Ruling Your Days: Like Clay Under a Seal

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In Mesopotamia, agricultural products and those from stock breeding, fisheries, date palm cultivation, and reed industries—in short, grain, vegetables, meat, leather, wool, horn, fish , dates, and reed and plant-fibre products—were available in plenty and could easily be produced in excess of home requirements to be exported. On the other hand, wood, stone, and metal were rare or even entirely absent.

The date palm—virtually the national tree of Iraq—yields a wood suitable only for rough beams and not for finer work. Metal can only be obtained in the mountains, and the same is true of precious and semiprecious stones. Consequently, southern Mesopotamia in particular was destined to be a land of trade from the start. The raw material that epitomizes Mesopotamian civilization is clay : in the almost exclusively mud-brick architecture and in the number and variety of clay figurines and pottery artifacts , Mesopotamia bears the stamp of clay as does no other civilization, and nowhere in the world but in Mesopotamia and the regions over which its influence was diffused was clay used as the vehicle for writing.

Such phrases as cuneiform civilization, cuneiform literature, and cuneiform law can apply only where people had had the idea of using soft clay not only for bricks and jars and for the jar stoppers on which a seal could be impressed as a mark of ownership but also as the vehicle for impressed signs to which established meanings were assigned—an intellectual achievement that amounted to nothing less than the invention of writing.

History of Mesopotamia historical region, Asia. Written By: Wolfram Th. Frye Dietz O. See Article History. Read More on This Topic. Until the s it was commonly supposed that mathematics had its birth among the ancient Greeks. Circuit court judges and family court judges are encouraged to facilitate as much participation in the Pilot Project as practical in order to provide a sound basis for implementation of e-filing rules and procedures.

Participation in Domestic Relations cases involving the Department of Health and Human Resources Bureau for Child Support Enforcement shall be mandatory in all such actions filed on or after February 1, Participation of Mental Hygiene cases in the Pilot Project shall be mandatory in all such actions filed on or after January 1, Within the Pilot County of Jefferson County, participation of Actions in the Pilot Project shall be mandatory in all Actions filed on or after September 1, , with one exception, that being Mental Hygiene cases.

A party represented by counsel must e-file documents in accordance with these E-Filing Pilot Rules. Persons not represented by counsel may e-file documents, but e-filing is not required. Once participation of actions in the Pilot Project is mandatory, courts and clerks must not offer to attorneys any alternative electronic document filing transmission system including facsimile filing , except in the event of emergency. Courts or clerks who cannot comply with this rule by the implementation date may petition the Supreme Court of Appeals for an extension, for good cause shown.

The E-Filing System requires parties to complete training and become registered participants in order to file and serve, receive service, access, and use the system. Each participant shall register with the E-Filing System Provider, provide the information necessary to complete registration, and pay the fees billed by the E-Filing System Provider at rates approved by the Supreme Court of Appeals. Users shall notify the E-Filing System Provider within 10 days of any change in firm name, delivery address, fax number or e-mail address. Participants who have set an e-mail notification preference are solely responsible for providing an accurate, up-to-date e-mail address and for ensuring that the e-mail account is properly configured to receive Notices of Electronic Filing.

Each User is responsible for the confidentiality, security, and use of their User Identity. If a User becomes aware that a User Identity has become compromised, the User shall immediately notify the E-Filing System Provider and request a change in username, password, or profile information. No person shall utilize, or allow another person to utilize, the User Identity of another in connection with e-filing or service.

Each Document shall be deemed to have been signed by the attorney, or by the party not represented by an attorney who authorized the filing, and shall bear a facsimile or typographical signature of such person, e. Attorneys shall also include their West Virginia State Bar Identification Number or a notation that the attorney has been admitted pro hac vice. The e-filing of a Document by a lawyer, or another under the authorization of a lawyer, signed in the manner described in this Rule shall constitute a signature of that lawyer under Rule 11 a of the Rules of Civil Procedure and Rule 11 a of the Rules of Practice and Procedure for Family Court.

