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Costa et al. Kearns et al. The median age of affected animals on initial presentation was 8. Clinical signs included crusting, purulent exudate, alopecia, thickening of affected skin, ulceration, and necrosis. Five of the severely affected pandas had tail involvement. The severity of disease affecting one individual was not recorded.

Dermatophytosis was confirmed by culture, cytology, histopathology, or culture followed by histopathology. Microsporum gypseum was the only fungal organism cultured. Six animals were treated for mild disease, and all clinical signs resolved. Partial tail amputation was required as part of the treatment regimen for two of the six severely affected animals, and two others had ulcerated tail lesions that left circumferential scarring after resolution of infection.

All fungal infections resolved, although one panda died from unrelated causes early in the treatment period. Rotstein et al. Two of these panthers were juvenile males that were diagnosed with focal to focally coalescing dermatophytosis; one caused by M. These animals were not treated, and clinical signs resolved spontaneously over 6 mo. The third panther, an adult male from southern Florida, presented with a diffuse dermatophytosis due to T.

Initially, the panther had alopecia, excoriations, ulcerations, and multifocal pyoderma of the head, ears, neck, rear limbs, and abdominal region that progressed to lichenification of the skin and loss of nails from two digits. When topical therapy applied in the field at day intervals was ineffective in clearing the infection, the animal was placed in captivity for intensive oral therapy to prevent further development of dermal mycosis, loss of additional nails, and spread of infection to other panthers.

The panther was treated orally with itraconazole 9. The panther was released back into the wild after two skin biopsy cultures were negative for fungal growth. Bilek et al. His year-old son had a ,,similar skin disease" with similar annular oval lesion, size about 2 x 3 cm, located in the right chest region. Since January the family has kept a guinea pig. They have obtained it through a mediator from the Kosice ZOO.

The material for mycological examination was taken from peripheral parts of the foci or desquamating lesions from the father, son, and the guinea pig. The findings proved the presence of septal hyphae and formation of arthrospores. Thus, dermatomycosis was confirmed in the father and son, caused by T.

Levy et al. Samples were taken from adult animals of both sexes: 25 lions Panthera leo , 12 tigers Panthera tigris , 6 jaguars Panthera onca , 4 leopards Panthera pardus , 2 snow leopards Panthera uncia , 2 pumas Puma concolor , 2 cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus , 1 ocelot Leopardus pardalis , 28 tiger cats Leopardus tigrinus , 10 margays Leopardus wiedii , 8 geoffroy's cats Leopardus geoffroyi , 22 jaguarundis Herpailurus yagouaroundi and 8 pampas cats Oncifelis colocolo.

Microsporum gypseum was isolated from two apparently healthy lionesses 1. Schauder et al. Four patients who handled the animals without gloves developed lesions on the hands that were more in keeping with hand eczema, leading to a delay in diagnosis. The other caretakers who wore gloves presented with typical ringworm on the arms, the big toe, the back, the abdomen, and the thighs. Their typical clinical features led to an early diagnosis and treatment. In an attempt to find an effective, practical, safe, and affordable method for controlling this epizootic, a clinical treatment trial was conducted.

Nonalopecic tigers were studied to address the inapparent carrier state observed at the facility. Lime sulfur solution was applied topically to all of these animals. All solutions were applied at 2-wk intervals for seven treatments. Lime sulfur was effective in suppressing environmental fungal growth immediately posttreatment, whereas the peroxide-based cleaner was not effective. Takahashi et al. The family consisted of an adult couple and two offspring a male and a female. The porcupettes, born in Japan, showed severe hair loss while the parent animals, imported from the USA.

Morphologically identical Tricophyton spp. The present cases constituted the second isolation of dermatophytes from porcupines. There were two different ITS types, i. The sequences have never been recorded in Japan or in the GenBank database to the best of our knowledge. In addition, they were located at a cluster involving the type strain and mating strains of A.

In contrast, 28 rodents eight species and three insectivora 1 species exhibited in the petting zoo were negative for any dermatophytes as determined by culture. Hair loss accompanied by severe dandruff in a young male Canadian porcupine Erethizon dorsatum. Keeble et al. The affected animals presented with areas of non-pruritic alopecia, scaling and crusting.

