Farinata degli Uberti, a famous Ghibelline Florentine patriot, seen here by Dante, who greatly admired him, because tainted with the prevalent heresy of the age. In , and in , after which the Ghibelline party never returned to power in Florence. This may mean that Guido did not admire Virgil, or, better, that he did not believe in a Reason that was subservient to Edition: current; Page: [ [xxxv] ] Spirituality, to which belief Dante here implies that he owed his great Vision.
By his use of the past tense Dante seemed to have implied that Guido was dead. Proserpine, the Queen of Hades, identified with Luna, the Moon; in less than fifty moons, or months, from April, , Dante found himself banished from Florence, never to return. Perpetual banishment from Florence decreed by the returning Guelphs against the Uberti family.
Knowledge of the Present depends upon life in Time; that of the Future upon life in Eternity, remote events of a general nature depending predominantly upon moral and spiritual forces. The Hohenstaufen Emperor, Frederick II, whom Dante greatly admired, but condemned to be seen here for the heretical beliefs he shared with his contemporary Cardinal degli Ubaldini. The stench arising from the abyss below symbolizes the greater moral and spiritual corruption characterizing the far more serious sins, whose nature is revealed in the three last Circles of Nether Hell.
He who would know the inmost nature of evil must be willing to get used to its repulsiveness. The Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth Circles, small only in relation to the first six. Creatures lower than Man would not have sufficient intelligence, while any presumed to be higher would have too much, to make deceit effective. A fine definition of a suicide; not one who kills himself, but a spirit who kills his own body.
Respect for Nature, which is an outer manifestation of God, associated with reverence for the latter. Sodom here stands for unnatural sexual sins, while Cahors, in France, in the middle age a nest of usurers, stands for Usury, conceived as sin against Industry. The Ethics, Philosophy, and Physics referred to are those of Aristotle.
Astronomical data signifying that the time is now about half past three a. Descent into the Seventh Circle, suggestively imagined as being much lower and more inaccessible than were the previous circles from each other. The Minotaur, symbol of Bestiality, the monster, half man and half bull, who was killed by Theseus with the help of Ariadne. His terrorizing fury defeats its own end. Another reminder that Dante is the only physically living being in the Inferno. Reference to the doctrine of Empedocles, who taught that Love restored to a happy Chaos the seeds of things that had been separated by Hate.
Phlegethon, the river of Blood, guarded by the semi-human Centaurs, symbols of human Brutality. Wounded by a poisoned arrow by Hercules for trying to carry off Dejanira, Nessus left his shirt which, being poisoned, killed Hercules. Tyrants, or wholesale slaughterers like Attila, the Hun, the most deeply immersed in the Blood of Phlegethon. Nessus is put temporarily in charge of Dante, as being the local expert. A river and a town which bound the wild district of the Tuscan Maremma. The Harpies, symbols of remorse and fear of the future, feed on bushes, to which are reduced the spirits of those who deprived themselves of human bodies.
Suicide, either by the killing of the body or by inaction, is here pictured as essentially vegetating, a self-lowering in the scale of life. Pier delle Vigne, a Chancellor of Frederick II, who, according to Dante here, was unjustly accused of treachery, and took his own life in prison. It is only as an illustration of the significance of Heresy that Dante sees him in the Sixth Circle. The state of Suicides before and after the Final Judgment; the life of the body, of which the spirit of the suicide deprives himself, is considered as an instrument for the building of character for which he is responsible.
Those who were violent against their property, which Dante considered as an outer body, for which a spirit is also responsible. Lano died in the battle of Pieve del Toppo, won in by the Aretines against the Sienese. Florence, whose patron Saint was John the Baptist, had been in its more warlike, and less commercial, Pagan times under the protection of Mars, a part of whose statue was said to have been set on the Ponte Vecchio, after the legendary destruction of Florence Edition: current; Page: [ [xxxix] ] by Attila.
The whole passage is a warning to any people, which, in its eagerness for commercial prosperity, risks losing the military qualities which alone would enable them to keep it. The speaker may have been a certain Lotto degli Agli, a prior of Florence who hanged himself in his own house. Bitterly as Dante at times inveighed against Florence for her vices and ingratitude, no man ever loved his native place more tenderly and proudly than did Dante.