Documents filed electronically in accordance with these E-Filing Pilot Rules and accurate printouts of such documents shall be deemed authentic. Where original documents exist, the User shall retain originals of such original documents until five 5 years following the final disposition, including appeals, of an Action. When necessary, any court may order production of original documents. All Documents must be in Portable Document Format. If a Document is unable to be converted to a. Except as described in these E-Filing Pilot Rules, all Documents filed electronically shall comply with other rules or statutes.

Titles contain generic document types generated by the E-Filing System, and the User must select the appropriate title, e. Descriptions are inputted by Users into text fields, and the User must accurately describe the Document, e. A filing is not completed for the purposes of these E-filing Pilot Rules until the User making the filing has received the E-Filing Receipt. The Document shall be deemed filed with the circuit clerk in the Action on the date and time noted on the E-Filing Receipt.

It is the responsibility of the User to check their online inbox to view e-filed documents. Courtesy e-mail notification of a filing shall not constitute service. Complaints or other initiating Documents filed electronically shall be filed with the Action number blank. The E-filing System will automatically assign an appropriate Action number upon completion of electronically filing the Complaint or other initiating Documents.

Any Document initiating an Action by electronic filing shall include the appropriate summons or other process for issuance by the circuit clerk. The circuit clerk shall forthwith issue the original summons as directed by the User initiating the Action. Except where otherwise provided, every e-filed document shall be e-served.

The E-Filing System shall generate a Notice of Electronic Filing and email it to the email address of record of the filing User and any parties who have appeared in the Action who are also Users of the E-Filing System. The Notice of Electronic Filing will include the Document filed as an attachment or a link to download the Document. Electronic service shall be treated the same as service by mail for purposes of the Rules of Civil Procedure and the Rules of Practice and Procedure for Family Court. It is the responsibility of the User to check their online inbox to view e-filed and served documents.

Documents required to be served in conformity with Rule 4, Rule 4. A User making a filing on the E-Filing System must determine if any parties in the Action are not Users and therefore not capable of receiving electronic service. If any such non-User has appeared as a party in the Action, the User making an e-filing must provide service to the non-User using traditional service methods. If a party misses a filing deadline because of an inability to electronically file Documents based upon the unavailability of the E-Filing System, the party may submit the untimely Document, accompanied by a sworn declaration stating the reason for missing the deadline no later than p.

However, any documents that are the subject of a motion to seal shall be filed with the court enclosed in sealed envelopes to be opened as directed by the court pursuant to Rule 26 c 8 of the Rules of Civil Procedure or Rule 6 of the Rules of Practice and Procedure for Family Court, and a copy of the documents that are the subject of the motion to seal shall be provided to the judge for review. Redactions, where necessary, shall ensure complete privacy of the information.

It shall be the sole responsibility of the User filing a Document to comply with this Rule. Neither the court nor the circuit clerk shall be responsible for reviewing Documents for compliance with this Rule. Orders issued by the court shall bear a typographic signature and an official e-filing court stamp, and shall be e-filed and served. Non-Users shall be served in accordance with the Rules of Civil Procedure.

The date of the official e-filing court stamp shall constitute the date of entry of the order.

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E-filed orders maintained as part of the electronic register of actions shall satisfy the requirements of Rule 77 d of the Rules of Civil Procedure and Rule 5 of the Rules of Practice and Procedure for Family Court. An electronic register of actions, with associated documents and filing receipts, shall be maintained as part of the E-Filing System and shall constitute the electronic docket and satisfy the requirements of Rule 79 of the Rules of Civil Procedure and Rule 5 of the Rules of Practice and Procedure for Family Court.

Documents that are e-filed constitute the official court record, and e-filed documents have the same force and effect as documents filed by traditional means and are deemed to be in compliance with Trial Court Rule The circuit clerk in the Pilot County where an E-File Case is pending shall make available to the general public access to the electronic docket, pleadings and other documents that are not sealed or otherwise confidential.

