In , Spain granted citizenship to 84, persons, mostly to people from Ecuador, Colombia and Morocco. They reside primarily on the Mediterranean costas and Balearic islands, where many are choosing to live their retirement or telework. Substantial populations descended from Spanish colonists and immigrants exist in other parts of the world, most notably in Latin America.
Beginning in the late 15th century, large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America and at present most white Latin Americans who make up about one-third of Latin America's population are of Spanish or Portuguese origin. In the 16th century perhaps , Spaniards emigrated, mostly to Peru and Mexico. During the same period perhaps , went to Latin America.
The city of Las Palmas de G. City Region Prov. Canarias Las Palmas , Canary Islands Las Palmas , Peoples The Spanish Constitution of , in its second article, recognises historic entities "nationalities", a carefully chosen word in order to avoid the more politically charged "nations" and regions, within the context of the Spanish nation. For some people, Spain's identity consists more of an overlap of different regional identities than of a sole Spanish identity.
Indeed, some of the regional identities may even conflict with the Spanish one. Distinct traditional regional identities within Spain include the Basques, Catalans, Galicians and Castilians, among others. Minority groups Spain has a number of descendants of populations from former colonies especially Equatorial Guinea and immigrants from several Sub-Saharan and Caribbean countries have been recently settling in Spain.
There are also sizeable numbers of Asian immigrants, most of whom are of Chinese, Indian, Filipino, Middle Eastern and South Asian origins; the population of Latin Americans who can also be of Spaniard descent is sizeable as well and a fast growing segment. Other growing groups are Britons, , in , Germans and other immigrants from the rest of Europe. Their origin is unclear.
Immigration According to the Spanish government there were 4. Spain has more than , migrants from West and Central Africa. This sudden and ongoing inflow of immigrants, particularly those arriving clandestinely by sea, has caused noticeable social tension. Another statistically significant factor is the large number of residents of EU origin typically retiring to Spain's Mediterranean coast.
In fact, Spain was Europe's largest absorber of migrants from to , with its immigrant population more than doubling as 2. But a number of regional languages have been declared co-official, along with Spanish, in the constituent communities where they are spoken:. Aragonese is vaguely recognized in Aragon. This might be due to their very small number of speakers, a less significant written tradition in comparison to Catalan or Galician, and lower self-awareness of their speakers which traditionally meant lack of strong popular demand for their recognition in the regions in which they are spoken.
In the tourist areas of the Mediterranean coast and the islands, English and German are widely spoken by tourists, foreign residents, and tourism workers. Education State education in Spain is free and compulsory from the age of 6 to Others 2. Roman Catholicism has long been the main religion of Spain,and although it no longer has official status by law, in all public schools in Spain students have to choose either religion or ethics and Catholic is the only religion officially taught although in some schools there are large numbers of Muslim students together.
Most Spaniards do not participate regularly in religious services. Protestant churches have about 1,, members. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has approximately 46, adherents in congregations in all regions of the country and has a temple in the Moratalaz District of Madrid. James Muslims, who number approximately one million in Spain. Presently, Islam is the second largest religion in Spain, accounting for approximately 2. Late 19th-century colonial expansion in northwestern Africa gave a number of residents in Spanish Morocco and Western Sahara full citizenship. Their ranks have since been bolstered by recent immigration, especially from Morocco and Algeria.
Currently there are around 62, Jews in Spain, or 0. Most are arrivals in the past century, while some are descendants of earlier Spanish Jews. Approximately 80, Jews are thought to have lived in Spain on the eve of the Spanish Inquisition. Culture Spain is known for its culturally diverse heritage, having been influenced by many nations and peoples throughout its history. The definition of a national Spanish culture has been characterized by tension between the centralized state, dominated in recent centuries by The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Castile, and numerous regions and minority peoples.
Literature The term Spanish literature refers to literature written in the Spanish language, including literature composed in Spanish by writers not necessarily from Spain. For literature from Spain in languages other than the Spanish, see Catalan literature, Basque literature and Galician literature. Equally, for Spanish-American literature specifically, see Latin American literature. Due to historic, geographic and generational diversity, Spanish literature has known a great number of influences and it is very diverse.
Some major literary movements can be identified within it.
"Celtiberian Ideologies and Religion" by Gabriel Sopeña
Miguel de Cervantes is probably Spain's most famous author and his Don Quixote is considered the most emblematic work in the canon of Spanish literature and a founding classic of Western literature. It is based in Madrid, but is affiliated with national language academies in 21 Spanish-speaking nations through the Association of Spanish Language Academies. Its emblem is a fiery crucible, and its motto is Limpia, fija y da esplendor "It cleans, sets, and gives splendor".
The IEC is known principally for its work in standardizing the Catalan language. In an area known as the Franja de Ponent, the eastern edge of Aragon adjacent to Catalonia where Catalan is spoken, the rules are used de facto although Catalan is not an official language. Art Artists from Spain have been highly influential in the development of various European artistic movements. Due to historical, geographical and generational diversity, Spanish art has known a great number of influences.
European influences include Italy, Germany and France, especially during the Baroque and Neoclassical periods. Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao. Cinema Spanish cinema has achieved major international success including Oscars for recent films such as Pan's Labyrinth and Volver. Architecture Spanish architecture refers to architecture carried out during any era in what is now modern-day Spain, and by Spanish architects worldwide.
The term includes buildings within the current geographical limits of Spain before this name was given to those territories, whether they were called Hispania, Al-Andalus, or were formed of several Christian kingdoms. The Plaza de Cibeles in Madrid. Due to its historical and geographical diversity, Spanish architecture has drawn from a host of influences. Simultaneously, the Christian kingdoms gradually emerged and developed their own styles; developing a pre-Romanesque style when for a while isolated from contemporary mainstream European architectural influences during the earlier Nativity facade of the Sagrada Middle Ages, they later integrated the Romanesque and Gothic streams.
Spain is currently experiencing a revolution in contemporary architecture and Spanish architects like Rafael Moneo, Santiago Calatrava, Ricardo Bofill as well as many others have gained worldwide renown. Auditorio de Tenerife in Santa Cruz de Tenerife Music Spanish music is often considered abroad to be synonymous with flamenco, a West Andalusian musical genre, which, contrary to popular belief, is not widespread outside that region. Pop, rock, hip hop and heavy metal are also popular.
Ourense Thousands of music fans also travel to Spain each year for internationally recognised summer music festivals Sonar which often features the top up and coming pop and techno acts, and Benicasim which tends to feature alternative rock and dance acts. The musical instrument originating in Spain most popular is undoubtedly the guitar.
Cuisine Spanish cuisine consists of a great variety of dishes which stem from differences in geography, culture and climate. It is heavily influenced by seafood available from the waters that surround the country, and reflects the country's deep Mediterranean roots. Spain's extensive history with many cultural influences has led to a unique cuisine. In particular, three main divisions are easily identified:. Food is traditionally conserved by salting, like Spanish ham, or immersed in olive oil, like Manchego cheese.
Sport Sport in Spain has been dominated by football since the early 20th century. Real Madrid C. Basketball, tennis, cycling, handball, motorcycling and, lately, Formula One are also important due to the presence of Spanish champions in all these disciplines. Today, Spain is a major world sports powerhouse, especially since the Summer Olympics that were hosted in The Camp Nou, in Barcelona: the largest football Barcelona, which stimulated a great deal of interest in sports in the stadium in Europe country.
The tourism industry has led to an improvement in sports infrastructure, especially for water sports, golf and skiing. Rafael Nadal is the leading Spanish tennis player and has won several Grand Slam titles including the Wimbledon men's singles. In north Spain, the game of pelota is very popular. Alberto Contador is the leading Spanish cyclist and has won several Grand Tour titles including three Tour de France titles. Public holidays Public holidays celebrated in Spain include a mix of religious Roman Catholic , national and regional observances. Each municipality is allowed to declare a maximum of 14 public holidays per year; up to nine of these are chosen by the national government and at least two are chosen locally.