The diagnosis was based on culture and direct microscopy of hair plucks. Treatment was commenced with oral terbinafine at a dose of 8. Treatment was successful, with no further clinical cases being diagnosed and with resolution of the clinical signs after four weeks and mycological cure after eight weeks. Phair et al.

Fungal culture and histopathology of skin biopsies were consistent with dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and treatment with the antifungal medication terbinafine was initiated. After 1 mo of treatment, all clinical signs had resolved and a fungal culture of the skin was negative. The sifaka was treated with terbinafine for a total of 81 days.

Two additional fungal cultures were taken and found to be negative for the presence of dermatophytes, the last culture being taken 1 mo after discontinuation of terbinafine. Pressanti et al. Initial investigations, including routine haematology, biochemistry profile, multiple skin scrapings, trichoscopic examination, Wood's lamp examination and fungal culture, failed to reveal any abnormalities. Histopathological examination of a first set of skin biopsies showed an interface dermatitis pattern, with lymphocyte infiltration in the basal layer, a significant lymphocytic exocytosis and occasional apoptotic basal epidermal keratinocytes; periodic acid Schiff stain did not reveal any fungal elements.

On further biopsies, there was a pustular neutrophilic dermatitis, with numerous crusts containing high numbers of arthrospores and fungal hyphae. Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection was confirmed on fungal culture and PCR. The fox improved dramatically, and a fungal culture performed at 6 weeks was negative. Unfortunately, a few days later the fennec fox developed anorexia, icterus and died. Boulton et al. The first cases of confirmed and suspected dermatophytosis in several macropod species and in association with Trichophyton verrucosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var.

Both disease resolution without treatment and resolution after an average of 1 to 2 mo of treatment were reported. Chung et al. The necropsy revealed diffuse infiltration of the liver, lung, and cardiac apex with white nodules. A histopathologic examination of the lesions also confirmed a fungal infection associated with granulomatous inflammation. Rapid polymerase chain reaction PCR analysis of the chitin synthase 1 gene was conducted for rapid direct detection, and inter-simple sequence repeat fingerprinting was conducted to classify the infectious origin.

The PCR analysis definitively demonstrated representative of disseminated Microsporum canis infection with multiorgan involvement in a green iguana. Overy et al. On the first farm, only kits were affected, while on the second farm, small numbers of adults were infected.

Affected mink were otherwise clinically healthy and in good body condition. Three animals were euthanized and submitted for autopsy. Grossly, mink exhibited locally extensive to coalescing areas of crusting alopecia but no other significant gross lesions in internal organs. Microscopically, skin lesions were characterized by chronic hyperplastic dermatitis with folliculitis, furunculosis, occasional intracorneal pustules, and large numbers of intrafollicular fungal arthrospores and hyphae.

The dermatophyte was cultured and identified as Trichophyton equinum based on molecular barcoding of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA gene. Qiao et al. The isolated fungus was identified through its cultural characteristics, morphology, and polymerase chain reaction PCR amplification.

This is the first report on elephants infected with Microsporum canis in China. References: 1. Ainsworth, G. C, and P. Austwick : Fungal Diseases of Animals. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham, England, Avram, A. Mycopathologia Den Haag. Generalized Trichophyton mentagrophytes ringworm in Capuchin monkeys Cebus nigrivitatus. Br J Dermatol. Isolation of Microsporum gypseum from the haircoat of health wild felids kept in captivity in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 37 2 , Outbreak of dermatophytosis in farmed mink in the USA. Vet Rec. Zimmermann H, Haufe F.

Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. Bratisl Lek Listy. Dermatophytosis in zoo macropods: a questionnaire study. J Zoo Wildl Med. Chalmers Ga. Barrett MW. Dermatomycosis in a mule deer in Alberta. J Wildl Dis ; Multiorgan fungal infection caused by Microsporum canis in a green iguana Iguana iguana. Costa, E. Levantamento retrospectivo. Emmons, C. Trichophyton persicolor infection in a population of small wild mammals. Microsporum gypseum infection in a gray wolf Canis lupus and a camel Camelus bactrianus in a zoological garden.

Georg, L. Gierloff, B. Om anvendelse of griseofulvin specielt I veterinaer praksis. Gordon, M. Trichophyton Microsporum? Med Mycol ; 46 5 : Br J Dermatol — Dermatophytosis in red pandas Ailurus fulgens fulgens : a review of 14 cases. Medical management of Trichophyton dermatophytosis using a novel treatment regimen in L'Hoest's monkeys Cercopithecus lhoesti.