Accordingly, it directs circuit courts and their officers to comply with these rules, which provide time standards for the processing of all cases except for those governed by statute or in which the circuit court finds, on the record, that extraordinary circumstances exist for exemption from these standards. A final judgment or decree shall be entered in extraordinary, declaratory judgment, and equitable proceedings within one month of submission.

Upon a proper disqualification motion, as set forth in this rule, a judge shall be disqualified from a proceeding only where the judge's impartiality might reasonably be questioned in accordance with the principles established in Canon 2, Rule 2. In the absence of a disqualification motion having been filed, except as provided by Rule The preceding provisions of this rule do not apply to the assignment or reassignment of cases within a multi-judge circuit previous to the filing of a motion for disqualification.

Computation of any time period prescribed or allowed by this rule shall be governed by W. All rulings and orders relating to the recusal or disqualification of a judge shall be considered interlocutory in nature and not subject to direct or immediate appeal. This rule shall not, however, prohibit any party from seeking or using redress available by writ of prohibition, mandamus, or any other appropriate extraordinary writ as may be necessary to assure compliance with these rules by a circuit court judge.

This rule is not intended to provide a means to challenge an interlocutory ruling by the Chief Justice on such disqualification issues. If a motion is signed in violation of TCR This Rule applies to all types of proceedings in circuit court, family court, and magistrate court.

A person or entity not a party to a proceeding may only be required to produce a recorded interview, any transcript thereof, and any related documentation pursuant to the following procedure and conditions:. The West Virginia Judicial System is an Equal Opportunity Employer committed to providing equal access and unbiased, non-discriminatory treatment to all. All Rights Reserved. Search the site. Repeal of Local Rules All circuit court local rules, including local procedures and standing orders having the effect of local rules, enacted before July 1, , which are inconsistent with these Trial Court Rules or other rules of court are hereby repealed.

In addition, the term "court" may also mean magistrate court proceedings, when specific reference is made to magistrate court. Rule 2. Terms of Court The terms of the circuit courts shall commence and be held each year as provided in this rule. Rule 3. Court Sessions Generally The court is considered open and in continuous session in all divisions of the circuit court in accordance with the provisions of W.

Opening Court When the judge enters the room for the purpose of opening court, the sheriff, deputy, or designated bailiff shall say in a distinct voice: "Silence, all present will arise. Rule 4. Counsel Admission to Practice Before the Courts Any person admitted to practice before the Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia and in good standing as a member of its bar shall be permitted to practice before the courts of this State. Visiting Attorneys; Pro Hac Vice Admission Any person who has not been admitted to practice before the Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia, but who is a member in good standing of the bar of the Supreme Court of the United States, the bar of the highest court of any other state in the United States, or the bar of the District of Columbia which bar shall extend like privileges to members of The West Virginia State Bar , shall be permitted to appear pro hac vice as a visiting attorney in a particular case, in association with a person admitted to practice before the Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia and in good standing as a member of its bar, in accordance with Rule 8.

The court, at its discretion, may set the matter of pro hac vice admission for hearing. Representation of Parties and Pro Se Appearances; Withdrawal Every party to proceedings before any court, except parties appearing pro se, shall be represented by a person admitted to practice before the Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia and in good standing as a member of its bar and may be represented by a visiting attorney as provided in Rule 4. A party appearing pro se shall, at his or her first appearance, file with the clerk their complete names and addresses where pleadings, notices, and other papers may be served upon them, and their telephone numbers.

No attorney who has entered an appearance in any civil or criminal action shall withdraw the appearance or have it stricken from the record, except by order. Such approval shall rest in the sound discretion of the court, but shall not be granted until the attorney seeking to withdraw has made reasonable effort to give actual notice to the client: that the attorney wishes to withdraw; that the court retains jurisdiction; that the client has the burden of keeping the court informed where notice, pleadings, or other papers may be served; that the client has the obligation of preparing for trial or hire other counsel to prepare for trial when the trial date has been set; that if the client fails or refuses to meet these burdens, the client may suffer possible default; that the dates of any proceedings, including trial, and the holding of any such proceedings will not be affected by the withdrawal of any counsel; that service of process may be made upon the client at the client's last known address; and of the client's right to object immediately to attorney's intent to withdraw.