Retrieved 5 July International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 21 April Retrieved 13 August United Nations. Retrieved 5 November Also, the. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in an Ordinance published in , declared that "denominations "Spain" and "Kingdom of Spain" are equally valid to designate the Spain in international treaties Retrieved 9 August The radiocarbon datations give the following dates: 32, and 29, BP.
Library of Congress Country Series. The Library of Iberian Resources Online. Patrick Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World. Oxford University Press, , pg. Lewis, Bernard, The Jews of Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press ISBN p. Glick  Payne, Stanley G. See also: Payne, Stanley G. Channel 4. Islamic Civilisation. New Scientist. University of Calgary. Rivers of gold: the rise of the Spanish Empire. The Library of Iberian resources online. Daily Telegraph UK 28 December International Herald Tribune.
The Economist. Retrieved Retrieved 1 November Retrieved 1 May Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. The World Bank. Autonomous Communities.
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Spanish Constitution of Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 23 October BBC News. Retrieved 19 February OpenElement PDF. Informe Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Spain. January Retrieved 3 January Gibraltar: British or Spanish? Retrieved 19 December Official site of the Spanish Senate. Retrieved 29 November OECD Observer. May Retrieved 15 August FrontPage magazine.
Guardian London. La Moncloa. The Global Guru. European Foundation Intelligence Digest. Accessed on 11 December Bank of Spain. Financial Times. Retrieved 11 September The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 4 September Eolic Energy News. Retrieved 8 August Retrieved 19 November Universiteit Leiden. Humanities 12 5 : 12— ART on 17 May Britannica Online Encyclopedia. ESPON project 1. Retrieved 9 April US Department of State. Open Society Institute. Retrieved 14 August Red Cross. The Earth Times. IMDiversity, Inc.
Business Week. Junta General del Principado de Asturias. Retrieved 17 January Centre of Sociological Investigations. Hudson New York. Retrieved 28 July Yale University Press. The Guardian London. Contemporary spanish cinema. Manchester University Press. Edited by David R. Blanks and Michael Frassetto. New York: Saint Martin's Press. The Times London: Times Newspapers. Retrieved 6 August Da Capo Press. History of Spain The history of Spain involves all the other peoples and nations within the Iberian peninsula formerly known as ''Hispania'', and includes still today the states of Andorra , Gibraltar , Portugal and Spain.
It spans from prehistoric Iberia, through the rise and decline of a global empire, to the recent history of Spain as a member of the European Union. Modern humans entered the Iberian Peninsula about 32, years ago. Different populations and cultures followed over the millennia, including the Iberians, the Tartessians, Celts and Celtiberians, Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Romans, Suebi and Visigoths.
In , the Moors, a Berber and Arab army, invaded and conquered nearly the entire peninsula. During the next years, independent Muslim states were established, and the entire area of Muslim control became known as Al-Andalus. Meanwhile the Christian kingdoms in the north began the long and slow recovery of the peninsula, a process called the Reconquista, which was concluded in with the fall of Granada.
The Inquisition was established and Jews and Muslims who refused to convert were expelled from the country. For the next three centuries Spain was the most important colonial power in the world. It was the most powerful state in Europe and the foremost global power during the 16th century and the greater part of the 17th century. Spanish literature and fine arts, scholarship and philosophy flourished during this time. Spain established a vast empire in the Americas, stretching from California to Patagonia, and colonies in the western Pacific.
Financed in part by the riches pouring in from its colonies, Spain became embroiled in the religiously charged wars and intrigues of Europe, including, for example, obtaining and losing possessions in today's Netherlands, Italy, France, and Germany, and engaging in wars with France, England, Sweden, and the Ottomans in the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa. Spain's European wars, however, led to economic damage, and the latter part of the 17th century saw a gradual decline of power under an increasingly neglectful and inept Habsburg regime.
The decline culminated in the War of Spanish Succession, which ended with the relegation of Spain from the position of a leading western power, to that of a secondary one, although it remained with Russia the leading colonial power. The 18th century saw a new dynasty, the Bourbons, which directed considerable efforts towards the renewal of state institutions, with some success, finishing in a successful involvement in the American War of Independence.
However, as the century ended, a reaction set in with the accession of a new monarch. The end of the eighteenth and the start of the 19th centuries saw turmoil unleashed throughout Europe by the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, which finally led to a French occupation of much of the continent, including Spain. This triggered a successful but devastating war of independence that shattered the country and created an opening for what would ultimately be the successful independence of Spain's mainland American colonies.
Shattered by the war, Spain was destabilised as different political parties representing "liberal", "reactionary" and "moderate" groups throughout the remainder of the century fought for and won short-lived control without any being sufficiently strong to bring about lasting stability.
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Nationalist movements emerged in the last significant remnants of the old empire Cuba and the Philippines which led to a brief war with the United States and the loss of the remaining old colonies at the end of the century. Following a period of growing political instability in the early 20th century, in Spain was plunged into a bloody civil war.
The war ended in a nationalist dictatorship, led by Francisco Franco which controlled the Spanish government until Spain was officially neutral during World War II, although many Spanish volunteers fought on both sides. The post-war decades were relatively stable with the notable exception of an armed independence movement in the Basque Country , and the country experienced rapid economic growth in the s and early s. The death of Franco in resulted in the return of the Bourbon monarchy headed by Prince Juan Carlos.
Early history The earliest record of hominids living in Europe has been found in the Spanish cave of Atapuerca; fossils found there date to roughly 1. The most conspicuous sign of prehistoric human settlements are the famous paintings in the northern Spanish cave of Altamira, which were done c. Regarding Tartessos, it should also be mentioned that according to John Koch Cunliffe, Karl, Wodtko and other highly respected scholars, Celtic culture may well have developed first in far Southern Portugal and Southwestern Spain, approximately years prior to anything recorded in Central Europe.
Koch as Celtic and is being accepted by a growing number of philologists and other linguists as the first Celtic language. In the 6th century BC, the Carthaginians arrived in Iberia, struggling first with the Greeks, and shortly after, with the newly arriving Romans for control of the Western Mediterranean. Their most important colony was Carthago Nova Latin name of modern day Cartagena.
In the inner part of the Peninsula, where both groups were in contact, a mixed, distinctive, culture was present, the one known as Celtiberian. Roman Hispania Hispania was divided: Hispania Ulterior and Hispania Citerior during the late Roman Republic; and, during the Roman Empire, Hispania Taraconensis in the northeast, Hispania Baetica in the south roughly corresponding to Andalucia , and Lusitania in the southwest corresponding to modern Portugal.
The base Celtiberian population remained in Roman bridge in Cordoba various stages of Romanisation, and local leaders were admitted into the Roman aristocratic class. The Spanish Bishops held the Council at Elvira in After the conversion of their monarchy to Roman Catholicism, the Visigothic Kingdom eventually encompassed a great part of the Iberian Peninsula after conquering the disordered Suebic territories in the northwest and Byzantine territories in the southeast. Spain's present languages, its religion, and the basis of its laws originate from this period.
The centuries of uninterrupted Roman rule and settlement left a deep and enduring imprint upon the culture of Spain. Germanic Occupation of Hispania 5th—8th centuries After the decline of the Roman Empire, Germanic tribes invaded the former empire. Several turned sedentary and created successor-kingdoms to the Romans in various parts of Europe. Iberia was taken over by the Visigoths after Rather than there being any convenient date for the "fall of the Roman Empire" there was a progressive "de-Romanization" of the Western Roman Empire in Hispania and a weakening of central authority, throughout the 3rd, 4th and 5th centuries.
The Visigoths, for example, were converted to Arian Christianity around , even before they were pushed into imperial territory by the expansion of the Huns. Three years later they Muslim conquest. The Visigothic Kingdom shifted its capital to Toledo and reached a high point during the reign of Leovigild.