Klokke, A. H, and G. A, de Vries : Tinea capitis in chimpanzees caused by Microsporum canis Bodin resembling M, obesum Conant Sabouraudia, 2, Koroleva VP. Rasprostravennost vozbuditelei dermatomikozov zhivotnykh v raznykh zonakh soyuza. Byulletin Vsesoyuznogo I nstituta Eksperimental'noi Veterinarii ; Trichophyton mentagrophytes dermatophytosis in wild fox. J Wildl Dis. Male O, Fritsch P. Ringworm fungi of large wild mammals in southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida. Am J Vet Res. Ringworm in wild animals in southwestern Georgia.

Vestn Dermatol Venerol. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. Dermatophytosis Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a Coquerel's sifaka Propithecus coquereli. Hazards from hedgehogs: two case reports with a survey of the epidemiology of hedgehog ringworm. Clin Exp Dermatol. An epizootic outbreak of ringworm in a guinea-pig colony caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Lab Anim. A case of Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection in a fennec fox Vulpes zerda.

Vet Dermatol. Okoshi, S. Ringworm caused by Tnichophyton simii in a captive chimpanzee. Vet Med Praha. Trichophyton rubrum-like dermatophyte as a causative agent of dermatophytosis in chimpanzees. Mycopathologia et Mycologia Applicata Dermatophytosis in farmed mink Mustela vison caused by Trichophyton equinum. J Vet Diagn Invest. Refai, M. Rotstein, D. Dermatophyte infection in free-ranging Florida panthers Felis concolor coryi.

Zoo Wildl. Zoophilic dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton erinacei in eight patients]. Schonborn C. A dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans isolated from zoo animals, Mykosen , , vol. The occurrence of a Trichophyton rubrum-like dermatophyte in beasts of prey Carnivora , Mykosen , , vol. Seeliger, H. Bisping and H. Mykosen, 6, Stockdale, P. Mackenzie and P. Austwick : Arthroderma simii sp, nov. Sabouraudia, 4, Attempted treatment of tigers Panthera tigris infected with Microsporum canis. Dermatophytosis in a Steller sea lion Eumetopias jubatus. J Vet Med Sci. Weiss R. Dermatomycosis Ringworm in Mule Deer Odocoileus hemionus.

The Canadian Veterinary Journal. About 65 Chrysosporium species are currently accepted and their sexual morphs teleomorphs are found in a variety of genera such as Aphanoascus, Arthroderma, or Nannizziopsis, among others [Seifert et al. Most fungal isolates from reptiles have been considered to belong to the Chrysoporium anamorph of N. This corroborates what was suggested several years ago from preliminary molecular phylogenetic analysis that the Chrysoporium anamorph of N.

Two recent molecular phylogenetic studies of members of the order Onygenales infecting reptiles determined that 96 clinical isolates identified by morphology as Chrysosporium species, Chrysosporium guarroi, C. Aleurioconidia were sessile or were subtended by slightly swollen cells from which one or two conidia were produced. The conidia were pyriform to clavate and measured 3.

Occasional intercalary arthroconidia and undulate hyphae were produced. Ascomatal initials occurred in cottony sectors and appeared as inflated cells with secondary proliferations. Some mycelium surrounding the ascomatal initials demonstrated swollen intercalary cells. Colonial and microscopic morphology of Chrysosporium ophiodiicola R A PYE, front and reverse; B potato dextrose agar, front and reverse; C PCA, front and reverse; D fertile hyphae and conidia; E conidia showing remnants of wall following rhexolytic dehiscence; F fertile hyphae with arthroconidia and terminal and lateral conidia.

Day geckos Phelsuma sp. Schildger et al. Captive brown tree snakes Boiga irregularis Nichols et al. Salt-water crocodile Crocodylus porosus Thomas et al. Pigmy rattlesnakes Cheatwood et al. Tentacled snakes Erpeton tentaculatum Bertelsen et al. Ameivas Ameiva sp. Green anaconda Eunectes murinus murinus Bicknese , Inland bearded dragons Pogona vitticeps Bowman et al. Green iguanas Iguana iguana Abarca et al.