Substitution of Counsel by Stipulation A stipulation for substitution of counsel shall: bear the written approval of the client; bear the signed statement by the substituting attorney consenting to the substitution and stating that the substituting attorney is advised of the trial date and will be prepared for trial on such date; and be accompanied by a proposed written order, which may be presented ex parte; and be served upon opposing counsel. Bias and Prejudice The West Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals aspires to achieve absolute fairness in the determination of cases and matters before all the courts of this State and expects the highest standards of professionalism, human decency, and considerate behavior toward others from its judicial officers, lawyers, and court personnel, as well as from all witnesses, litigants, and other persons who come before the courts.

Attire for Court Appearances Counsel shall at all court appearances present themselves attired in a manner befitting their profession and indicative of their respect for the court, and shall admonish their clients and witnesses concerning inappropriate courtroom attire.

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Addressing the Court; Examination of Witnesses A court may direct that counsel stand when addressing the court. Contact with Jurors No party, nor his or her agent or attorney, shall communicate or attempt to communicate with any member of the jury or any member of the juror's immediate family who resides in the same household, until that juror has been excused from further service for a particular term of court, without first applying for with notice to all other parties and obtaining an order allowing such communication.

Ex Parte Presentations; Duty to Court In the event that any ex parte matter has been presented to any judicial officer and the requested relief is denied for any reason, such matter shall not be presented to any other judicial officer without making a full disclosure of the prior presentation. Rule 5. Scheduling Conflicts Purpose These rules have been adopted in order to provide a uniform standard for the resolution of scheduling conflicts between and among State and federal magistrate, trial and appellate courts and federal bankruptcy courts of West Virginia.

General Priorities In resolving scheduling conflicts the following priorities should ordinarily prevail: appellate cases should prevail over trial cases; criminal felony trials should prevail over civil trials; cases in which the trial date has been first set by published calendar, order or notice should take precedence over cases which were set later; trials should prevail over hearings, and hearings should prevail over conferences; and, trials and hearings of a judge in travel status should prevail over trials and hearings of a judge sitting in residence.

Notice of Conflict It shall be the duty of an attorney upon learning of an imminent scheduling conflict to give written notice to opposing counsel, the clerks of all courts, and the presiding judges, if known, in all cases, stating therein the circumstances above relevant to a resolution of the conflict under these rules. Resolution of Conflict The judges of the courts involved in a scheduling conflict shall promptly confer, resolve the conflict, and notify counsel of the resolution.

Rule 6. All memoranda, motions, and other papers shall be printed or typed and reproduced by any duplicating or copying process which produces a clear black image on white paper. The text shall be double-spaced and be no smaller than twelve 12 - point proportionally spaced or eleven 11 -point nonproportionally spaced type. Footnotes and indented quotations may be single-spaced, and footnote text shall be no smaller than eleven 11 -point proportionally spaced or ten 10 -point nonproportionally spaced type. Margins shall be no less than one inch.

A motion, response to a motion, or memorandum shall contain captions setting forth the name of the court; the number of the case, if assigned; on the line below the case-number line, the name of the assigned judge; the style of the case; and a brief descriptive title indicating the nature of the document.

A motion, response to a motion, or memorandum shall also contain the name, bar identification number, address, and telephone number of the counsel or party, if unrepresented by counsel, filing the document. Counsel shall also name the party they are representing.

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Time for Filing. Except by permission or order of the court, no pleading shall be filed less than forty-eight 48 hours prior to oral presentation or argument of a proceeding. Citation Form Citations in motions and memoranda must be in a generally accepted citation form. Copies of Memoranda Parties must file with the clerk of court the original of each memorandum.