Importantly, Spain never saw a decline in interest in classical culture to the degree observable in Britain, Gaul, Lombardy and Germany. The Visigoths tended to maintain more of the old Roman institutions, and they had a unique respect for legal codes that resulted in continuous frameworks and historical records for most of the period between , when Visigothic rule in Spain began, and , when it is traditionally said to end. Visigothic kingdoms to the Mediterranean and the continuity of western Mediterranean trade, though in reduced quantity, supported Visigothic culture. Arian Visigothic nobility kept apart from the local Catholic population.
The Visigothic ruling class looked to Constantinople for style and technology while the rivals of Visigothic power and culture were the Catholic bishops— and a brief incursion of Byzantine power in Cordoba. The period of rule by the Visigothic Kingdom saw the spread of Arianism briefly in Spain. The Council of Lerida in constrained the clergy and extended the power of law over them under the blessings of Rome.
The Visigoths inherited from Late Antiquity a sort of feudal system in Spain, based in the south on the Roman villa system and in the north drawing on their vassals to supply troops in exchange for protection. The bulk of the Visigothic army was composed of slaves, raised from the countryside. The loose council of nobles that advised Spain's Greatest extent of the Visigothic Kingdom of Toulouse, c.
The impact of Visigothic rule was not widely felt on society at large, and certainly not compared to the vast bureaucracy of the Roman Empire; they tended to rule as barbarians of a mild sort, uninterested in the events of the nation and economy, working for personal benefit, and little literature remains to us from the period. They did not, until the period of Muslim rule, merge with the Spanish population, preferring to remain separate, and indeed the Visigothic language left only the faintest mark on the modern languages of Iberia.
The most visible effect was the depopulation of the cities as they moved to the countryside. Even while the country enjoyed a degree of prosperity when compared to the famines of France and Germany in this period, the Visigoths felt little reason to contribute to the welfare, permanency, and infrastructure of their people and state.
This contributed to their downfall, as they could not count on the loyalty of their subjects when the Moors arrived in the 8th century. Crossing the Strait of Gibraltar, they won a decisive victory in the summer of when the Visigothic King Roderic was defeated and killed on July 19 at the Battle of Guadalete. Tariq's commander, Musa bin Nusair quickly crossed with substantial reinforcements, and by the Muslims dominated most of the Iberian Peninsula. Battle of Tours in A decisive victory for the Christian kingdoms took place at Covadonga, Asturias, in the summer of Known as the Battle of Covadonga, the Muslims were stopped by a king, Pelagius of Asturias, who started the monarchy of the Kingdom of Asturias which later developed into the Kingdom of Castilla.
The battle was one of the first stages of the Reconquista. Caliph Al-Walid I paid great attention to the expansion of an organized military, building the strongest navy in the Umayyad Caliphate second major Arab dynasty after Mohammad and the first Arab dynasty of Al-Andalus era. It was this tactic that supported the ultimate expansion to Spain. Emir Abd-ar-rahman I challenged the Abbasids. The Umayyad Caliphate, with origin in Hejaz, Arabian peninsula or Emirate was overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate or Emirate second Arab dynasty , some of the remaining Umayyad leaders escaped to Castile and declared Cordoba an independent emirate.
Al-Andalus was rife with internal conflict between the Islamic Umayyad rulers and people and the Christian Visigoth-Roman leaders and people. In the 10th century Abd-ar-rahman III, from Hejaz, Arabian peninsula, grandson of the last caliph of Damascus, Syria declared the Caliphate of Cordoba, effectively breaking all ties with the Egyptian and Syrian caliphs. The Caliphate was mostly concerned with maintaining its power base in North Africa, but these possessions eventually dwindled to the Ceuta province. The first navy of the Caliph of Cordoba or Emir was built after the humiliating Viking ascent of the Guadalquivir in when they sacked Seville.
Even so, Al-Andalus remained vastly superior to all the northern kingdoms combined in population, economy and Limits of the Kingdom of Castile and Kingdom of Aragon in Al-Andalus coincided with La Convivencia, an era of relative religious tolerance, and with the Golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula.
Marian Devotions, Political Mobilization, and Nationalism in Europe and America
Under his son, other Christian cities were subjected to numerous raids. The Taifa kings competed against each other not only in war, but also in the protection of the arts, and culture enjoyed a brief upswing. The Taifa kingdoms lost ground to the Christian realms in the north and, after the loss of Toledo in , the Muslim rulers reluctantly invited the Almoravides, who invaded Al-Andalus from North Africa and established an empire.
In the 12th century the Almoravid empire broke up again, only to be taken over by the Almohad invasion, who were defeated in the decisive battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in History of Spain Medieval Spain was the scene of almost constant warfare between Muslims and Christians. The Almohads, who had taken control of the Almoravids' Maghribi and Andalusian territories by , far surpassed the Almoravides in fundamentalist outlook, and they treated the dhimmis harshly.
Faced with the choice of death, conversion, or emigration, many Jews and Christians left. The treatment towards Jews at this time in Iberia varied greatly between and within the different Muslim and Christian kingdoms. By the midth century Emirate of Granada was the only independent Muslim realm in Spain, which would last until Despite the decline in Muslim-controlled kingdoms, it is important to note the lasting effects exerted on the peninsula by Muslims in technology, culture, and society.
Considered by most to have been the first mercenary company in Western Europe, the Catalan Company proceeded to occupy the Duchy of Athens, which they placed under the protection of a prince of the House of Aragon and ruled until Dynastic Union As the Reconquista continued, Christian kingdoms and principalities developed. By the 15th century, the most important among these were the Kingdom of Castile occupying a northern and central portion of the Iberian Peninsula and the Kingdom of Aragon occupying northeastern portions of the peninsula.
The rulers of these two kingdoms were allied with dynastic families in Portugal, France, and other neighboring kingdoms. Isabella held more authority over the newly unified Spain than her husband, although their rule was shared. They married in in Valladolid, uniting both crowns and setting the stage for the creation of the Kingdom of Spain, at the dawn of the modern era. That union, however, was a union in title only, as each region retained its own political and judicial structure, and even today Spain remains internally divided. The monarchs also oversaw the final stages of the Reconquista of Iberian territory from the Moors with the conquest of Granada, conquered the Canary Islands and expelled the Jews and Muslims from Spain under the Alhambra decree, though Muslim Morisco culture remained influential.
They authorized the expedition of Christopher Columbus, who became the first known European to reach the New World since Leif Ericson, which led to an influx of wealth into Spain, supplementing income from within Castile for the state that would prove to be a dominant power of Europe for the next two centuries. Isabella ensured long-term political stability in Spain by arranging strategic marriages for each of her five children. Her firstborn, a daughter named Isabella, married Alfonso of Portugal, forging important ties between these two neighboring countries and hopefully to ensure future alliance, but Isabella soon died before giving birth to an heir.
Over the next century, half of the estimated , Spanish Jews converted to Christianity becoming "conversos". The final step was taken by the Catholic Monarchs, who, in , ordered the remaining Jews to convert or face expulsion from Spain. Depending on different sources, the number of Jews actually expelled is estimated to be anywhere from 40, to , people. Over the following decades, Muslims faced the same fate and about 60 years after the Jews, they were also compelled to convert "moriscos" or be expelled. Jews and Muslims were not the only people to be persecuted during this time period.
Gypsies also endured a tragic fate: all Gypsy males were forced to serve in galleys between the age of 18 and 26 - which was equivalent to a death sentence - but the majority managed to hide and avoid arrest. The Spanish language and universities In the 13th century, there were many languages spoken in the Christian This 16th-century Spanish carpet shows stylistic sections of what is now Spain, among them Castilian, Aragonese, influences from Europe and the Islamic world.
But Collections of the Textile Museum. One example of this is the El Cid. In the last years of the reign of Ferdinand III of Castile, Castilian began to be used for certain types of documents, but it was during the reign of Alfonso X that it became the official language. Henceforth all public documents were written in Castilian, likewise all translations were made into Castilian instead of Latin. Imperial Spain The Spanish Empire was one of the first modern global empires.