Black rat snake Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta Rajeev et al. Albino Boa constrictor Constrictor constrictor Eatwell Giant girdled lizards Cordylus giganteus. Hellebuyck et al. Broad-headed snake Hoplocephalus bungaroides McLelland Eastern massasauga rattlesnakes Sistrurus catenatus catenatus Allender et al. Leopard geckos Eublepharis macularius Toplon et al. Garter snake Thamnophis Vissiennon et al. Cottonmouths Agkistrodon piscivorous Allender et al. Free-ranging timber rattlesnakes Crotalus horridus McBride et al. Tuatara Humphrey et al. Coastal bearded dragon Pogona barbata.

Masters et al. Saltwater Crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus MarineBio. The autopsy revealed disseminated mycotic alterations in skin, lungs and liver. Chrysosporium queenslandicum grew well at 28 degrees C, the optimal temperature of the animal. An adult Parson's chameleon Chamaeleo parsonii presented with vesicles that became crusty brown lesions on the limbs and body. Skin biopsies revealed fungal hyphae in the affected epidermis and underlying dermis.

The lesions regressed fully after oral administration of itraconazole. An adult jewel chameleon Chamaeleo lateralis from the same private collection presented with localized black skin lesions and died while being treated with itraconazole. A pulmonary granuloma was also present in this chameleon at autopsy.

Cultures obtained from skin and lung lesions yielded the same fungus. A third isolate was obtained from a skin biopsy of a Jackson's chameleon Chamaeleo jacksoni with deep ulcerative cutaneous lesions located at the base of the tail. The fungus, in all three cases, has been identified as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii, a poorly known ascomycetous species recorded previously from the skin of a lizard and from soil, on the basis of its keratinolytic activity, resistance to cycloheximide, strongly restricted growth at 37 degrees C, formation of clavate or pyriform single-celled or two-celled aleurioconidia, and alternate and fission arthroconidia.

Nichols et al. The ventral scales were most commonly affected, and lesions began as areas of erythema and edema with vesicle formation, followed by development of caseous brown plaques. Lesions usually started where ventral scales overlapped and spread rapidly. All snakes died within 14 days after clinical signs were first noted. The deaths of three of the snakes were directly attributable to the cutaneous disease; the other snake died from renal failure and visceral gout, most likely induced by gentamicin therapy. Histologically, lesions consisted of epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis, with foci of epidermal necrosis, intraepidermal vesicle formation, and subacute inflammation of the underlying dermis.

These lesions were associated with bacteria and numerous septate, branched fungal hyphae within the epidermis and overlying serocelluar crusts. The same species of fungus was isolated in pure culture from the skin of three snakes, but fungal cultures were not performed on samples from the fourth snake. The fungus has been identified as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii based on its formation of solitary dermatophytelike aleurioconidia and alternate and fission arthroconidia. The source of the fungus in this outbreak was not determined; however, the warm, moist conditions under which the snakes were housed likely predisposed them to opportunistic cutaneous fungal infections.

Thomas et al. In all, 48 animals died from the infection. All hatchlings came from the same farm in northern Queensland, Australia. Cheatwood et al. All snakes had severe necrotizing and predominantly granulomatous dermatitis, stomatitis, and ophthalmitis, with involvement of the subadjacent musculature and other soft tissues.

Numerous fungal hyphae were seen throughout tissue sections stained with periodic acid Schiff and Gomori's methenamine silver. Samples of lesions were cultured for bacteria and fungi. Based on hyphae and spore characteristics, four species of fungi were identified from culture: Sporothrix schenckii, Pestalotia pezizoides, Geotrichum candidum Galactomyces geotrichum , and Paecilomyces sp.

While no additional severely affected pigmy rattlesnakes were seen at the study site, a garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis and a ribbon snake Thamnophis sauritis with similar lesions were found.

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In and , 42 pigmy rattlesnakes with multifocal minimal to moderate subcutaneous masses were seen at the study site. Masses from six of these snakes were biopsied in the field. Hyphae morphologically similar to those seen in the severe cases were observed with fungal stains. Analysis of a database representing 10, captures in previous years was performed after the outbreak was recognized. From this analysis we determined that 59 snakes with clinical signs similar to those seen during the outbreak were documented between and This study represents the first documented report of a mycotic disease of free-ranging snakes.