Rule 7. Juries Master List A master list of prospective jurors shall be maintained as provided in W. Jury Panels and Pools Any panel or pool of jurors drawn from the jury wheel or box pursuant to W. Magistrate Court Juries When a jury trial is scheduled in magistrate court, the magistrate court clerk shall forthwith, but no later than five days before the scheduled trial date, inform the circuit clerk of the number of prospective jurors required. Rule 8. Cameras, Audio Equipment, and Media in the Courtroom Permission of the Court Required Cameras and audio equipment may be permitted in and around the courtrooms at the discretion of each presiding circuit judge or magistrate hereafter in this Rule 8, presiding officer.

Termination of Coverage After the proceedings have commenced, the presiding officer shall terminate coverage of any portion of the proceedings or of the remainder of the proceedings if the presiding officer determines that coverage will impede justice or deny any party a fair trial. Scope of Coverage Camera coverage shall be limited to those proceedings open to the public. Nonjudicial Meetings Coverage of any nonjudicial meeting or other gathering in the courtrooms shall be determined by the concurrence of the sponsoring group and the presiding officer and shall be conducted in accordance with these rules.

Equipment and Personnel The following equipment and persons shall be the maximum equipment and broadcast personnel permitted in the courtroom at any one time: One portable television camera or film camera with not more than one person operating the same. One still photographer with one camera and not more than two lenses and necessary related equipment.

As used in these rules, "television equipment" includes both film and videotape cameras. Only television equipment which does not produce distracting sound or light shall be employed in the courtroom. No artificial lighting other than that normally present in the courtroom shall be employed in the courtroom except that, with the concurrence of the presiding officer, modifications and additions may be made to lighting in the courtroom, provided that such modifications or additions are installed and maintained without public expense.

Only film and video cameras without working audio pickup, unless otherwise approved by the presiding officer, shall be employed in the courtroom. Only still camera equipment that does not produce distracting sound or light shall be employed in the courtroom. Audio equipment of any type shall not be permitted in the courtroom at any time, without prior permission of the presiding officer. If permission is given, not more than one audio system for radio broadcast shall be permitted in any proceeding.

If a technically suitable audio system exists in the court facility, audio pickup for both radio and television shall be accomplished from such system. If a technically suitable audio system does not exist in the court facility, microphones and related wiring shall be unobtrusive and shall be located in places designated in advance of the proceeding by the presiding officer. Location of Equipment The equipment as designated above shall be located in the courtroom as follows: Television equipment shall be positioned in such location in the courtroom as shall be designated by the presiding officer.

All camera equipment shall be positioned only in such area. Television equipment shall be positioned in an area outside the courtroom if that is technically possible. Cables and wiring will be placed in a safe and unobtrusive manner. A still camera photographer shall position himself or herself in such location in the courtroom as shall be designated by the presiding officer. The photographer shall assume a fixed position within the designated area and shall act so as not to create a disturbance or call attention to himself or herself through further movement.

The photographer shall not move about the courtroom. Audio equipment shall be positioned in such location in the courtroom as shall be designated by the presiding officer. Representatives of the media shall not move about the courtroom while a proceeding is in progress, and equipment, once positioned, shall not be moved during a proceeding. Pooling Arrangements Any pooling arrangements among those seeking to provide camera coverage that are required by these limitations on equipment and personnel shall be the sole responsibility of media persons. Admissibility in Evidence None of the film, videotape, photograph, or audiotape developed during any proceeding shall be admissible as evidence in the proceeding out of which it arose, any proceeding subsequent or collateral thereto, or upon any retrial or appeal of such proceeding, unless the presiding officer has designated it as part of the official record of the proceeding.

