize that we can teach students to progress through the authentic experience of composing that emulated that of published authors.
While our work around writing instruction has developed over the past three decades, the underlying principles around the ideas that writing is process remain constant.
In our writing workshop curriculum, each unit of study provides young writers with multiple opportunities to move through the different stages of the writing process in order to take their pieces from rehearsal to publication. In our minilessons, we teach writing strategies that will help students move independently through the writing process while we teach responsively in small groups and individual conferences.
When students receive instruction designed to enhance their strategic prowess as writers i. Likewise, when students are taught specific knowledge about how to write i. The importance of supporting volume and stamina as writers is further supported in the reference materials and professional texts below. Atwell, N. Bomer, R. Positioning in a primary writing workshop: Joint action in the discursive production of writing subjects. Research in the Teaching of English , Teaching for Literacy Engagement. Journal of Literacy Research 36 1 , Hertz, M.
A kindergarten writing workshop: How kindergarten students grow as writers. Reading Horizons , 37 3 , 3. Jasmine, J. The effects of writing workshop on abilities of first grade students to become confident and independent writers. Early Childhood Education Journal , 35 2 , Juel, Connie. Newkirk, T. Stein, M. Journal of Direct Instruction, 1 2 , Troia, G. The effects of writing workshop instruction on the performance and motivation of good and poor writers.
Instruction and assessment for struggling writers: Evidence-based practices , The TCRWP has developed a curricular calendar for content area instruction for grades which fuses supporting students in learning content with practices in literacy. We have explored how to integrate reading and writing in the content areas through our work with schools, yearlong study groups and even a weeklong institute for the past several years. Recently, the TCRWP collaborated with the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation through a generous grant that allowed educators to work with staff developers from both organizations on-site at Colonial Williamsburg to draw on the collective knowledge base to learn and create new and innovative methods for content area instruction.
There is specific research that supports the importance of literacy rich content area instruction. While their research applied to science learning in particular, one could argue that it could be applied to any content area. Cervetti, G. Pressley, A. Billman, K.
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Perry, K. Morrehead-Reynolds Eds. Retrieved from Integrating Literacy and Science. Hapgood, S. Where literacy and science intersect. Educational Leadership , 64 4 , Freidus, H. Finding passion in teaching and learning: Embedding literacy skills in content-rich curriculum. The New Educator , 6, — Action in Teacher Education, 27 2 , Richardson, J. Content area reading: a year history.
Fresch Ed. Jewett, P. Journal of Reading Education , 38 2 , Literacy and science: Each in the service of the other.
Science , 23 , The Common Core State Standards has brought argumentation into the spotlight. To read more about the importance of teaching argumentation to students, here are few of the sources you can consult:. Beach, R. New York: Routledge. Hillocks, G. Teaching argument for critical thinking and writing: An introduction. English Journal , 99 6 , Newell, G. Teaching and learning argumentative reading and writing: A review of research. Reading Research Quarterly, 46 3 , The TCRWP curriculum across all areas fully embraces the research on the importance of teaching argument and places a strong emphasis on teaching students how to engage in argumentation and compose and evaluate arguments.
Through the learning of this group, in addition to advanced summer institute sections and study groups, the TCRWP developed argument protocols for arguing about texts as well as ways to weave argumentation across the curriculum. In , the TCRWP held its first annual Argumentation Institute, where hundreds of participants came together to hone their argument reading and writing skills in order to launch and sustain the work in their classrooms.
As early as Kindergarten, students craft petitions, letters, and signs to tackle problems faced in their classroom, school, and even the world. As students move across the grades, the TCRWP writing curriculum extends their work with argument, providing students with multiple opportunities to engage in argument writing so they can develop a host of skills, which will empower them to take a stance and convince others to join their side.
By the time they reach the upper grades, students ramp up their work in argument by writing research-based argument essays in which they lift the level of their work, in line with the CCSS, learning how to consider different perspectives, and crafting powerful arguments based on carefully selected evidence, analysis, and rebuttal of counter-claims.
The TCRWP has designed an argument writing curriculum that is grade-specific and positions students to progress along a path of development acquiring the essential argument skills needed, not just for college and career readiness, but to prepare students to be involved citizens who want to play a role in making the world a better place. We have also brought argument into the content areas, encouraging students to debates issues in science and to analyze informational texts, historical documents, and pictures to debate, for example, whether Columbus was a hero or villain.
In all of our argumentation work, there is a focus on debate and dialog as a way of rehearsing and developing the ability to engage in written argument. This emphasis is supported by research. There is a specific research base which holds that oral argumentation and dialog supports students being able to develop written arguments see, for example, Kuhn, ; Graff, ; Kuhn, Debating and engaging in argumentation with peers directly supports individual writing of arguments.
Please see the following sources for further consideration of dialog and debate supporting the development of written argument:. Felton, M. Graff, G. Clueless in academe: How schooling obscures the life of the mind. Kuhn, D. Bronxville, NY: Wessex, Inc. McCann, T. Gateways to writing logical arguments. Song, Y. Our work with schools reflects our recognition of the need to raise the level of vocabulary instruction in classrooms. In our work, we have found that teachers who create print rich classrooms, provide multiple opportunities for reading and writing, and create opportunities for multiple interactions with vocabulary across their day support children in developing their knowledge of vocabulary.