The Plain of burning sand on which nothing will grow, finely symbolizes sins against spiritual, human, and social growth. Those prostrate on the ground are the violent against God directly; those seated without doing anything the violent against Industry, the economic art; and those restlessly running around with no results the violent against the procreative laws of Nature in Man.
An Alexandrian legend probably the result of blending two experiences, one of a heavy snow fall, and the other of torrid heat. Capaneus, one of the famous seven kings who fought against Thebes; he was killed with a thunderbolt hurled by Zeus, whom he had arrogantly defied.
This is the Dante character which most resembles the Satan of Milton. This brook is peculiarly notable possibly because the fact that the flames falling upon the third ring which it crosses, are extinguished above it, shows that the punishment of one sin cannot extend to another; the overflow of Phlegethon is still a part of Edition: current; Page: [ [xl] ] the first ring. The classic myth of the origin of Man in the island of Crete, and of the Golden Age under Saturn, whose wife, Rhea, secured the survival of Jupiter, by substituting a stone for him at his birth, thus concealing him from his father who would else have devoured him, because the Fates had declared that he would be dethroned by a son.
The truth of this myth may consist in the fact that while there is only one God, conceptions of Him are continually dethroning each other in turn. The Old Man of Crete, the symbol of the ever deteriorating human race, whose tears furnish Hell with its rivers; Damietta, in Egypt, represents the ancient world of Man before the age of Imperial and Christian Rome. In the Inferno the two poets, when not going down toward the center, regularly turn to the left around an arc of each circle, thus following the course of the sun.
Phlegethon means, in Greek, boiling; Lethe, the other infernal river of classic mythology, Dante saves for a higher purpose in the Terrestrial Paradise. Another of countless instances of the way Dante makes his reader feel the concrete realism of the story with which he has clothed his Allegory; a definite time is allotted to each part of his journey.
He probably helped Dante in his studies, and died in Dante uses the specially polite voi in addressing Brunetto, as he did in the case of Farinata and Cavalcanti. Reverence for Edition: current; Page: [ [xli] ] the man, unaffected by condemnation of the sin he illustrated. Dante wore the toga, a tradition from Roman times, to which he was ever proudly loyal. Another strong instance of respect for the general character of individuals independent of a searching condemnation of the sin which they served to illustrate.
A scheme by which the three could keep moving, and yet converse with Dante. The text here adopted is granted to be in every way the best, but is Edition: current; Page: [ [xlii] ] generally rejected on documentary grounds. Just such a hurriedly uttered Amen can still be heard in the rendering of the Latin liturgy in Florence!
Phlegethon, falling over the edge of the Seventh Circle into the profound abyss below to form the frozen lake of Cocytus at the bottom of Hell. Bloodthirstiness ultimately results in utterly cold-hearted Treachery. A monastery rich enough to have accommodated more monks than it did. Thought to be the cord of St.
Francis, Dante being reported as having intended in his youth to join the Franciscan order, as a means of resisting the temptations to Incontinence, represented by the allegorical Leopard of the first canto. Telling unfamiliar as well as unpopular truths is fraught with danger, but Dante dared to face it here. The dangerous truth is, that the cord of St. Francis actually brought up Geryon, the symbol of Fraud. Now Dante loved St. Hereafter Dante will wear no girdle but the reed of humility, assumed at the beginning Edition: current; Page: [ [xliii] ] of his course through Purgatory.
Geryon, the symbol of Fraud, whose nature will be revealed by the punishment of its several forms in the following Circle. A marvelous selection of illustrations of Fraud! Arachne a Lydian maiden who challenged Athene to weaving, and was turned by her into a spider.
They had to go to the right to avoid crossing the stream of blood; ten paces means a few. Usurers; Usury being of all forms of violence the nearest to Fraud, they are next to the Abyss. To understand the evil of Usury Dante does not need to be accompanied by Virgil. Being without character, which is inseparable from personal distinction, these usurers are distinguishable only by means of the money bags hanging from their necks, and hence, except in financial circles, are of no account.