Prior Approval to Identify or Show Jurors Without prior approval by the presiding officer, no person shall broadcast or publish any written report, film, videotape, photograph, audio tape, or other report of any kind or character, taken or made in or out of the courtroom where the face of a juror is shown or the identity of any juror is stated or is otherwise discernable. Rule 9. Custody and Disposition of Exhibits Generally After being marked for identification, exhibits of a documentary nature admitted in evidence or made a part of the record in any case pending or tried in court shall be placed in the custody of the clerk unless otherwise ordered.

Rule No papers shall be removed from any file, except by order of court. Papers on file in the office of the clerk shall be produced pursuant to subpoena from a court of competent jurisdiction directing their production. Removal of Files. No files may be removed from the office of the clerk, except upon order of the court. The clerk may, however, permit temporary removal of a court file by authorized court personnel, provided that the clerk maintain a record of the individual removing the file, noting, at minimum, the date and time of its removal and return.

Upon motion by either party named in any civil action, the court may limit access to court files. The order of limitation shall specify the nature of the limitation, the duration of the limitation, and the reason for the limitation. Upon motion filed with the complaint, accompanied by a supporting affidavit, limitation of access may be granted ex parte.

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Review of Order. An order limiting access may be reviewed by the court at any time on its own motion or upon the motion of any person. Any elected or appointed official or other court employee charged with administering the judicial system shall promptly respond to any request filed pursuant to the West Virginia Freedom of Information Act.

Reasonable facilities for taking memoranda or abstracts from the court file or other public record shall be provided. If the court file or public record requested exists in magnetic, electronic or computer form, when requested, the custodian of the records shall make copies available in the format in which it is stored on magnetic or electronic media. The court, circuit clerk, or other court employee may charge a fee reasonably calculated to cover the actual cost of reproducing or otherwise making available the public records.

Caption and Format of Orders Captions Every order shall carry captions setting forth: the name of the court; the number of the case; on the line below the case-number line, the name of the assigned judge; the style of the case; and a heading that generally and concisely describes the nature or purpose of the court's action. Format Every order shall designate the date of the proceeding and shall be double spaced. Filing and Service by Facsimile Transmission Applicability All courts within the state shall maintain a facsimile machine within the office of the clerk, shall accept the filing of pleadings and other documents, and may send documents by facsimile transmission to the extent expressly provided for in these rules and not in conflict with statutes or other court rules.

Definitions Courts. The term "courts" is defined as the supreme court of appeals, circuit courts, and magistrate courts. Facsimile Transmission. The term "facsimile transmission" is defined as the transmission of a document by a system that encodes the document into electronic signals, transmits these electronic signals over a telephone line, and reconstructs the signals to print a duplicate of the original document at the receiving end. Facsimile Transaction. The term "facsimile transaction" is defined as the facsimile transmission of a document to or from acourt. Service by Facsimile Transmission.

The term "service by facsimile transmission" is defined as transmission of a motion, notice, or other document to an attorney, attorney-in-fact, or a party under these rules. Facsimile Machine. The term "facsimile machine" is defined as a machine that can send and receive on plain paper a facsimile transmission using the international standard for scanning, coding, and transmitting established for Group 3 machines by the Consultative Committee of International Telegraphy and Telephone of the International Telecommunications Union CCITT , in regular resolution.

The term "fax" is defined as a facsimile transmission as defined in TCR General Provisions Availability of Facsimile Services. Each circuit clerk shall have a facsimile machine available for court-related business during regular business hours and such additional hours as may be established by the chief judge.

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Each magistrate clerk shall have a facsimile machine available for court-related business twenty-four 24 hours per day, seven 7 days per week. Form and Format. All documents conveyed via facsimile transmission must conform in form and format to existing standards established by applicable statutes or rules of court. Page Limitation. No facsimile transmission over twenty 20 pages in length including the cover sheet shall be accepted unless prior consent is given by the court or by the clerk of the court.

Oversized Documents. Facsimile Cover Sheet.