It was also one of the largest empires in world history. In the 16th century Spain and Portugal were in the vanguard of European global exploration and colonial expansion and the opening of trade routes across the oceans, with trade flourishing across the Atlantic between Spain and the Americas and A map of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires in the period of Iberian Union under the across the Pacific between East Asia personal union of the Spanish monarchs Conquistadors deposed the Aztec, Inca and Maya governments with extensive help from local factions and laid claim to vast stretches of land in North and South America.
For a time, the Spanish Empire dominated the oceans with its experienced navy and ruled the European battlefield with its fearsome and well trained infantry, the famous tercios: in the words of the prominent French historian Pierre Vilar, "enacting the most extraordinary epic in human history". Spain enjoyed a cultural golden age in the 16th and 17th centuries.
This American empire was at first a disappointment, as the natives had little to trade, though settlement did encourage trade. The diseases such as smallpox and measles that arrived with the colonizers devastated the native populations, especially in the densely populated regions of the Aztec, Maya and Inca civilizations, and this reduced economic potential of conquered areas. These silver shipments re-oriented the Spanish economy, leading to the importation of luxuries and grain. They also became indispensable in financing the military capability of Habsburg Spain in its long series of European and North African wars, though, with the exception of a few years in the 17th century, Spain itself Castile in particular was by far the most important source of revenue.
The financial burden within the Columbus setting foot in the New World peninsula was on the backs of the peasant class while the nobility enjoyed an increasingly lavish lifestyle. From the time beginning with the incorporation of the Portuguese empire in lost in until the loss of its American colonies in the 19th century, Spain maintained the largest empire in the world even though it suffered fluctuating military and economic fortunes from the s.
Confronted by the new experiences, difficulties and suffering created by empire-building, Spanish thinkers formulated some of the first modern thoughts on natural law, sovereignty, international law, war, and economics; there were even questions about the legitimacy of imperialism — in related schools of thought referred to collectively as the School of Salamanca.
Despite these innovations many motives for the empire were rooted in the middle ages. At first sight, the interest of engineers in shadows, while. At this point, we should ask ourselves about the reason of the interest of engineers in stonecutting. However, these explanations [FIG. Treatises also deal with sloping arches; in particular Martinez de Aranda presents six variants: escarpment or counterscarp, and their combinations with straight plan, or two kinds of obliquity.
Such arches seem to deny the military function of the wall, which does not foster the presence of openings. However, the small size of the arch suggests that it is easier to place in the voussoirs of a round arch in the wall and give them the slant required by the slope of the wall and the skew shape of the arch by means of a simple retouching, rather than addressing the complexities of the template construction methods proposed by the treatises.
Admittedly, treatises also include vaults and stairs; however, in Early Modern military constructions the former are executed on many occasions in brick or concrete, while the stairs are usually relatively members, such as the straight newel helical stair, known in Spain as Caracol de husillo, or at most a member with a helical newel, known as Caracol de Mallorca.
All this suggests that the teaching of Stonecutting Theory in military schools focused not so much in the training of engineers for stone construction, but on the education of their spatial vision As Sakarovitch said, the stonemason works on mass, starting from a three-dimensional object, by contrast with the carpenter or the coppersmith, who work on lines or developable surfaces.
This leads to a parallel between the material activity of the stonemason and the abstract position of the geometrician, shown by rich repertoire of developable and warped that can be materialised by the stonemason and their complex intersection On its turn, this geometrical wealth is reflected in the wide variety of graphic techniques used in stonecutting tracings: projections, developments, rabattements, rotations, changes of projection plane. Even the noFIG. Side view. And finally, the economy and elegance of stonecutting tracings had to be enticing to the military by force All this is what explains, beyond its practical application, the interest of engineers in stonecutting.
Alfonso XIII, II, pp. II, p. RUIZ, c. The construction of parallels in paper, using sliding triangles, is quite easy; by contrast, tracing parallels on floors or walls is quite difficult; see for example a construction mentioned by ROJAS, , f. ROJAS, , f. The drawing in the upper part of the sheet may suggest at first sight a peculiar arch with diminishing faces; on closer inspection, it represents a skew arch in which only the edges between faces and intrados are depicted, while the ones between face an extrados are left out.
As we shall see, in the Escorial the head stonemasons prepare templates and hand them to contractors almost everyday; only in special cases they ask the actual builders to consult full-size tracing. As the exception that confirms the rule, a preparatory drawing for a tracing, drawn in paper and rather clumsy is analysed in ALONSO, , pp.
The word is quite unusual in English, due to the cold reception of French Descriptive Geometry, associated with Napoleonic institutions, in England. See a more detailed survey of treatises and writers in Calvo, , and an explanation of the evolution of the intellectual status of the discipline in CALVO, Prior to Barnes recent edition, this anonymous draughtsman was identified by Hahnloser as Magister II. GILA, , pp. ROJAS, , ff. Pistole was a popular name for a Spanish coin worth two escudos, which was in use as a virtual currency unit in France in the period of Louis XVI marriage with Maria Theresa of Austria, daughter of Philip IV of Spain, with a value of ten tournois pounds.
Thus, the prize amounted to 1, pounds. CAPEL et al. MONGE, , pp. MONGE, , p. ROJAS, , 97 v. CALVO, In Descriptive Geometry, a developpable surface can be materialised through deformation excluding extension, folding or cutting of a flat sheet of paper, cardboard or metal. Examples are cones or cylinders with any directrix. In three-dimensional space, all developpable surfaces are also ruled; that is, through every point of the surface there is a straight line that lies in its entirety on the surface. Other surfaces, known as warped surfaces, cannot be materialised through deformation of a sheet, although they can be dressed in stone or modelled in clay.
Warped surfaces may be ruled surfaces, such as some kinds of skew arches, or double curvature surfaces, such as the sphere, where no straight line lies in the surface. Caja de Ahorros, pp. Desargues, pour pratiquer la perspective par petit-. Madrid, Alpuerto. Ediciones, pp. Guerra, Estado y ciencia en los tratados militares del Renacimiento, de.
Notes on copies of B. Libro secondo, Venezia, and B. Guarino Guarini chierico regolare opera postuma dedicata a. LONG, P. Paris, Baudouin. Madrid, Luis. A cross-. Ciencias, que tratan de la cantidad Valencia, Antonio Bordazar-Vicente Cabrera. The drawings selected for the study were chosen on the grounds of their dual role as survey records of existing circumstances and designs for possible improvement. The definition of drawing proposed here is based primarily on the relationship between the two-dimensional lines and hues set down on paper and what we perceive as threedimensional reality.
Construction here is construed as a precise attitude in which drawing may analogise reality by reflecting the order and dimension of things, while the adjective deferred highlights two essential distinctions between drawing and material reality: namely, nature and timing. The aim is to show that drawing and reality are not the same thing and that in their time-bound inter-relationships, the former may either reflect what already exists or anticipate what is to be.
This premise delimits an area encompassing both engineering and architectural delineation within the wide world of drawing. In its analysis, certain basic tenets should be borne in mind to sift through a number of commonplaces that may lead to confusion. The first has to do with the routine and at times blunt division between artistic and technical drawing. In connection with the former, automatically qualifying architectural drawing as artistic and engineering drawing as technical is much too coarse a criterion.
To simplify the conceit, whereas the artistic option entails ease or agility, the technical pathway would be more patterned or structured. While this approximate distinction is just one of many2, this approach to interpreting the development of drawing may be closer to objective reality, in which the proportional weight of the two aspects are acknowledged in each case.
On these grounds, architectural and engineering drafting would initially be nearly the same thing, with the weight of the two procedures, agility or pattern, contingent upon the situation and the personal skills or capacities of the author in question. These considerations introduce the second aspect, namely the acknowledgement of a balance between general progress in graphic technique and the case of each specific individual studied.