The devices on the bags are the coats of arms of prominent Florentine and Paduan usurers. Another simile drawn from the art of Falconry; Geryon had only grudgingly performed the service imposed on him by Virgil. Pandars, pimps, or professional procurers of women, driven around the trench by devils armed with scourges, who represent the mean passions which restlessly goad them on to fraud. Dante uses nakedness here and elsewhere to portray sins that are peculiarly indefensible.
Immense crowds of pilgrims from all over Europe gathered at Rome for the Jubilee of ; Dante may himself have been there, and witnessed what he describes. A Bolognese, who for money is said to have betrayed his own sister to the lust of a Marquis da Esti of Edition: current; Page: [ [xlv] ] Ferrara. A grim play upon the word salse, sauces, a name given to a place near Bologna, where the bodies of criminals were thrown. Seducers of women, scourged around the trench in the opposite direction.
Jason, the royal leader of the Argonauts in their quest of the Golden Fleece of Colchos, and the seducer of Hypsipyle, Medea and other women. Because, ever since cursed by Venus, they had been abandoned by their husbands. In the general massacre Hypsipyle had saved her father, King Thoas. The famous Athenian courtesan, said to have been the mistress of Alexander. Simon Magus, the magician who offered to pay St. The perfect Justice Edition: current; Page: [ [xlvi] ] of God, whereby sin is its own punishment, illustrated throughout the Inferno, as virtue being its own reward is throughout the Paradiso.
Dante, having once had to break one of these to release a child choking in it, is believed to be here defending himself against a charge of sacrilege. Prostitution again! Dante, as one of the six priors of Florence in the summer of , may have been present officially at the execution of assassins for money, who were condemned to be planted head down in a hole dug in the ground. Having changed their allegiance from Spirit to Matter, their destiny is to disappear from the real world into the earth.
Dante here attributes to Papal Rome in its corruption what the author of the Apocalypse probably ascribed to Pagan Rome. This probably means that the Church had prospered, or would prosper, only so long as her head, the Pope, remembered that she was born of the seven gifts Edition: current; Page: [ [xlvii] ] of the Holy Spirit, and observed the ten moral commandments. One of the most famous passages in the Inferno, and one capable of the widest range of application. Dante shared in the erroneous belief of his age that Constantine had abandoned Rome, and even the Empire of the West, to the Popes to rule therein as temporal sovereigns.
The spiritual truth may, however, be disengaged from it that for spiritual institutions excessive or hampering material endowments are fraught with the danger of degeneration and loss of freedom. From time to time Dante will incidentally suggest the care with which he had planned out the symmetrical balance of the component parts of his work. In fact, in what poem in universal literature has the architecture of the Divine Comedy been surpassed or equalled? The sinners in this trench, if supposed to have seen into the future, have turned it into a past. This is described by their punishment — a mere picture of the real nature of their sin — which consists in walking ahead with their faces turned completely around, what they see being thus a past over which they have no creative control.
Dante, being here concerned for the fate of no individual sinner, is reproved by Virgil for what here seems his sympathy with the sin, to separate which from its equivalent punishment would be as irrational, as it would be to wish any physical or logical law to be other than what it is. Amphiaraus, a diviner, one of the seven Kings who besieged Thebes; Tiresias and Aruns also diviners; all three known to classic lore.
With Manto Dante reaches a case peculiarly interesting to him, because she was the fabled foundress of Mantua in Lombardy, the home Edition: current; Page: [ [xlviii] ] of his teacher Virgil. A reference to the fall of Thebes, the birthplace of the god, Bacchus, under the tyranny of Creon. Courtney Langdon. Providence, Rhode Island, October December 24th, Il Limbo Innocenti non battezzati. Pagani illustri. Lussuria Lussuriosi ed Adulteri. Gola Ghiottoni. Avarizia Avari e Prodighi. Cerchio Quinto. Ira Iracondi ed Accidiosi. Eresia Eretici. Egli ebbe? Girone Terzo Violenza contro Dio.
Girone Terzo Violenza contro Natura. Qui non son femmine da conio. Frode Bolgia Terza. Frode Bolgia Quarta.