Pale, 1- to 4-mm focal lesions involving individual scales, occurred primarily on the head and dorsum. Histology showed multifocal coagulation necrosis of the epidermis, with marked heterophilic infiltration without involvement of the underlying dermis. Septate, irregularly branched hyphae, and clusters of 4- to 8- by 2- to 3-microm rod-shaped cells arthroconidia were present within the lesions and in a superficial crust. Failure to maintain an acidic environment was likely a predisposing factor in the development of these lesions.

Mads et al. Chameleons were exposed to conidia in their captive environment, or were inoculated by direct application of a conidial suspension inoculum on intact and on abraded skin. The CANV induced lesions in all experimental groups and was recovered from infected animals, fulfilling Koch's postulates and confirming that it may act as a primary fungal pathogen in this species of reptile.

A breach in cutaneous integrity, as simulated by mild scarification, increased the risk of infection but was not required for the CANV to express pathogenicity. Initial hyphae proliferation occurred in the outer epidermal stratum corneum, with subsequent invasion of the deeper epidermal strata and dermis.

A spectrum of lesions was observed ranging from liquefactive necrosis of the epidermis to granulomatous inflammation in the dermis. CANV dermatomycosis appears to be contagious and can readily spread within a reptile collection, either directly through contact with infective arthroconidia or indirectly via fomites. Dense tufts of arthroconidiating hyphae were demonstrated histologically on the skin surface of many animals that developed dermatomycosis, and these arthroconidia may act as infective propagules involved in the transfer of disease between reptiles. Bowman et al. The first animal presented with a focal maxillary swelling involving the skin and gingiva.

This lizard died while undergoing itraconazole and topical miconazole therapy. The second presented with focally extensive discoloration and thickening of the skin of the ventrum and was euthanized after 10 weeks of itraconazole therapy. Amputation and itraconazole therapy resulted in a clinical cure. Histopathology of tissue biopsies in all cases demonstrated granulomatous dermatitis with intralesional hyphae morphologically consistent with those produced by the CANV. The second lizard also had granulomatous hepatitis with intralesional hyphae. Abarca et al. The ITS- 5.

The presence in histological sections of morphologically consistent fungal elements strongly incriminates this fungus as the aetiological agent of infection. Lesions regressed following treatment with oral ketoconazole and topical chlorhexidine and terbinafine until the lizard was lost to follow up 1 month later. The ITS Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed that all these strains are related to N.

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This is the first report of dermatomycoses caused by a Chrysosporium species related to N. Rajeev et al. The snake was found as an adult at an old home site in an old barn near Sparta, GA, by the current owner, a wildlife educator. The snake had been in his possession for 4 years and was frequently used in public educational performances in the southeast. Upon presentation, the snake had a 1-cm by 1.

He also had a 1-cm swelling overlying his right eye and extending down into the orbit, displacing the eyeball laterally and displacing the palate and dorsal limit of the choana ventrally. The masses were lobular, whitish in appearance, and enclosed in a thin capsule. The submandibular mass was removed in its entirety, as its capsule was very discrete. The other mass was very friable and locally extensive. Both masses were surgically removed and submitted for histopathological examination and culture.

Not all portions of the second mass could be completely removed, due to the location of this mass, but the area enclosing it was debrided. At the time of surgery, the snake was treated with meloxicam Metacam; Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc. Joseph, MO at a dose of 0. This was continued until the histopathology report indicating a fungal infection was received. Enrofloxacin was discontinued of postoperative swelling at the incision over the orbit. This was treated with warm wet compresses daily, and the swelling decreased.

The snake passed away 2 months after surgery. A Cutaneous masses; B hematoxylin and eosin-stained section of the lesion; C Grocott-Gomori methenamine silver- stained section of the lesion. This taxon is characterized by its ability to grow at temperatures from 15 to 37 degrees C and by the presence of arthroconidia and aleurioconidia. The latter are unicellular, smooth, pyriform or clavate, sessile or borne at the ends of narrow stalks. Eatwell described a 1-year-old albino Boa constrictor Constrictor constrictor with large necrotic areas of skin of two weeks duration. Skin lesions were evident on the mandible, maxilla and dorsally over the spine.

Other lesions were developing with mild yellow brown skin discolouration evident on the lateral and ventral aspects of the snake. Skin biopsies were taken under anaesthesia and histopathological changes noted were severe skin necrosis and inflammation likely due to infection with CANV. The snake died after three weeks of treatment.