The sender must provide his or her or the entity's name, address, telephone number, facsimile number, the document s being transmitted by caption and matter, and the number of pages including the cover sheet , and must provide clear and concise instructions as needed concerning processing. Everyone buys gifts, but only at the Israel Museum shops do they come with a story.

Each story reveals a new, and exciting world - all inspired by from the vast and unique collections of the Museum, from both the permanent exhibitions and special exhibitions. Discover the story behind specially-produced articles to make your your Museum experience linger on. Purchase tickets online to the Museum and events Full-cost tickets may be purchased online or at the box office.

Please note that discount tickets for children and youth, students, seniors, disabled visitors, IDF soldiers, National Service personnel, repeat visits within three months, and Jerusalem Resident cardholders are available only at the box office. Free admission for children aged 5 to 17 throughout August does not apply to groups and does not include performances and workshops. Please note: Tickets to the Museum are valid for two years from the date of purchase. It is to these people and their cultures that the exhibition galleries of the Archaeology Wing is dedicated, serving as primary showcase to the rich and fascinating local archaeological heritage.

The display takes the visitor on a journey of unparalleled depth into the historical course of ancient Israel; the birthplace of the Bible, and the cradle of the three monotheistic religions; from prehistoric times - to the beginning of the Ottoman period. Historical events of prime importance, cultural achievements, technological innovations, and artistic creativity are all displayed in the galleries through thousands of ancient artifacts, many of them are one of a kind.

These objects offer a close look to the lifestyle, beliefs, and worldview of the peoples of this area — from ordinary people to kings and monarchs — in distant and fascinating times. This gallery recounts the story of the earliest peoples, and cultures of the Land of Israel. The Land of Israel played a central role in human history from its beginnings. These bold emigrants, prehistoric humans, were the earliest inhabitants of the Land.

The remains of a fire , lit , years ago, for protection from predators, for lighting, heating, cooking, and as a gathering place, marks a turning point in the development of mankind. Local descendants, who lived in the late Stone Age, 15, years ago, were the first permanent settlers. This marked the birth of agriculture, around 10, years ago, and the beginning of civilization. The first ritual artifacts were found in sites of the earliest settled communities and ancient tribal kingdoms of the Land of Israel.

These included the world's oldest masks, plastered human skulls used in ancestral worship, goddess figurines — alongside such products as textiles and pottery , among the oldest known to us. The visit in the gallery is, therefore, a journey that lasts hundreds of thousands of years, crossing through the major milestones of mankind's progress.

The rare finds on display are silent messages sent to us from the distant past, a universal heritage from our forefathers, and we must pass them on to future generations. Ahiad Ovadia. This period became the backdrop to some of the greatest achievements in human history, metal production; the secondary products revolution derivatives from animal sources such as wool, textiles and dairy goods ; the development of art and religion; and the birth of specialized occupations. The objects on display reveal the remarkable progress humans made during this period, providing insight into human creativity.

The earliest metal artifacts were produced during the Chalcolithic period. The Nahal Mishmar hoard displays the highest technical and artistic achievement for the period which was not to be equaled for long time. This hoard includes some artifacts, mostly cultic objects , produced by the lost wax technique, and richly decorated, mainly with horned animal motifs. The hoard also included some metal tool made by molds. It was found wrapped in a straw mat, tucked under a rock, in a cave. These human shaped objects were formed in near-abstract design, and were fashioned from a broad variety of stone-materials.

Domestic cults existed side by side with the central sacred shrines. Basalt stands were found in dwellings on the Golan Heights, often placed on a bench, their decoration reminiscent of a human face. They were probably the house-gods to whom the dwellers brought offerings, or else they may have served in rites pertaining to the fertility of the herd and the land. The gallery offers a fascinating glimpse of Chalcolithic burial customs; among them the use of ossuaries - secondary burial coffins for bones.

Each coffin was decorated in a unique way, some with a human or animal face, others with animal motifs or with architectural elements. During this crucial period in the history of mankind, the land of Canaan flourished in the shadow of the first great civilizations; Pharaonic Egypt to the south, and Ancient Near Eastern cultures to the north and east. An accelerated process of development, and invention brought about the extensive use of bronze, the beginning of urbanization, as well as the invention of writing.