The TCRWP places a strong emphasis on talk to support student learning and embeds talk into most of their teaching structures from mini-lessons, to reading and writing partnerships, book clubs, to whole class conversations around texts read aloud. It is clear that the TCRWP values talk, not just as a way to build vocabulary, but to support overall learning. Please reference this and other resources below for additional support on how to boost vocabulary for all learners. Beck, I. Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. Guilford Press.
Brassell, D. Dare to differentiate: Vocabulary strategies for all students. Guilford Publications. Common Core Standards Initiative, Vocabulary acquisition from listening to stories. Reading Research Quarterly , 24, — Word wise and content rich, grades 7— Moses, A. Stahl, S.
The effects of vocabulary instruction: A model-based meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 56 1 , The role of inadequate print exposure as a determinant of reading comprehension problems. Reading comprehension difficulties: Processes and intervention, Wilfong, L. The structures of workshop teaching calls for teachers to adapt a responsive stance to instruction, taking their cues from children and planning instruction that articulates next steps or goals that address their needs.
The TCRWP has also found the UDL Universal Design for Learning framework to be an excellent tool for supporting teachers in designing instruction that provides access to the curriculum for all learners. All of the principles of UDL such as utilizing different methods to teach students, giving them access to different digital tools or supports to express their learning, and engaging students through providing opportunities for choice and self-assessment to engage students are just a few examples of where workshop teaching and principles of UDL intersect.
For example, this coming year, the community will learn with Dr. William Bursuck , and Co-Teach! In addition, the Project will offer several other conference days specifically designed to support the teaching of children with IEPs, including collaborating with service providers, developing data-based toolkits, and preparing children for the demands of state exams. Small group work and conferring are what a teacher spends a bulk of the workshop time engaged in, which provides the teacher with multiple opportunities to personalize instruction. The routines and structures of a workshop are kept simple and predictable, as mentioned, so that the teacher can focus on the complex work of teaching in a responsive manner to accelerate achievement for all learners.
Also, the volume of student writing increased with students producing more in the time allotted. The learning progressions and student facing checklists are important tools that promote self-assessment and goal setting so that instruction is tailored to each individual learner. Look below for additional references that speak to supporting all learners in accessing the curriculum. We also want to note that some of the studies which we referenced in other categories included studying populations of students who were considered part of the special education population.
We encourage you to also refer to these studies for more information about how the curriculum offers access to all learners:. Brand, S. Oxford Round Table. Dalton, B. Reading as thinking: Integrating strategy instruction in a universally designed digital literacy environment.
Reading comprehension strategies: Theories, interventions, and technologies, Ford, M. Graham, S. Writing and writing instruction for students with learning disabilities: Review of a research program. Learning Disability Quarterly, 14 2 , Perkins, J. Addressing the literacy needs of striving readers. Proctor, C. Scaffolding English language learners and struggling readers in a universal literacy environment with embedded strategy instruction and vocabulary support.
Journal of Literacy Research, 39 1 , Radencich, M. Keeping flexible groups flexible: Grouping options. Flexible grouping for literacy in the elementary grades , Schunk, D. Goal setting and self-efficacy during self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 25 , TCRWP classrooms as mentioned, are structured in ways that are predictable and this is especially supportive for students who are developing English—emergent bilinguals. With clear, predictable structures, children become more comfortable participating.
The predictability of the workshop provides reassurance to a child who is just learning English, and this is amplified if workshop structures repeat themselves across subjects. In addition, workshops are characterized by a consistent instructional language, making it easier for a child who is just learning English to grasp the unique content that is being taught that day. The workshop gives language learners not only a space for language learning but a place to practice. Each day, where a child is advanced her knowledge of the English language or an beginning speaker or else on the progression of language learning , that child will have the opportunity to work on language skills in addition to skills in reading, writing, etc.
English Language Learners need to expand both their receptive language skills—their listening and reading—as well as their expressive language skills—their speaking and writing. The workshop provides a place where these skills can be practiced. The workshop is structured to allow for individualized instruction but for English Language Learners, this instruction must consider not only their literacy skills but also their language development. The TCRWP encourages teachers to collect language samples both written and oral from students and study these to identify and plan next steps for the learner.
There is no such thing as the English Language Learner. Each child has unique strengths and needs. In her article for Principal , in which she synthesized and reported on the results of reviews of research concerning instruction for English Language Learners, Protheroe asserts that there are three key findings worth noting: 1. Interventions which work for other students have a somewhat weaker effect on ELLs. Therefore, instructional strategies are needed which specifically support the needs of ELLs.
Grouping strategies, text selection, and specific activities to scaffold instruction e. Moreover, the emphases reported across the case study schools on teachers knowing their students well and documenting student progress was to provide the bases for matching instructional strategies to the needs of specific children at specific points in their development. Although, Day does note these potential benefits of a balanced literacy approach to support English Language Learners, she also cautions that teachers need to develop and strengthen their own knowledge base in specific areas in order to specifically address the needs of their ELLs within the model.
In addition to on site development in schools, conference days are offered at Teachers College for teachers to attend to hear about working with and supporting English Language Learners. A cadre of teachers and teacher-leaders with special expertise in working with students who are learning English will join senior leaders and other members of the TCRWP community to share ideas and resources designed to best help students who are learning English within our reading and writing workshops.
The information and insights learned will then be shared with the Project community at large. Calkins, L. Supporting English Learners pp. Celic, C. English language learners day by day, K A complete guide to literacy, content-area, and language instruction. All titles are available with unlimited user access, and titles are regularly added to the collection at no additional cost. Offering a critical mass of locally relevant UK content, this tailored subscription package contains nearly 6, e-books from leading UK publishers and authors.
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