Against that backdrop, drawing has traditionally been recognised to consist in what is usually regarded as an innate talent. In all ages, while some people have a gift for drawing others develop their skills along structured, more or less strict guidelines closely related to the level of understanding and training characteristic their specific historic era. The intention of this digression is to note that the possible existence of a degree of general knowledge in a given time does not mean that it would be accessible to any individual who happened to live at that time.
The corollary is that specific authors might well attain a degree of skill or understanding based on their specific aptitudes far in excess of the graphic expertise characteristic of their age. Within the above conceptual framework, this study, which in no way aspires to be exhaustive3, aims to establish the parallel pathways visible in drawings that contributed to.
Be it said here that engineering and architecture had been traditionally related in the two preceding centuries, during Habsburg rule4, although by the end of the sixteen hundreds the two appeared to be going their separate ways. The seventeenth century witnessed a debate around the skills to be required of master builders. Two antagonistic positions called either for a background in construction or qualifications based on a more generally artistic component5.
In synthesis, further to the division between the two types of drawing referred to above, the dispute revolved around line drawing as construction and line drawing as invention. Upon his death in , he was succeeded by Teodoro Ardemans, initially trained as a painter, who held the position until his death in From then on, the disappearance of the Works and Woodlands Council and the onset of foreign intervention with the appointment of Juan Bautista Sachetti gave royal works architecture a new twist.
Coming back to the turn of the century and the origin of the new dynasty, renovation in engineering looked to France for its basic inspiration, as well as to the Corps of Military Engineers created in under the leadership of Flemish engineer George Prosper Verboom6. While its origin and purpose were clearly military, the corps began to engage in strictly civilian interests and strategies as early as The focus here is on this latter realm, tracking the development of drawing over time and its relationship to places, scales and authors, adopting as neutral an approach as possible and eluding the schematic premises mentioned above.
Note, however, that in this engraving, drawing tools, as well as the classical orders, are attributed to architects only, in keeping with artistic tradition. This schematic assignment of roles was actually more complex and integrated in the real world. The first known drawing by the engineer born in Rome around is particularly significant: it depicts the people of Madrid cheering their new king in November It features an elevation view of the Habsburg Castle, a gouache-tinted line drawing that serves as the background for the crowd, rendered as correctly and attractively structured figures in different planes.
The narrative intention of the drawing is unequivocally con-. Madrid, History Museum, IN Madrid, History Museum, IN and Between the two dates, Pallota had drawn a considerable number of geographic and military illustrations for the work Svccession del rey D. He was initially commissioned to survey the grounds and prepare the respective drawings for the palatial complex with a view to the transformations designed by his master Robert de Cotte. The general drawing for the layout of the compound and grounds, which attests to the solvency of his work and graphic acumen, reflects the immediate urban surrounds [FIG.
On another scale, the plan view of the palatial core [FIG. It was initially supplemented by soil and elevation contours, the originals of which are kept at the French National Library. The respective works, conducted between and , were in all likelihood supervised by Carlier. The next stage in his career found him participating in the earliest stages of the Royal Site at La Granja. No original drawings for the initial phase between and having been preserved, [FIG. Planta del Palacio del Buen Retiro, estado actual hacia French National Library, Cabinet des.
Another member of this particular historic cast, French military engineer Etienne Marchand, apparently also assisted in the works. In Marchand, at the time assistant engineer or draughtsman, was promoted to the category of second lieutenant13, participating from the outset in the works on the grounds at La Granja. Madrid, General Palace Archives, Nos and Dated in , it served as a basis for a second design drawing to restructure and expand the complex [FIG. Landscaping and Marchand are the guideposts to the next stage in this series, the royal site established centuries earlier at Aranjuez, where the River Jarama flows into the Tagus.
The campaign to refurbish the compound had begun in under the leadership of the master builder appointed to Aranjuez in , Pedro Caro Idrogo, whose wideranging profile included architectural and military engineering skills. The commission entailed finishing the building planned by Philip II to replace the former Order of Santiago monastery, still standing in the early eighteenth century, along with less than one-half of the building originally envisaged.
As construction was resumed on the palace, a landscaped area was designed to flank the east wing of the building: a third parterre following on the ones at Buen Retiro and La Granja A drawing signed by Master Idrogo for a tiered circular dam in the riverbed close to the northern wing of the palace is still intact Like others of his fairly imprecise designs, the most outstanding of which may be a new set of stairs for the central part of the palace, featuring two symmetrical semi-circular staircases, this sole graphic testimony for the dam denotes little more than elementary drafting skills.
Different shades of red differentiate the older and recently built areas, while the new stairs are shown in yellow. The graphic and architectural quality of these drawings would seem to indicate that they were not authored by the local master, but rather by Marchand, who was assigned to the works at Aranjuez in late Far from competing, however, the two apparently worked together harmoniously in a cooperative spirit that more than likely permeated the design and construction of the eastern parterre, the draw-.
Floor plan and cross-section of Aranjuez Palace in Like Carlier and Pallota before them, Idrogo and Marchand died within less than a year of one another: the former in December and the latter in November Design for eastern parterre, Aranjuez Palace, July Madrid, General Palace Archives, No. General grounds, La Granja de San Ildefonso ca By that time the palace had already been enlarged to the guidelines of painter and architectural theorist Andrea Procaccini along with one of his assistants, architect and painter Sempronio Subisati From to the young Spanish engineer drafted a superb cartography of the place that attested to the status of the palatial compound and its grounds and contained as well the earliest indications of the birth of the adjacent town [FIG.
Note the squares between it and the gate into the royal site, skirted by exedra and twin buildings with a certain institutional air. The first such territorial scale document, authored by engineer Sebastian de Rodolphe in , depicts two dimensions: present status and design for future intervention [FIG. Broadly speaking, local master builders attained a certain proficiency in architectural drawing, while their territorial renditions exhibited significant shortcomings. It is attributed to Gian Battista Novello, who supposedly received some architectural training prior to his residence in Spain from to Map of Batuecas Woodlands with plan view and cross-section of Batuecas Palace in Nangle, who earned his associate engineering diploma in , was promoted to lieutenant in and to full engineer status in After an initial post at Catalonia and a presumed assignment in Cuba, he appears in connection with the building of the Guadarrama Road in The sculptures were authored by Gian Domenico Olivieri and the iron work by master Francisco Moradillo.
This gate was but the climax of the design for a new circular enclosure around El Pardo, designed and budgeted by the engineer himself shortly before his death in , and built during the rest of the decade. Although they constitute a digression from the core theme of this chapter, the attractive drawings showing the military manoeuvres normally conducted north and east of Madrid are certainly relevant to the city and its immediate surrounds.
In a way, these drawings can be viewed as a preview of and supplement to the huge map of Madrid dedicated to the Count of Aranda published in Authored by engraver Antonio Espinoso de los Monteros, the ideologue and director for that endeavour. The scale used was in keeping with the standard sponsored by the military and signed by the Count of Aranda on 31 January Tracking down the elusive Hermosilla and backpedalling 10 years sets this narrative against the backdrop of El Escorial. New plan and elevation views and cross-sections for the monastery were signed at Madrid on 12 March by engineers Baltasar Ricaud and Bernardo Fillera.
Four of the elevation drawings and three of the cross-sections have been located relatively recently24 [FIG. Although no explicit evidence is in place, there is every indication that these drawings were the result of an undertaking supervised by Hermosilla to document the grandiose building as the beginning of a new approach to. Work began in by Hermosillo himself with the assistance and cooperation of two young architects, Juan Pedro Arnal and Juan de Villanueva Baltasar Ricaud de Tirgalle26 was in all likelihood born between and ; he was appointed draughtsman in and full engineer in The record shows that after concluding his task in and with the disappearance of the Madrid school, he devoted considerable effort to drawing the western Biscay and central Mediterranean coasts and participated in the Algiers campaign headed by Silvestre Abarca in That the latest known of this series of drawings dates from stands as proof of his long life.