Frode Bolgia Quinta. Frode Bolgia Sesta. Frode Bolgia Settima. Frode Bolgia Ottava. Consiglieri Frodolenti. Frode Bolgia Nona. Seminatori di Discordie. Frode Bolgia Decima. Falsatori di Metalli. Cocito Traditori dei Congiunti, e della Patria. Qual diavol ti tocca? The Mountain of the ideal life of Virtue. The sun, a planet in the Ptolemaic system of astronomy. The Gate of Purgatory proper, which ultimately leads to Paradise.
The evening of Good Friday. The souls in the Limbo, or Borderland. The river of Sin, which does not flow into the sea. The materialistic Wolf. The boat that takes repentant souls to the Island of Purgatory. One of several references to the art of Falconry. Not fearing the sin, they do not fear its punishment. A first confused impression of the World of Evil. Honor, the outstanding quality in this canto.
The qualities of plants. Contrasting with the sighs of the first Circle. Two more pictures from bird life. No rest in disloyal love. A slight Mona Lisa-esque half-smile is a sorrisino or a sorrisetto; a sneer, a sorriso beffardo; a pitying smile, a sorriso di pieta; a bitter smile, a sorriso amaro; an affected smile, a sorriso affettato.
A grin can translate as a ghigno or sogghigno; a hideous grin, as un ghigno torvo. More complex is a smorfia, which may appear as a grimace or a coaxing smile. My dictionary defines a smorfiosa as a flirt or a coquette, while a smorfioso is an affected, mincing wheedler. Anyone who acts like either one can be described as behaving smorfiosamente. In Italy many an experience can turn into a cosa da ridere a laughing matter or something ridiculous.
Every now and then, just per ridere for fun , I try to dire una facezia crack a joke in Italian. Courtesy IAT Perugia. E la via, come si chiama? La sera la gente viene qui a fare la passeggiata. JACK: E questo? A number of nouns ending with -ma are masculine. Hint: Learn it with an adjective that shows gender, e. You walk up and down the main street, stopping to chat to friends, looking at everyone else and generally seeing what is going on. People of all ages do this, so you will see both groups of young people and also their parents.
It means you will see your friends frequently and news is passed on quickly! When it replaces as a pronoun or describes as an adjective a feminine noun it becomes questa. This is a fountain. Is this a fountain? Harry is American. Is Harry American? Paolo lavora in un ospedale.
Paolo works in a hospital. Paolo lavora in un ospedale? Does Paolo work in a hospital? Giorgio abita a Firenze. Giorgio lives in Florence. Giorgio abita a Firenze? Does Giorgio live in Florence? Lavora in un ospedale, Paolo? Abita a Firenze, Giorgio? Questa fontana si chiama la Fontana Maggiore, vero?
Information questions require a question word. The subject, if expressed, follows the verb: Come si chiama il medico? Come va Suo marito? How is your husband? Question words met so far: Come? How are you? What is your job? Exercise 1 Look back at the dialogues in Unit 2. Exercise 2 On the facing page are pictures of some famous places in Italy. For each one there is a question and the answer. Cultural point Technically the Leaning Tower of Pisa is a campanile, the bell tower for the cathedral of Pisa, il duomo di Pisa.
Cathedrals are sometimes called cattedrale, more often duomo. The famous Leaning Tower is part of a particularly lovely group of buildings, the duomo, the campanile and the battistero the baptistery of the cathedral , all by Nicola and Giovanni Pisano, who were also responsible for the Fontana Maggiore in Perugia. A tourist needs to change some money. He stops a passer-by. Lei deve cambiare valuta o travellers cheques?
Our tourist has lost his passport and needs the consulate. He stops another passer-by. Unit 3: In town 41 Vocabulary Lei sa do you know? Jane is American. Piero abita a Milano. Piero lives in Milan. Piero non abita a Milano. Mi piace New York. I like New York. Non mi piace New York. I understand. Non capisco. In the last dialogue you met non lo so. Exercise 4 Vero o falso? Read the following statements and say whether they are true or false. Exercise 5 Someone is pestering you with questions.