Unique discoveries presented in the gallery demonstrate the place of Canaan amid the Ancient Near Eastern cultures, illustrating everyday life, the development of technology, and culture in the Land in those days. More than 5, years ago a radical transformation took place throughout the Near East. The first planned cities were built, rapidly developing to become city-states. Arad was a flourishing urban center with commercial ties extending to Egypt as early as the late fourth millennium BCE. A unique clay model house , sheds light on the structure and functions of the first urban houses.

However, the first cities did not survive for long. During this time, people reverted to rural, and semi-nomadic ways of life. A rare silver goblet from Ein Samiya, bears the only extant artistic depiction known from this period. During the first half of the second millennium BCE, a rich urban culture reappeared in Canaan, alongside the pastoral society. This period is seen as the backdrop of the stories of the patriarchs in the Bible, and it is then that the major cities mentioned in the Bible, such as Hazor, Ashkelon, and Megiddo, gained importance.

Monumental basalt sculptures from Hazor, which adorned the palaces and temples, attest to the building revolution which took place at this time. Canaan continued to prosper in the second half of the second millennium BCE, when it fell under Egyptian rule. Extensive trade relations throughout the Near East created a unified international style evident in the design of luxury items. Note the royal feast depicted on the Megiddo, ivory inlay as a typical example of such luxury items.

At the beginning of the 12th century BCE, economic and political instability affected the entire ancient Near East, leading to the collapse of the great empires. Egypt retreated into its borders, and the political players of the eastern Mediterranean disappeared. The Bible relates many of the important events of this period, and the archaeological artifacts provide a fascinating dimension to those accounts. At the beginning of this period the Israelites lived in small settlements in Samaria, and Upper Galilee.


According to the Bible, the Israelites evolved into a kingdom. After a few decades this kingdom split into two; the Kingdom of Judah in the south, and the Kingdom of Israel to the north. The southern monarchy was small and isolated. It was ruled by the House of David, a fact corroborated by an inscription on a commemorative stela which is to date the only extra-biblical proof from that period of the existence of King David. The northern Kingdom of Israel, was stronger and more prosperous, and had developed extensive commercial ties with the countries surrounding it.

Royal inscriptions and seals are on display in the galleries, bearing the names of Ahaziyahu, Uzziah, and Hezekiah - kings of Judah, and Jehoram, Jeroboam and Menahem - kings of Israel. These offer rare archaeological evidence to the existence of these kings, whose names are listed in the Bible. The Kingdom of Judah managed to remain independent, but years later, the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar sent his army to take over the rebellious Judah.

Jerusalem was laid to waste, the temple was torched, and much of the population of Judah was exiled to Babylon. It is to this dramatic period that the Priestly Benediction, the oldest copy of a biblical text ever found is dated, incised on silver amulets. Less than fifty years after the exile, Cyrus king of Persia conquered Babylon and allowed the Judahite exiles to return to their homeland and rebuild their temple.

Ruling Your Days: Like Clay Under a Seal Ruling Your Days: Like Clay Under a Seal
Ruling Your Days: Like Clay Under a Seal Ruling Your Days: Like Clay Under a Seal
Ruling Your Days: Like Clay Under a Seal Ruling Your Days: Like Clay Under a Seal
Ruling Your Days: Like Clay Under a Seal Ruling Your Days: Like Clay Under a Seal
Ruling Your Days: Like Clay Under a Seal Ruling Your Days: Like Clay Under a Seal
Ruling Your Days: Like Clay Under a Seal Ruling Your Days: Like Clay Under a Seal
Ruling Your Days: Like Clay Under a Seal Ruling Your Days: Like Clay Under a Seal
Ruling Your Days: Like Clay Under a Seal Ruling Your Days: Like Clay Under a Seal

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