Less is known about Bernardo Fillera: the only proven fact is that on 22 October he was appointed draughtsman and posted at Catalonia The inference is that he would be from 10 to 15 years younger than Ricaud. Little more is known about the subsequent activity of the Catalonian engineer, except for an intriguing fact that leads, again, to where the River Jarama runs into the Tagus. On 14 December Bernardo Fillera received orders to remove to the royal site at Aranjuez to undertake a new graphic campaign, probably as a result of his work at El Escorial Despite this promising start, perhaps due to the change of reign or other unknown reasons, this initiative was apparently very short-lived.
Fifteen years later, however,. Topography of the Royal Site at Aranjuez, overall plan view. Aranjuez Madrid , One year later he finished his graphic and literary narrative of the properties owned by the San Juan Priory at Consuegra, likewise in the province of Toledo. His purportedly globalising image of the royal site was clearly a propagandistic portrayal of its new status, in which traditional recreational and leisure-time activities were combined with palace enlargement and consolidation of the adjacent town, and with the agricultural and husbandry experiments encouraged by Charles III.
After finishing his mission at Aranjuez, Aguirre was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of the Infantry in At around the same time, he appears to have decided to create a graphic narrative for certain elements in the city of Madrid, whether as part of an official task or a personal initiative is unclear. Two external views of the city depicting two of its gates appeared two years later, in Madrid A curious and appealing view, unsigned and undated but attributable to Domingo de Aguirre30, has recently appeared. This oil on canvas overview of the eastern front of the city taken from Retiro Park measures an unusual x mm, in contrast to the conventional size and proportions of the aforementioned drawings [FIG.
The final years of the life of this last royal site engineer and draughtsman were fairly peculiar. By his grandson Charles III was near death and the dynasty would continue in the person of his son, who embarked on the turn of the century abruptly and with no clear loadstar. The spatial interim serves to complete this tour over time aimed to identify what has changed and what has remained the same in the built environment.
One of the immense virtues of drawing is that, thanks to its testimonial value, it enables the viewer to participate in this engaging process. More than planned, it appears to be the sum of a series of personal skills which, in their interaction with traditional local building agents, induced a sort of positive fermentation.
This sectoral review obviously fits into a more general dynamic in the context of progress in the age of enlightenment. State centralisation and new civil and military structures, in this case the Academy of the Three Noble Arts of Drawing and the military academies, acted in parallel both educationally and strategically speaking to control the physical medium at the territorial, urban and architectural scales.
Academe delimited and structured the artistic professions painting, sculpture and architecture , whilst the military academies, in addition to attending to their specific martial interests, imposed control and interven-. Between these two realms, the overlap in architectural action and land use design, in what was to come to be known as the problem of professional attributions, set the stage for the well-known future conflict between engineers and architects that raged with considerable intensity throughout the nineteenth century That would diminish the impact of personal authorship.
It is as if a huge hand stemming from their esprit de corps guided the ideas and pen strokes originating in the minds and hands of its individual members. From to , Marchand shared posts and missions with Pallota. AGP Maps of El Pardo and El Escorial, respectively. CAPEL, , pp. AGS M. CAPEL, , p. Caylus Gallery. SILVA ed. El Ochocientos. De los lenguajes al patrimonio.
The conceptual guidelines of this study deal with the achievement of the institutional will of the Bourbon Spanish monarchy, since its inception after War of the Spanish Succession, in order to establish a standardized organizational procedures and methods of spatial representation by military professionals, basically engineers and draftsmen, in terms of mapping processes used throughout this technical-artistic discipline.
The contribution, based mainly on documentary sources, focuses its analysis on the institutional and regulatory mechanisms of the process during the first half of the eighteenth Century in Spain, which actually is a first approach to a larger research on mapping initiatives and activity of military engineers around the representation of space in different ways. This work shows the difficulties that existed to organize a universal frame of reference prior to a further corporate consolidation2.
Once the War of the Spanish Succession came to the Iberian Peninsula in , with the parallel structuring of the Bourbon Army, those responsible for this faction realised the advantage of channelling the organisation of specialist corps in terms of fortification and theories of attack and defence thereof. Given this provisional situation and certain lack of factual control when distributing professional responsibilities — reinforced by the extraordinary military conflict between the French Bourbons and Austrian Hapsburgs — the drawing up of ordinances to establish these functions and the specific nature of work to be undertaken with members of the Corps of Engineers was essential.
The first such Ordenanza, from , established the terms applicable to the tasks to be carried out from an institutional, administrative and technical point of view, which would be respected in the subsequent reviews published in and , with the corresponding adaptations to the new times and technological advances. The Ordinance on the Teaching of Mathematics in also concerned itself with cartographic questions, an important aspect in the study plan put forward by the Royal Academies of Mathematics Barcelona, Oran and Ceuta , with its training programmes for the recruitment of skilled map- and plan-making staff.
Real Ordenanza, e Instruccion de 4 de Julio de para los Ingenieros, y otras personas, dividida en dos partes Analysis of the text allows us to establish a structure of the various parameters and concepts considered to be essential to the organisation of the professional duties of the Spanish Army Corps of Engineers. Good planning means significant savings by eliminating unnecessary expenses, although the unification of criteria ensures the universality of procedures and the homogeneity of mechanisms of intervention on the ground, despite the enormous variability of material conditions geological, edaphological, climatic etc.
The use of a standardised language should impede varying interpretations which depend on the different. Los montes que se demuestran son de tierra lo bastante Elevados y Cubiertos de Arboles.
No place specified [in situ], MPD, 59, The underlying intention in the cartographic instruction given to engineers was primarily linked to the representation of territory and the elements integrated therein, both natural and artificial. The Army Corps of Engineers had very few among their number who could undertake such a task, to which we should add their short existence. They basically depended on the work carried out on the ground in. No place specified [in situ], no date specified . On the advice of his ministers, King Philip V, himself of French origin, chose to adapt the Gallic-Bourbon system to suit Spanish conditions — more specifically those experienced in Castile — with a model that reflected a new concept of a centralised State, still somewhat influenced by the Italian influence in the court, a circumstance that was also related to the presence of the Spanish monarchy in Italian lands The arguments in favour of such standardisation were set out in Point 26, indicating that by using.
MPD, 25, Plano de la Ysla Yris en la Costa de Africa. No place specified [Malaga], no date specified [c. The criteria behind the reflections set out in the Ordinance covered both civil and military matters The reflections expressed in the regulations clearly delimited the principle objectives behind the Ordinance [TABLE 1]. Finally, instruction shall be given in all matters pertaining to the notion of the role of Military Buildings required in a fortified enclosure. Students shall be taught the way to prepare specific Plans and Maps of Provinces: the way to distinguish and represent on paper cultivated and uncultivated land, Forests, Ravines, Roads, Mountains, Outcrops, Coastlines, Rivers, Marshes, Houses, Gardens and Smallholdings.
Also instruction in Trenches, Batteries, investment and circumvallation lines in fortified enclosures, providing them with detailed designs of all manner of instruments for Sappers, Ricks, and Fences, Defensive Shields and Bolsters: how to make and use them, with all other operations that employ them, the defence of fortifications, Encampments, Army battle plans, with all the corresponding colours, the enlargement and reduction of Plans, scale reduction, the way to take and delineate a view of a fortified enclosure or terrain, in order to represent these on paper in a natural manner and generally the form of pro-.
Citadelle No place specified [Barcelona], no date specified . MPD, 08, Puerta Principal de La Ciudadella de Barcelona. No place specified [Barcelona], no date specified [c. The relationships between these should be accompanied by the reasoning behind them and the advantages that follow on from execution. The Director of Drawing shall teach and explain all required Design, on the approval of the Inspector and the Director General of the Academy, ensuring that they copy said instruction, with the assistance of the spoken voice. The Ordenanza offers no particular details of how maps and plans should be prepared, as such specifications would be taught during the drawing course.
The text also stresses the importance that the War Secretary gave to graphic training of those aspiring to become engineers or those engineers who wished to perfect their drawing skills.