Example: Lei fuma? Answer: No, non fumo. Ordinal numbers You know the numbers 1 to 10 Unit 1. Here are the corres- ponding ordinal numbers. The abbreviated way of writing each is given in brackets. However, when streets are named, they are usually called via, e. Strada Rosero would be a name used in a rural area and would indicate where the road leads to. You have to take the second on the left. Lei deve girare a destra.
You have to turn right. You may hear: Prenda la quarta a sinistra. Take the fourth left. More about them soon. Another way of posing a question is: Per la stazione, per favore? If you want a supermarket, a bank etc. In this way you can check you have under- stood and it also helps you to memorize what was said.
Online Library of Liberty
This has no bearing on any other part of the verb. Where stress is on the antepenultimate syllable, this is given in the Glossary. When in doubt, check in a dictionary where the stress should fall. You are standing at the spot marked X. Follow the instructions given and work out where you get to. Attraversi il cortile diagonal- mente, verso sinistra.
Sempre dritto per metri; al secondo semaforo, a sinistra, e poi la prima sulla destra. Exercise 8 Here are some sentences and, shown separately, some verbs. Can you pick the correct verb in the correct form to complete the sentence? Use each verb once only. Deve essere qui. Ah si. Ciao, Enzo. A destra e a sinistra di questa via ci sono i ruderi del Foro Romano.
Piazza Venezia and the Monument to Vittorio Emanuele. Courtesy APT di Roma. The kingdom, which orginally included Savoy, encompassed Piedmont as well as the island of Sardinia, and its capital was Turin. Devo andare a Torino. A che ora vuole partire? Arriva a Torino alle Prendo quello. Vorrei essere a Milano prima delle venti. Prendo quello delle Il ritorno costa lo stesso. Vocabulary andare to go posso. How often do the trains for Turin run? Verona leave from? Eurostar, Intercity, Interregionale are types of train, in ascending order of the number of stops they make and there- fore increased journey times.
You need to learn the remaining numbers, 11 to If necessary, remind yourself of the numbers in Unit 1. The numbers 11 to 19 can all be turned into ordinals by the addition of -esimo, e. How would you say the house numbers? Example: Via Tiziano Answer: Undici. Note: In Italian you always say: millenovecento. Che ore sono? Italians use the hour clock, which avoids the possibility of misunderstanding: Il treno parte alle sedici e cinquanta. The train leaves at Exercise 3 What times are the clocks showing? Use the conversational way of telling the time.
Example: Sono le dieci e venticinque.
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You have already met capisco. In the present tense, but not in most other tenses, this group of verbs divides into two sub-groups. Try to learn, as you go along, which group each type of -ire verb belongs to. You have now seen the forms for the singular of all regular verbs in Italian. Verb tables often look daunting but study the summary table below carefully and you will see that the differences between the groups are small.
Exercise 5 Here are pictures of Carla doing various things. Match each drawing with one of the sentences in the list below. You need to change the endings of the verbs to the io form. Example: Ballo in discoteca. Tell someone else what he said, i. Sono 1 pilota. Abito 2 a Verona e lavoro 3 per una compagnia privata. Spesso devo 4 portare gente a Roma o a Bruxelles. Generalmente parto 5 da Verona presto e arrivo 6 a Roma per le 9. Ma non decido 11 io, decide il cliente.
Saying how long something takes Ci mette is used to say how long it takes: Il treno ci mette due ore. The train takes two hours. To do this, I take half an hour. Vorrei andare in Piazza Castello. Che autobus devo prendere? Scende in Via XX Settembre dietro il duomo. Trova una piccola via che la porta in Piazza Castello. La lascia proprio in Piazza Castello. E piove.
Dove posso trovare un taxi? Which bus must I take? What time is it? Che cosa devo fare? What must I do? Using che as a relative pronoun Another use is to show the relationship between a noun followed by a phrase and the main part of the sentence relative pronoun : Trova una piccola via che la porta in Piazza Castello.