Hedley et al. Treatment of one of the infected girdled lizards with voriconazole, which was selected on the basis of in vitro sensitivity testing of the isolate, resulted in resolution of lesions and negative fungal cultures from the skin. A longer follow-up time and larger studies will be necessary to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of this treatment in giant girdled lizards. McLelland described. In spring , a similar syndrome was diagnosed in a fourth massasauga; this snake continues to be treated with thermal and nutritional support and antifungal therapy.


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A keratinophilic fungal infection caused by Chrysosporium sp. Clinical and gross necropsy abnormalities were limited to the heads of affected animals.


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  6. In each case, a unilateral subcutaneous swelling completely obstructed the nasolabial pits. In the most severely affected snake, swelling extended to the cranial aspect of the orbit and maxillary fang. Notable histologic lesions were restricted to skin, gingiva, and deeper tissues of the head and cervical region and consisted of cutaneous ulcers with granulomas in deeper tissues.

    Ulcers had thick adherent serocellular crusts and were delineated by small dermal accumulations of heterophils and fewer macrophages. In 1 snake, infection was associated with retained devitalized layers of epidermis consistent with dysecdysis. In the same snake, the eye and ventral periocular tissues were effaced by inflammation, but the spectacle and a small fragment of cornea remained; the corneal remnant contained few fungal hyphae. A Facial dermatitis and cellulitis caused by Chrysosporium sp. C Maxillary dermal and subcutaneous fungal granuloma circled area.

    D Gra ulo a e ter ith large u ers of fu gal h phae. Allender et al. There was no evidence of Chrysosporium in any of the samples. Hematologic and plasma biochemistry parameters were consistent with previous health studies in the Carlyle population. Elemental toxicologic investigation of the plasma indicated variable levels of lead, copper, selenium, strontium, tin, iron, and zinc. Burcham et al. Analyses of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal gene revealed that the reptile pathogens and human isolates belong in well-supported clades corresponding to three lineages that are distinct from all other taxa within the family Onygenaceae of the order Onygenales.

    One lineage represented the genus Nannizziopsis and comprises N. Two other lineages comprise the genus Ophidiomyces, with the species Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola occurring only in snakes, and Paranannizziopsis gen. The newly described species are Nannizziopsis dermatitidis, Nannizziopsis crocodili, Nannizziopsis barbata, Nannizziopsis infrequens, Nannizziopsis hominis, Nannizziopsis obscura, Paranannizziopsis australasiensis, Paranannizziopsis californiensis, and Paranannizziopsis crustacea.

    Chrysosporium longisporum has been reclassified as Paranannizziopsis longispora. Human-associated species were not recovered from reptiles, and reptile-associated species were recovered only from reptiles, thereby mitigating concerns related to zoonosis. Colonies of N. Paranannizziopsis australasiensis U , P. Sigler et al. A Scanning electron micrograph showing wall ornamentation of globose ascospores. B and C Slide culture preparations showing aleurioconidia, occasional arthroconidia, and undulate hyphae. D Arthroconidia and budding cells produced on PDA. Microscopic morphology of Nannizziopsis dermatitidis showing aleurioconidia A , fission arthroconidia B , and undulate hyphae C.

    E to I Microscopic morphology of Nannizziopsis crocodili. E and F Scanning electron micrographs showing subglobose aleurioconidia among asperulate hyphae indicated by arrow of pseudogymnothecia. G and H Slide culture preparation showing aleurioconidia, fission arthroconidia, and an undulate hyphal branch H inset. Microscopic morphology of Nannizziopsis guarroi showing aleurioconidia E , undulate hyphae F , and cylindrical arthroconidia, some of which are germinating G.

    Microscopic morphology of Nannizziopsis infrequens showing aleurioconidia H , undulate hyphae and rare intercalary arthroconidia I , and ascomatal initials arrow J. Microscopic morphology of Paranannizziopsis australasiensis showing aleurioconidia borne sessile or subtended by a swollen cell arrows A , occasional intercalary arthroconidia B , undulate hyphae C , ascomatal initials D and E , and mycelium with swollen cells produced in the vicinity of the initials F.

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    Professor Knutz and the tale of the mud dragon Professor Knutz and the tale of the mud dragon
    Professor Knutz and the tale of the mud dragon Professor Knutz and the tale of the mud dragon
    Professor Knutz and the tale of the mud dragon Professor Knutz and the tale of the mud dragon

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