In order to prevent complications in carrying out orders and facilitating the teaching dynamic, those responsible in the military hierarchy and at the Treasury the Captain General, Overseers, etc. In corporate terms, the implication of engineers was of fundamental importance in stimulating the processes of development and improvement of map-making methods and techniques. These actions were channelled in practice by the competent authorities — either by institutions overseeing engineers both general and provincial , or by the Royal Board of Fortifications in Madrid15 —, the War Secretary and the military leaders at the various general headquarters Here we should highlight Royal initiatives to create map- and model-making collections at various points during the eighteenth century.
Toward the end of the following decade, in , the same engineer from Marseille took charge of compilFIG. Plano del Castillo y Villa de ing an ambitious collection of maps Cardona con sus contornos. Barcelona, 15 January Under the governCH, Atlas These ventures, comparable to others led by the French monarchy from the seventeenth century onward, did not achieve their desired aims Surrounding these matters, a major controversy arose among the various authorities who went to some lengths to point out the shortcomings of the members of the Corps, or those aspiring to join it, in reaching the required standard of cartographic excellence, in all but a few cases.
Both from the point of view of the cartographic design and the academic context that should ensure the excellence of the engineers, the problems were nevertheless constant in the quest to establish standardised control over professional mechanisms and the particular circumstances of each individual. Essentially this is because, with the exception of the Barcelona Academy and its counterparts in Oran and Ceuta, the integrated training of engineers, both theoretical and practical, including the ambivalent attitude toward drawing, with the difficulties experienced in each province proved to be extremely problematic.
Fortress with points of attack. No place specified [Madrid], no date specified . MPD, 31, It is important to bear in mind that the training of engineers in fortification and theories of attack and defence was firmly based on knowledge of such techniques through the study of detailed illustrations, a factor that would become clear some years later with the institutionalisation of the exams to join the Corps of Engineers and the Inspection of the Artillery [FIGS. As far as the importance of drawing to professional activities of the engineers, there were numerous questions raised, both within and outside the Academy of Mathematics.
This lack of independence among those aspiring to be draughtsmen meant that the search for capable hands was a long one. The spector. The engineer Bernardo Fernando Lasala consolidated his position at the Academy of Mathematics, years later taking charge of further duties concerning wooden models used to complement other teaching material in certain subjects. There was no let-up in the attempts to recruit engineers to teach drawing and other subjects at the Academy of Mathematics.
Lleida, October A matter of special importance regarding the content of the material linked to the drawing class and the pedagogical methods used by the first director of the Barcelona Academy of Mathematics ensured that tension was maintained for over a decade between him and a number of military engineers, including Verboom. Mateo Calabro appealed directly to the War Secretary to take steps to raise the level of the students in terms of the academic skills, thus training a new generation of engineers who were adept in the art of drawing and cartography.
This art can never be attained by an engineer or soldier who is unaware of the area of Mathematic expressed above. The art of colouring has no greater mystery than the fantasy of any man, because this art which is only a counsel to Engineers and in some cases merely accidental , is no more than applying colour to Edifice, Machine and Encampment as plotted by the engineer in order to reveal of what materials they are made.
For those with intelligence this requires little time, although some may need much longer to prepare themselves in the fine taste of applying colours, while others may never achieve it with respect to those who have thus been described as accidental , as I have seen in my Students, to whom I have taught colouring having procured to educate them in the spirit of the areas of Mathematics that a good draughtsman requires.
Drawing is an onerous task, while colouring is most enjoyable, something that I should remind Your Excellency, at the service of His Majesty, is useful for Academy Students. After the failure of the siege to expel the English from Gibraltar, the Chief of Engineers was called to Madrid to discuss matters relating to the Corps, where he remained until before finally returning to Barcelona. During this period, the Flemish engineer received orders to suggest reforms to the Engineers Ordinance, as it seemed to be increasingly causing greater problems to its members, both in questions of discipline and in matters of professional training.
Military and political activities. Barquera, Juan Wenceslao, Concerning public and private life of a patriot of the War for Independence. Catholic Church in Mexico , 14 inches. Miscelanea relativa a Conventos, Hospitales, Iglesias, etc. Lista de Libros Prohibidos, Invitaciones, etc. Decretos y Proclamaciones de la Iglesia. Decrees, proclamations, etc. Ignacio Comonfort Papers ,  2.
Comonfort, Ignacio. Papers of Ignacio Comonfort, Mexican Army general and President of Mexico, , include military and official documents, correspondence, and family records. Degollado, Santos. Correspondencia y Muerte de Santos Degollado. Campana de M. Fuente, Juan Antonio de la. Archivo de J. Personal correspondence. Contains several letters of Lorenzo de Zavala and a contemporary copy of terms of surrender of San Antonio to General Burleson, Numerous letters by Santa Anna and Anastacio Bustamante, Correspondence, literary productions, financial documents, certificates, and official documents, lists, printed material.
Vicente Guerrero Collection,  11 inches. Documentos Relativos al Baron de Humbolt. French Intervention. Correspondencia Miscelanea. Lares, Teodosio. Correspondencia y otros documentos. Important materials for French Intervention. Lares was Chief Justice under Maximilian regime. Manuel I.
Madrid, Manuel I. Documentos relativos a Manuel I. Madrid, correspondence. Chiefly personal business transactions. Madrid was a prominent merchant and importer who operated in Veracruz, Guanajuato, and other cities. Manning and Mackintosh. Financial and legal documents and correspondence of Manning and MacKintosh and predecessors , a business partnership acting as agents in Mexico of British financial interests.
Includes some reports of the British Consul General in Mexico, covering the period Includes correspondence, financial documents, literary productions, legal documents, minutes, printed materials. Private and official papers of the Governor of Puebla. Chiefly broadsides and typed copies concerning beginning of the revolution of , relations of Huerta and President W,ilson, and activities of Villa.
Correspondence, writings, and official documents pertaining to Mier, Dominican friar and revolutionary, reflecting conditions in colonial Mexico and Spanish America in the early 19th century. Click to view digitized documents from the Mora Papers. Copias y Borrador de Mss. Juan de Palafox y Mendoza Collection, 4 inches. Palafox y Mendoza, Juan de. Corespondencia y documentos relativos a Palafox. Paredes y Arrillaga, Mariano. Much information concerning politics and the War of Papeles sueltos del Padre Pichardo.
Revilla Gigedo, Conde de II. Documentos Relativos al Segundo Conde de Revillagigedo. Mariano Riva Palacio Collection,  7 linear feet. Riva Palacio, Mariano. Correspondence and official documents of Mariano Riva Palacio, thrice governor of the State of Mexico, pertaining to the governance of Mexico at federal, state, and local levels during the 19th century. Includes diaries, letters, etc. Vicente Riva Palacio Collection,  Riva Palacio, Vicente. Apuntes historicos. Historia Colonial. Noticias de su Muerte, November 22, See also: G, G Click to view detailed guide to the Vicente Riva Palacio Collection,.
Private and official papers of the Governor of the State of Mexico. Campeyo, Juan Ignacio.
- Perez Lopez Victor?
- Full text of "Spain and Portugal; handbook for travellers"!
- JUÍZO FINAL - ODISSÉIA DOS DEUSES (Portuguese Edition).
Juan Ignacio Campeyo. Sin autor. Fages, Pedro. Typed copy from Vol. Ortega, Francisco de. Relacion de la entrada y demarcacion de las Yslas Californias, que hizo el Capn. Gallego, Luis de. Real despacho sobre la pacificacion de Costa Rica a Diego de Artieda. Villa del Realejo, May 11, February 8, Agurto y Alava, Miguel de. June 18, Lo propuesto en caudo. Sobre el remate de Alcabalas.
Sobre la postura a las alcavalas. Sobre recaudacion en Guatemala de los Reales Diezmos de Alcabala. Atezcate, Laguna de. Noticia de que la propiedad de la pesca demorrajas de la laguna que esta inmediata a dhos pueblos pertenecia a esta ciudad de que no perciuia Vtilidad.