In this it differs from, and is easier than, both English and French. The friend who is coming this evening lives right in Piazza Castello. Giorgio is a person who I know well. Do you see can you see the taxi that is arriving? The Hotel Londra which is in Via Londra is very famous. The book that I am looking for belongs to a friend. Arrivi proprio al momento giusto. You are arriving have come exactly at the right moment. Abita proprio in centro. He lives right in the centre. Sei proprio gentile. You really are kind. Would you like a little wine? Unit 4: Travelling 61 Parla italiano?
He reads little i. Dorme poco. Di solito questo si fa dal tabaccaio, dal giornalaio, al bar o in qualsiasi posto dove si vede un cartello che annuncia la vendita dei biglietti. E costa relativamente poco. Chi sale senza biglietto paga una multa. These verbs are also used to refer to getting into and out of other vehicles.
Scusi, per il duomo, dove devo scendere? Excuse me, for the cathedral, where should I get off? Using chi chi, like che, has more than one use. Who wants to come with me? Who is it? For going to Rome, some prefer to travel by air, others to use their own car and others the train. How does one go about taking the bus? Note: You can also say: Come si fa per.
Can you pick out the other cases of si in the text? Here are some common and useful phrases with si: Come si dice in italiano useful? What is the Italian for useful? Qui si parla inglese. English is spoken here. Il volo parte da un aeroporto e arriva in un altro. Esattamente come in tutti gli aeroporti del mondo. He goes into a likely- looking bookshop. JOE: Posso vedere? Infatti, ha ragione. Quanto costa? JOE: Va bene. Prendo questa. Guardi pure.
Greetings and Good Manners
La prendo. La pianta costa 5 euro. JOE: Ecco 20 euro. Grazie, signore. JOE: Buongiorno. This church, near the San Lorenzo market, also gives the main rail station its name. Polite way of asking for something in a shop — see below. This book is not so important less important. Vorrei una guida meno grande. Say if the following statements are true or false. Many Italian words resemble English words. Language profes- sionals refer to such words as cognates. However, there are some cases where the similarity is misleading.
In the cases of both of these words, it is not disastrous if you get the word wrong. Indeed it is often more a laughing matter and everyone will probably enjoy it. But it makes all the difference to your Italian if you pay attention to the points where the two languages differ and try to get things right. Common false friends accidenti! Watch out for the false friends! Attualmente frequenta il ginnasio. Gli piace la lettura e va spesso nelle librerie a guardare e comprare libri.
Asking if you may do something, saying you want to or have to do something The word posso. You have already met the present of dovere singular. Can you carry this for me? Vuole andare a Firenze domani? Do you want to go to Florence tomorrow? Deve veramente partire? Mi dispiace. Do you really have to leave? Vuoi giocare a tennis? Do you want to play tennis? Devi andare a Roma? Do you have to go to Rome? We shall look at the conditional in detail in Unit I ought to go to Rome tomorrow, I could leave on the 7 a.
Asking whether something is possible You saw in Unit 3 that you can use this to ask if something is possible. Exercise 4 How would you say the following in Italian? I have to go to Milan. It can be adapted: secondo me te lui lei Paolo Dialogue 2 Cinque cartoline per favore Joe intends to send postcards to friends back home. He goes into a Tabaccheria, which has some attractive displays of cards. JOE: Posso vedere le cartoline? JOE: Quanto costano? JOE: Allora, prendo cinque di quelle normali e cinque grandi.
Allora, sono 4 euro e 75 in tutto. Vuole anche i francobolli? Desidera altro? JOE: No, grazie. Cultural point In Italy tobacco and cigarettes come under a state monopoly and are therefore sold though licensed outlets. This explains why tobac- conists also sell stamps and, at one time, salt, which was also under a state monopoly. For mail within Italy and Europe a relatively new service: prioritaria, for which you pay extra, seems to get letters to their destinations quickly, in a way that used to be unknown in Italy.
Language points Plurals of nouns Singular ending Plural ending -o m. He repeats the orders to the customers, but in each case he gets it wrong. Be the customers and correct him as indicated. Example: Un vino rosso, vero? You say: No, due vini rossi. Exercise 6 Here are some nouns, sometimes with adjectives describing them.
Prendo questo. Mi piace quella fontana. I like that fountain. Questo pr. This one is bigger; that one is more interesting. Say them to yourself. We are with them. Parte con voi?
Is he leaving with you? Vuole venire con noi. He wants to come with us. For all verbs, the noi form is -iamo. For the loro form, the -are verbs have -ano, the others -ono. The stressed vowel is indicated above by the underlining. Exercise 8 How would you complete the following sentences in Italian? We give you the verb to use. Now you probably understand why the question is sometimes quanto costa? How much does it cost? Quanto costano? How much do they cost? Can you write down the correct form in each case?
General- mente la sera 2 guardare la TV, 3 leggere o 4 invitare amici. Ma questa sera 5 volere cambiare. Generalmente 2 cominciare a lavorare alle 7. Se 6 volere andare al cinema o a teatro 7 dovere mangiare rapidamente. Il teatro comincia alle 9. Spesso ci sono contadini che vengono dalla campagna con i loro prodotti: uova, frutta e verdura, noci, funghi, dipende dalla stagione. I bar, i ristoranti e le strade sono pieni di persone che chiacchierano con animazione.
Un attimo, per favore. Le passo subito il signor Rossi. Buongiorno, signora, come va? Senta, vengo in Italia la setti- mana prossima. Possiamo vederci per parlare del nuovo progetto? Quando Le va bene? Va bene? Accetto con piacere. Arrivederci alla settimana prossima. Exercise 1 Using the words given above, how do you think you might say the following?
All are masculine, except la domenica. Note also that trentun works like un, as do other numbers ending in uno. Today is the twentieth of April. Or, when you know the month but are not sure of the day: Quanti ne abbiamo oggi? Oggi ne abbiamo What day is it today? That is the usual word order; the number is not put after the month. And when abbreviating, the order is the European one: Mark, my English friend, is coming to Italy in July. Exercise 2 Say these dates aloud in Italian and then write them down.
With inverno and estate, di can also be used. When dialling from outside Italy, do not omit the 0 of the area code. So in Milan, calling a Milan number, you dial the area code 02 and then the number. Calling from outside Italy, you dial 00 39 code for Italy 02 and then the number.
Unit 6: Engagements 87 Italians vary in how they say telephone numbers. The dialling tone in Italy is a short tone followed by a longer tone. When the number is ringing you hear a long tone, repeated. If the number is engaged you get a repeated short tone. It has been argued that it is another means by which the usually tight-knit Italian family keeps a check on its members!
Text messaging, however, does not seem to have developed the same lively special language as it has in English. Perhaps Italian lends itself less to creative abbreviation. The most usual thing is to eliminate the vowels in words, thus non sono libero becomes nn sn libero. Older generations are often completely unaware of the practice. However, Italian is a language of long words and suppressing some of the vowels when you text can save time! Dialogue 2 Andiamo al cinema Alberto telephones Marisa to ask her to go to the cinema with him. Casa Rossini?
Chi parla? Sono Alberto. Che dici? Andiamo a vederlo?
Il 10, vero? Dove ci troviamo? Ti vengo a prendere alle 7. It works the same way. The full table can be found in the Grammar section at the end of the book. Warning: These very common prepositions a, di, da, in, su should be handled with care. They are arguably the trickiest thing to learn to use correctly in Italian. Nonetheless, you should not be too inhib- ited by this warning, as a mistake in a preposition does not usually obscure your meaning.
Direction or place going to or being in is indicated in the verb. There are fewer idiomatic uses with these. Complete it by putting articulated prepositions in the blanks. We indicate which preposition you should use e. Note: salute is feminine. You should be able to work out the gender of the other nouns. Come si chiama? The present tense of chiamarsi is: mi chiamo ci chiamiamo ti chiami vi chiamate si chiama si chiamano mi, ti etc. Si vedono ogni sabato. They see each other each Saturday.
Exercise 5 The printer has got the following sentences muddled up. They describe what I do every morning. Put them into a more logical order. Exercise 6 Lucio has done a series of drawings of his morning routine. What does he do? Here are the verbs you need: pettinarsi, fare la doccia, vestirsi, svegliarsi, fare colazione, alzarsi, prepararsi.
Related Il riso fa buon sangue (O.S.A.) (Italian Edition)
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