March 29, Extracto de la executoria que para en el Archibo secreto del Cabildo desta Ciudad sobre la propiedad de la Laguna de Atezcate June 15, ? Sobre la propiedad de la Laguna de Atezcate. Audiencia de Guatemala. El Preste. Remitira en primera oCasion el Ynforme que por Rl. February 18, Reciuio Su Sa. Presste esta Carta Certificacion oy Viernes 11 de abril de Copia del ynforme, o memorial que hizo a su Magd. May 15, May 12, La Auda de Goatha informa May 18, March 18, XVII century.
La Auda. September 30, La Audiencia de Goathemala da quta. La Auda de Goatla da qta. La Audienca Rl de la Ciud. La auda Rl de la Ciud de Stiago de Goatha da qta. La auda Rl de la Ciud de Stiago de. Goatla da qta. El Presste y oidores de la auda de Gothemala da quenta. El Presidente Y Oydores de la Audiena.
August 29, La Auda de Guatta da qua. Don Pedro Carzelen de Guevara. La Auda de Guatta da qta La Auda de Goatta da qta. La auda de Goatta da qta La Auda de Guatta informa. February 9, La Auda de Goatta informa. La Audina. February, El Presste y oidores de la auda de Goatla da qta. La Aua de Goata da quta.
January 19, La Aua de Goata de qta. La Aua de Goata. La Aua de Goata da qta. Da qta. So cm. La Aua de Guata da qta del Recivo de su Rl cedula se. La Auda de Guata. La Aua de Goata da qta del Recivo de su Rl. La Rl Aua de Goata Da qta. La Auda de Goata.
Da qta Auisa a V. September 2, La Auda de Goata avisa September 12, La auda. Cedula de 27 de henero de La aua. September 1, August 31 two and December 31, Naguizales, 3 de diciembre de ; c. Guattemala, La Auda de Goatea Barques Ynostrosa de Vasconcelos, Gaspar. El Preste de Guattemala ynforma.
August 11, Guatemala, April 6, Sobre que se le confiera al cabildo la Colazion de la paz. Proueio la Justiza. December 19, El Cauildo Justizia y Regimiento de esta M. Guatemala, November 29, Carrillo, Gregorio. Los Jueces Comisarios. March 10, Realejo, January 23, October 12, August 16, August 14, Copia de carta escripta por el Sr. Precidente de Guathemala. June 23, November 19, Dn Franco Marroquin. March 9, Colegio de Guatemala. Fundacion del colegio de Guatemala.
August 20, August 19, Colegio de las Doncellas. Guatemala, June 12, Colegio Seminario de Guatemala. Actuacion del Dr. Joseph Varon de Berrieza en la pretencion del Colegio Seminario de Guatemala que los beneficios y doctrinas que administraren los regulares contribuyan el 3 por ciento. August 7, August 31, Sobre qe. Coronado asista como rexidor. Guatemala, Mayo 7, Corte, Marcos de la.
Certificacion de la buena conducta y labor del P. October 8, Autos sobre prision del Lic. Copy dated January 15, SUS RS. May 1, Carta del Lizdo. May 14, Informe del Lic. February 19, Gonzales Calderon. Del Sr. Acordose q se responda. Respuesta del Sr. Manifiesto En que el Sarxto Sr. April 26, August 1, April 13, La Paz. Respuesta a una notificazion sobre la Paz. Sobre el mesmo asunto de la Paz. Pontassa y Ayala, Francisco de. La Rl. Auda de Guatta ynforma. March 16, Messa, Luis. Denuncia del Rdo.
Fray Luis Messa del Pueblo de Chimaltenango por haber incurrido en excomunion mayor. Moratalla y Tebar, Alonso. Informe de Alonso Moratalla y Tebar dando cuenta. July 1, El Obispo Fr. July 28, Ortega, Juan. Un certificado y una informacion irelativo a las guerras que promo vio Dn Juan Ortega en Cauitan y Guatemala en los de y November 1, Quesada, Alonso de. Dandole la bien venida. February 28, December 20, July 23, Capitulo de Carta escrita por el Cappan.
Ruiz Lozano, Domingo. March 23, Copy dated May 23, Primera relacion de los susesos estraordinarios qe. Trinidad religiosa carmelita en ntro convento de Goatemala desde el primer viernes de quaresma hasta hoy. Somoso, Francisco. Lo que resulta destos autos por lo que toea a frano somoso contraquien sean seguido por la conpra de las saia saias que hiso a los yndios ladrones que cometieron el urto en casa del Cappn Domingo de Esparsa. Para que todos los escribanos de esta dha ciudad [Guatemala] August 3, Goli estrangero May 29, ? Verdugo, Benito. Peticion de Benito Berdugo solicitando su libertad.
Guatemala, ? La Aud de Goata da quta. Francisco Isauro de la Vestigui Colon. Vivero, Rodrigo de. Sobre el reconocimiento de las minas de la Provincia de Tegucigalpa en 5 de Septiembre de Bravo, Juan. Bravo de la Orden de Sn Franco ynformacion. Palabra escandalosa Carta de Fr. September 8, January 13, Trueva, Alejandro de. Observaciones heehas por P.
Abad, Diego and Francisco Javier de Alegre. Extracto de varios apuntes deducidos de los rexistros del archivo de Acapulco con los quales se forman las reflexiones y paralelo qe. February 10, Noticias relativas ala Sta Cruz de Huatulco con las cuales obsequia al Sr. Javier Cervantes. April 22, Catalogo antiguo del Sr. Agurto, Pedro de. De la exemplar vida de Agurto. Manuscritos de Asuntos de las Americas. Andrade, Vicente de Paul.
Codice indigena Traduccion por Vicente de P. Copia del ocurso qe. Bernabe Villanueba. Remitido el original a S.
Anorve en qe. Apellanis y Torres, Felipe. October 18, Aranda, Juan de. Fee de baptismos y cazamiento de Dn Juan de Aranda, con Da. Araujo, Juan. Consulta del Dr. Juan Araujo al Cavildo sobre la demanda de los Atrasados. Arce y Arroyo, Juan Antonio de. Estados e informe del Contador General de Alcavalas en que se demuestran las utilidades conseguidas en ellas con las providencias de Visita. December 18, Three folded tables, 44 x 31 cm. Tesorero gl. Ministro cono. Archdiocese of Mexico. Real cedula de S.
June 5, Voces y Expli- cacion pa. De arden de S. Documentos sobre el Padre Arenas. Armada de Barlovento. La causa que muebe a su Magd. Arteaga, Manuel de. El Pe. Ateneo Mexicano. Secretaria Borradores de comunica ciones. Audiencia of Mexico. Baisset, Estevan. Diligencias promovidas. Barbastro, Francisco Antonio. May 6, Barradas, Isidro. Fundamentos del proyecto sobre creacion de arbitrios municipales.
Carta de Barroeta, sobre cuentas de la Real Caja de Acapulco. Chihuahua, September 3, Bazaine, Achille. Correspondencia de Achille Bazaine. Typed Spanish translations with occasional French text of the correspondence of Bazaine while in Mexico. Collection of briefs and bulls concerning Mexican candidates for beatification. Contents listed separately in this Guide. Benavides, Alonso de. Tanto que se saco de una carta. Bergliesy, C. Bernal, Juan Albano. Madrid, October 14, Madrid, November 26, Madrid, December 9, Madrid, December 23, Carta sin fecha y sin firma sobre el mismo asunto.
Madrid, January 20, Bestard, Juan Buenaventura. Juan Buenava. Bestard hijo de la Sa. May 25 to June 8, Six folded tables, 44 x 31 cm. Brinton, Daniel G. Biblioteca Brinton de literatura aborigena de America. Las Cronicas Mayas. Editadas por Daniel G.
Brinton, M. Ensayos de un Americanista Brinton, A. Porter and Coates. Buckley, W. Buckley Papers. Bustamante, Anastacio. Un legajo de comunicacio- nes del Presidente Busta- mante, relativas al culti- vo de la grana en Chiapas muy raro.
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